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Chapter 1

A Brief
History of
Microbiology

2012 Pearson Education Inc.

Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell


North Carolina State University

Chapter 1 Assignment
Note: Homework assignments are due at the exam

Multiple Choice 1-10


Matching 1-12
Concept Map
List Steps of Scientific Method in order and describe
each one
Discuss Pasteurs experiment with the swan necked
flasks investigating spontaneous generation. How
does it exemplify the first 4 steps of the scientific
method. Be specific. What was the experimental
group? Control group? Result?

The Early Years of Microbiology

What Does Life Really Look Like?


Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (Dutch)
Began making and using simple microscopes
Often made a new microscope for each specimen
Examined water and visualized tiny animals, fungi,
algae, and single-celled protozoa: animalcules

By end of 19th century, these organisms were called


microorganisms

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Figure 1.1 Antoni van Leeuwenhoek

Figure 1.2 Reproduction of Leeuwenhoeks microscope

Lens Specimen holder

Figure 1.3 The microbial world

The Early Years of Microbiology

How Can Microbes Be Classified?


Carolus Linnaeus developed taxonomic system
for grouping similar organisms together
Leeuwenhoeks microorganisms grouped into six
categories:
Bacteria
Archaea
Fungi
Protozoa
Algae
Small multicellular animals
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The Early Years of Microbiology

Bacteria and Archaea

Unicellular and lack nuclei


Much smaller than eukaryotes
Found everywhere there is sufficient moisture
Reproduce asexually
Two kinds
Bacteria cell walls contain peptidoglycan
Archaea cell walls composed of polymers
other than peptidoglycan

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Figure 1.4 Cells of the bacterium Streptococcus

Nucleus of
Prokaryotic
bacterial cells eukaryotic cheek cell

The Early Years of Microbiology

Fungi

Eukaryotic (have membrane-bound nucleus)


Obtain food from other organisms
Possess cell walls
Include
Molds multicellular; grow as long filaments;
reproduce by sexual and asexual spores
Yeasts unicellular; reproduce by budding or
sexual spores

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Figure 1.5 Fungi-overview

The Early Years of Microbiology

Protozoa
Single-celled eukaryotes
Similar to animals in nutrient needs and cellular
structure
Live freely in water; some live in animal hosts
Asexual (most) and sexual reproduction
Most are capable of locomotion by
Pseudopodia
Cilia
Flagella

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Figure 1.6 Locomotive structures of protozoa-overview

The Early Years of Microbiology

Algae

Unicellular or multicellular
Photosynthetic
Simple reproductive structures
Categorized on the basis of pigmentation,
storage products, and composition of cell wall

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Figure 1.7 Algae-overview

Figure 1.8 An immature stage of a parasitic worm in blood

Red blood cell

Figure 1.9 Viruses infecting a bacterium

Virus

Bacterium

Viruses
assembling
inside cell

The Golden Age of Microbiology

Scientists searched for answers to four


questions
Is spontaneous generation of microbial life
possible?
What causes fermentation?
What causes disease?
How can we prevent infection and disease?

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The Golden Age of Microbiology

Some thought living things arose from


three processes
Asexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction
Nonliving matter

Aristotle proposed
spontaneous generation (384-322 B.C.)
Living things can arise from nonliving matter

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The Golden Age of Microbiology

Redis Experiments
When decaying meat was kept isolated from
flies, maggots never developed
Meat exposed to flies was soon infested
As a result, scientists began to doubt
Aristotles theory

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Figure 1.10 Redis experiments: late 1600s

Flask unsealed

Flask sealed

Flask covered
with gauze

The Golden Age of Microbiology

Needhams Experiments
Scientists thought microbes, but not animals,
could arise spontaneously
Needhams experiments reinforced this idea

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The Golden Age of Microbiology

Spallanzanis Experiments
Conclusions
Needham failed to heat vials sufficiently to kill all
microbes or had not sealed vials tightly enough
Microorganisms exist in air and can contaminate
experiments
Spontaneous generation does not occur

Critics argued against experiments


Sealed vials did not allow enough air for
organisms to survive
Prolonged heating destroyed life force
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Figure 1.11 Louis Pasteur

Pasteur Video
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0OmWbRK
W4K8

The Golden Age of Microbiology

Pasteurs Experiments
When the swan-necked flasks remained
upright, no microbial growth appeared
When the flask was tilted, dust from the bend
in the neck seeped back into the flask and
made the infusion cloudy with microbes
within a day

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Figure 1.12 Pasteurs experiments with swan-necked flasks

Steam escapes
from open end
of flask.

