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PC Fundamentals

Presentation 17 Buses

Copyright 2007 Heathkit Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Objectives

At the end of this presentation,


you will be able to:

Define computer bus and explain its


purpose.
Define the following terms: ISA, MCA,
EISA, VL-Bus, PCI, PCI Express, and
AGP.
Discuss the characteristics of the PCI, PCI
Express, and AGP buses.
Recognize the connector (or slot) of an ISA,
PCI, PCI Express, and VGA bus.

CPU
Parallel Port

Memory
Keyboard Controller

Video
Adapter

The Data Bus

System Controller
4

CPU
Memory
Keyboard Controller

Video
Adapter
System Controller
5

CPU

Memory
Video
Adapter
6

What is a Bus?

Signal Pathways

A way of passing information between


components inside and outside the
computer.

A modular way of expanding the functions


or capabilities of the computer.

PC Bus Architectures

ISA
MCA
EISA
VL-Bus
PCI
AGP
PCI Express
9

The Original IBM PC Bus

Introduced on the original IBM PC

8-bit data path

4.77-MHz clock

8 Interrupts Only one of which was


available for expansion boards.

4 DMA Channels Only one of which was


available for expansion boards.
10

The Original IBM PC Bus

8-Bit Card

8-Bit Slot
11

Industry Standard Architecture


(ISA) Bus
Introduced

on the IBM AT Computer


16-bit data path
Backward compatible with IBM-PC Bus
8-MHz clock
15 Interrupts
7 DMA Channels
12

Industry Standard Architecture


(ISA) Bus

16-Bit Card

16-Bit Slot
8-Bit Section

Added Pins
13

Industry Standard Architecture


(ISA) Bus

8-Bit Card

16-Bit Slot
14

Micro-Channel Architecture (MCA)


Bus

Introduced on the IBM PS/2


16-bit or 32-bit data path
10-MHz clock
Configured by software rather than by
jumpers or switches
Not compatible with the ISA bus
Bus Mastering
15

Bus Mastering
Allows

data to be passed from one


device to another without CPU
intervention.

Allows

a controller card to take control


of the bus, leaving the CPU free to
concentrate on other tasks.
16

Bus Mastering vs. DMA

DMA can send data from peripheral to


RAM or from RAM to peripheral, without
the intervention of the CPU.

Bus Mastering can send data from


peripheral to peripheral, without the
intervention of the CPU.

17

Extended ISA Bus (EISA)

The industrys answer to the MCA bus

Backward compatible with ISA

16-bit or 32-bit data path

8-MHz Clock

Configured by software, not jumpers or


switches

Bus Mastering
18

CPU

High Speed
CPU Bus
BUS
Controller

Low Speed
I/O Bus
ISA Bus
Slots
19

CPU
Local Bus
Slots

High Speed
CPU Bus

BUS
Controller
Low Speed
I/O Bus

ISA Bus
Slots
20

VESA Local Bus (VL-Bus)


Clock

speed same as the processor

32-bit

data path

Regular

ISA slot with local bus


connector added

Bus

Mastering

21

Peripheral Component Interconnect


(PCI)
Developed

for Pentium-class

processors
32-bit

and 64-bit data path versions

33-MHz

Clock

Processor
Plug

Independent

and Play with Bus Mastering


22

Peripheral Component Interconnect


(PCI) Bus

23

PCI Evolution

32-bit, 33 MHz
64-bit, 33 MHz
32-bit, 66 MHz
64-bit, 66 MHz

24

PCI-X

PCI-X 66
PCI-X 133
PCI-X 266
PCI-X 533

64-bit
64-bit
64-bit
64-bit

66 MHz
133 MHz
266 MHz
533 MHz

25

PCI Express
The

next generation of PCI.


Serial data paths.
Very high speed (2500 MHz)
Scales easily as additional serial data
paths are added.
X1 has one serial path, X4 four serial
paths, etc.
26

PCI-Express @ 2500 MHz

PCI Express x1
PCI Express x4
PCI Express x8
PCI Express x16
PCI Express x32

Lanes

Bandwidth

1
4
8
16
32

250 Mbps
1000 Mbps
2000 Mbps
4000 Mbps
8000 Mbps
27

PCI and PCI Express Slots


PCI Express X 16
PCI Express X 1
Conventional PCI
Conventional PCI
28

Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP)

Developed for high speed graphics cards

Frees the PCI bus from making video


transfers

Used only for video cards

Considered a port rather than a bus

66 MHz, 32-Bit

29

Accelerated Graphics Port


(AGP)

30

AGP Modes
32-bits @ 66 MHz
Data Cycles
Per Clock

AGP
AGP 2X
AGP 4X
AGP 8X

1
2
4
8

Bandwidth
266 Mbps
533 Mbps
1066 Mbps
2133 Mbps

31

PC Fundamentals

End

Copyright 2007 Heathkit Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved