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MESIN PERKAKAS FRAIS (MILLING)

Oleh : Ade Sumpena, ST., M.Kom


Jurusan Teknik Mesin Politeknik Negeri Jakarta

Prinsip
Proses pemesinan frais (milling) adalah proses penyayatan benda kerja menggunakan alat potong, dengan
mata potong jamak yang berputar.

Gerakan utama mesin Frais (Milling)

Bentuk-bentuk dasar yang dapat di buat pada


mesin Frais (Milling)

Jenis Mesin Frais


1. Mesin Frais Horizontal

Axis of spindle is in
horizontal plane and
parallel to Its table.
Generally cutters are
mounted on long arbor.

2. Mesin Frais Vertikal

Position of spindle is
vertical or 90 to the
work table.
Its suitable for
boring pocket milling
profile milling& key
way cutting.

3. Mesin Frais Universal

Bagian-bagian utama mesin Frais

Mesin Frais Horizontal

Mesin Frais Vertikal

Typical milling operation

Metode pemakanan pada mesin Frais

Klasifikasi proses Frais

Types of milling cutters

Pisau jari (End mill cutter)

Cutter insert

Carbide insert

Milling Acessories
Pemegang alat potong (Tool Holder)

Arbor

STUB ARBOR

The arbors are hold


with the machine.
The arbors are of three
types A,B,C as shown
in picture.

TYPES OF ARBORS

Types A is used to
mount the shell and
mills and similar
cutters.
The cutter is tightened
on the arbor using the
screw.

TYPES OF ARBOR

It is used to mount
large face milling
cutters.
The cutter is held on
arbor by four
screw(b), it has a
slot(c),which fits over
spindle (d).

TYPES OF ARBOR

It is a morse taper
adaptor arbor used to
hold drills, reamers,
chucks etc.

Pemegang benda kerja


a. Plain vise
Jaws parallel or 90 to axis of spindle

b. Swivel base vise


Can swivel through 360 in horizontal plane

c. Universal vise
Can swivel through 360 in horizontal plane
and tilted from 0 to 90 in vertical plane

Meja yang dapat diatur sudutnya


Rotary table untuk mesin frais
vertikal

Rotary table

Rotary table yang dapat di atur


sudutnya

Rotary table dapat digunakan pada mesin frais horizontal da vertikal

Milling Set Up

Work Holding Method


* The vice jaws and the workpiece must be free from burrs, chips, and cutting fluid.
* Smaller workpiece should be supported by parallel bars to provide the supporting
datum.
* Round bar must be placed between the workpiece and the movable jaw to ensure
that the workpiece is in perfect contact with the fix jaw.
* The vice handle should be tightened by hand to avoid over clamping of the
workpiece as well as the vice. Hide face hammer should be used to assure that the
workpiece is in perfect contact with the supporting base.
* On completion of the milling of the first face, the workpiece should be unloaded,
deburred, and cleaned before the next operation.
* To machine the second and the third faces, the workpiece should be clamped with
its preceding machined surface facing against the fix jaw of the vice.
* Similar clamping method can be applied in the machining of the fourth face.
* Yet it can also be clamped on the vice without the round bar.
* Both ends of the workpiece can be machined with the periphery flutes of the
cutter using up cut milling as shown in figure

Pemegangan benda kerja tanpa ragum

Milling Attachment

VERTICAL MILLING ATTACHMENT

This attachment
mounted on column of
universal Milling
machine.
Which consists
housing spindle head
and bevel drive gears

SLOTTING ATTACHMENT

Its used for cutting at


any angle in vertical
plane to produce key
ways , slots and
corners.
Its provide
reciprocating drive for
single point cutting
tool.

RACK MILLING ATTACHMENT

Its mounted between the


face of column and outer
support on a plain or
universal milling machine.
It consists a fixed housing
and a spindle.
A special rack indexing
attachment used to move
the work longitudinally
with accurate spacing of
teeth.

UNIVERSAL SPIRAL ATTACHMENT

Its used to mill spirals


with a plain milling
machine.
Its useful for cutting
helical threads , gears ,
worms and racks.

Perhitungan proses pengerjaan pada mesin Frais


A. Kecepatan Potong/Cutting Speed (V)
Rumus :

Hal hal yang mempengaruhi Cutting speed adalah :


1. Material benda kerja,
2. Material alat potong,
3. Pendinginan ( cooling ).

Tabel Kecepatan Potong


HSS

Carbide

Materials
Fine

Coarse

Fine

Coarse

Tool Steel

75 100

25 45

185 230

110 140

Low carbon Steel

70 90

25 40

170 215

90 120

Medium Carbon Steel

60 85

20 40

140 185

75 110

Cast Iron

40 45

25 30

110 140

60 75

Brass

85 110

45 70

185 215

120 150

Alumunium

70 100

30 45

140 215

60 90

B. Asutan/Pemakanan (Feeding)
Rumus :

Pemakanan/Asutan (Feeding)

Perhitungan Waktu Pemesinan (Time Calculation)


Rumus :

Dimana :
L = panjang langkah .. mm
i = jumlah langkah.
s = feed per minute, satuannya ..... mm/min
Rumus umum menghitung panjang langkah (L) adalah :

Dividing Head (Kepala Pembagi)

Bagian-bagian dividing head

Ada dua sistem


Pembagian :
1, Pembagian
Langsung
2. Pembagian
Tidak Langsung

Piring Pembagi Tetap

SIMPLE INDEXING MECHANISM

Its used to obtain


greater number of
divisions that can
not be obtained by
direct indexing.
Its carried out using
40:1 ratio of the
worm and worm
mechanism.

Piring Pembagi

Bentuk-bentuk benda kerja hasil dari dividing head


Contoh untuk pembagian langsung :

Contoh untuk pembagian tidak langsung :

Macam-macam roda gigi yang dapat dibuat pada


mesin Frais dengan bantuan kepala pembagi

HELICAL GEAR
Elements of teeth are
twisted or helical.
Used for connecting shaft
at an angle in same or
different planes.

Smooth acting gearing.

MITRE GEARING

When the shafts are at


90 and two bevel
gears are of same size,
known as miter
gears.

SPUR GEAR

Teeth element
parallel to rotating
shafts are known as
spur gear.
Used to transmit
power and motion
through parallel
shafts.

HERRINGBONE GEAR
Its equivalent to
two helical
gears,one having a
right hand and
other a left hand
helix.
Its used in heavy
duty machines like
steel roll mills.

BEVEL GEAR
When two shafts are in
same plane but at
another,bevel gears an
angle with one are used.
Its a frustum of a cone
having all elements of teeth
intersecting at a point.

HYPOID GEARS

Modification of a
bevel gear where
the shaft are at
right angle but they
dont intersect as
do the shaft for
bevel gears.

RACK GEARS
Rack gears are
straight and have
no curvature.
Used for feeding
mechanism and
reciprocating
drives.

WORM GEAR

When a large speed


reduction is desired
worm gear are
used.
Worm will always
be the driver &
used for teeth
mechanism.s

ANNULAR GEAR

A gear with internal


teeth is known as
annular gear are
used in
automobiles.

Membuat Roda Gigi Lurus (Spur Gear)

Rumus Roda Gigi Lurus

Rumus Roda Gigi Helik (Helical Gear)

Thank You