Infusion
is heated.

Air moves in
and out of flask.

Infusion sits;
no microbes appear.

Months

Infusion remains
sterile indefinitely.

Dust from
air settles
in bend.

The Golden Age of Microbiology


The Scientific Method
*Identify Question

Form Hypothesis
Collect data by performing experiment
*Interpret results
Peer Review
Publish Findings

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If hypothesis is rejected

The Golden Age of Microbiology


The Scientific Method: Pasteurs experiment
*Identify Question

Form Hypothesis

Collect data by performing experiment

*Interpret results

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Figure 1.13 The scientific method

Observations

Question

Repeat

Hypothesis

Experiment,
including
control groups

Modified
hypothesis

Experimental
data support
hypothesis
Observations
Experimental
data do not
support
hypothesis

Accept
hypothesis

Reject
hypothesis

Modify
hypothesis

Theory
or law

The Golden Age of Microbiology

What Causes Fermentation?


Spoiled wine threatened livelihood of vintners
Some believed air caused fermentation
Others insisted living organisms caused
fermentation
Vintners funded research to prevent spoilage
during fermentation
This debate also linked to debate over
spontaneous generation

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Figure 1.14 Pasteur's application of the scientific method

Observation:
Microscopic analysis
shows juice contains
yeasts and bacteria.

Fermenting
grape juice

Hypothesis

Experiment

Observation

Conclusion

Day 1: Flasks of grape


Day 2
juice are heated sufficiently
to kill all microbes.

I. Spontaneous
fermentation
occurs.

II. Air ferments


grape juice.

III. Bacteria ferment


grape juice
into alcohol.

IV. Yeasts ferment


grape juice
into alcohol.

Flask is
sealed.

Flask remains
open to air
via curved neck.

Juice in flask is
inoculated with
bacteria and sealed.

Juice in flask is
inoculated with
yeast and sealed.

No fermentation;
juice remains
free of microbes

Reject
hypothesis I.

No fermentation;
juice remains
free of microbes

Reject
hypothesis II.

Bacteria reproduce;
acids are produced.

Modify hypothesis
III; bacteria ferment
grape juice into
acids.

Yeasts reproduce;
alcohol is produced.

Accept hypothesis
IV; yeasts ferment
grape juice into
alcohol.

Table 1.1 Some Industrial Uses of Microbes

The Golden Age of Microbiology

What Causes Disease?


Pasteur developed germ theory of disease
Robert Koch studied causative agents of
disease
Anthrax
Examined colonies of microorganisms

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Figure 1.15 Robert Koch

The Golden Age of Microbiology

Kochs Contributions
Simple staining techniques
First photomicrograph of bacteria
First photomicrograph of bacteria in diseased
tissue
Techniques for estimating CFU/ml
Use of steam to sterilize media
Use of Petri dishes
Techniques to transfer bacteria
Bacteria as distinct species
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Figure 1.16 Bacterial colonies on agar

Bacterium 6
Bacterium 5
Bacterium 4
Bacterium 3
Bacterium 2
Bacterium 1

Bacterium 7
Bacterium 8
Bacterium 9
Bacterium 10
Bacterium 11
Bacterium 12

The Golden Age of Microbiology

Kochs Postulates
Suspected causative agent must be found in
every case of the disease and be absent from
healthy hosts
Agent must be isolated and grown outside
the host
When agent is introduced into a healthy,
susceptible host, the host must get the disease
Same agent must be found in the diseased
experimental host

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Table 1.2 Other Notable Scientists of the Golden Age of Microbiology and the Agents of Disease They Discovered

The Golden Age of Microbiology

Grams Stain
Danish scientist Hans Christian Gram developed
more important staining technique than Kochs
in 1884
Involves the applications of a series of dyes
Some microbes are left purple, now labeled
Gram-positive
Other microbes are left pink, now labeled Gramnegative
Gram procedure used to separate into two
groups
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Figure 1.17 Results of Gram staining

Gram-positive Gram-negative

The Golden Age of Microbiology

How Can We Prevent Infection and


Disease?

Semmelweis and handwashing


Listers antiseptic technique
Nightingale and nursing
Snow infection control and epidemiology
Jenners vaccine field of immunology
Ehrlichs magic bullets field of
chemotherapy

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Semmelweis and Lister video


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T73PYNyy
eiI&feature=related

Figure 1.18 Florence Nightingale

Figure 1.19 Some scientific disciplines and applications


BIOLOGISTS

MODERN DISCIPLINES

Leeuwenhoek

Bacteriology (bacteria)
Protozoology (protozoa)
Mycology (fungi)
Parasitology (protozoa and
animals)
Phycology (algae)

Linnaeus

Taxonomy

Semmelweiss
Snow

Infection control
Epidemiology

Pre-1857

The Golden Age of


Microbiology (18571907)
Industrial microbiology
Pasteur
Pasteurization

Microbial metabolism
Genetics
Genetic engineering

Buchner

Koch

Food and beverage technology

Kochs postulates

Etiology

Ivanowski

Virology

Beijerinck
Winogradsky

Environmental microbiology
Ecological microbiology

Gram

Microbial morphology

Lister
Nightingale

Antiseptic medical techniques


Hospital microbiology

Jenner
von Behring
Kitasato

Serology
Immunology

Ehrlich

Chemotherapy

Fleming

Pharmaceutical microbiology

Table 1.3 Fields of Microbiology

The Modern Age of Microbiology

What Are the Basic Chemical Reactions of Life?


Biochemistry
Began with Pasteurs and Buchners works
Microbes used as model systems for biochemical
reactions
Practical applications
Design of herbicides and pesticides
Diagnosis of illness and monitoring responses to
treatment
Treatment of metabolic diseases
Drug design
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The Modern Age of Microbiology

How Do Genes Work?

Microbial genetics
Molecular biology
Recombinant DNA technology
Gene therapy

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The Modern Age of Microbiology

Microbial Genetics
Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty: genes are
contained in molecules of DNA
Beadle and Tatum: a genes activity is related to
protein function
Translation of genetic information into protein
explained
Rates and mechanisms of genetic mutation
investigated
Control of genetic expression by cells described
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The Modern Age of Microbiology

Molecular Biology
Explanation of cell function at the molecular level
Pauling proposed that gene sequences could
Provide understanding of evolutionary
relationships/processes
Establish taxonomic categories
Identify microbes that have never been cultured

Woese determined cells belong to bacteria,


archaea, or eukaryotes
Cat scratch disease caused by unculturable
organism
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The Modern Age of Microbiology

Recombinant DNA Technology


Genes in microbes, plants, and animals
manipulated for practical applications
Production of human blood-clotting factor by
E. coli to aid hemophiliacs

Gene Therapy
Inserting a missing gene or repairing a defective
one in humans by inserting desired gene into
host cells

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The Modern Age of Microbiology

What Roles Do Microorganisms Play in the


Environment?
Bioremediation uses living bacteria, fungi,
and algae to detoxify polluted environments
Recycling of chemicals such as carbon,
nitrogen, and sulfur

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The Modern Age of Microbiology

How Do We Defend Against Disease?


Serology
The study of blood serum
Blood contains chemicals and cells that fight
infection

Immunology
The study of the bodys defense against specific
pathogens

Chemotherapy
Fleming discovered penicillin
Domagk discovered sulfa drugs
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Figure 1.20 Effects of penicillin on a bacterial lawn in a petri dish

Fungus colony
(Penicillium)
Zone of inhibition
Bacterial colonies
(Staphylococcus)

The Modern Age of Microbiology

What Will the Future Hold?


Microbiology is built on asking and answering
questions
The more questions we answer, the more
questions we have

2012 Pearson Education Inc.