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Energy Scavenging

from Vibrations
Summary Lecture

Problem Review

Energy Harvesting
Wind
Water
Solar
Temperature
Vibration

Energy Scavenging through


Vibration

Piezoelectric
Piezoelectricity is the ability
of certain materials to
produce a voltage when
subjected to mechanical
stress.
Piezoelectric materials also
show the opposite effect,
where application of an
electrical field creates
mechanical stress (size
modification) in the crystal.

Piezoelectric Frequency Response

Components Provided

Methods for Solving the Problem

Finding Solutions

Rotary-to-Reciprocating Motion
An Example
Asymmetric
Cam

Rotary-to-Reciprocating Motion
Another Example
Asymmetric
Cam

An Asymmetric Cam is not Necessary


for Rotary-to-Reciprocating Motion

Charging Circuit
A super capacitor (0.47F 5.5v) is used to store electric
charge.
A Zener diode (BZX85-C5V6) is used to protect the
super capacitor .
Super
Rectifying diodes

capacitor

Zener diode

Charging Circuit - Example

Engineering Principles and


Concepts

Gear Ratio
A

driven
driving

A NB
G

B N A

Gear Train
Simple gear train
B

Compound gear train

C
A

C
driving

idler

A NC
G

C N A

driven

A NB ND
G

D N A NC

Gear Train - Example

Alternating Current vs. Direct Current


In alternating current (AC)
the movement (or flow) of
electric charge periodically
reverses direction.

In direct current (DC) the


movement of electric
charge doesnt change
direction.

Diode
Diodes allow the electric
current to flow in only one
direction.

4 Diode Bridge

The Meaning of Frequency


Frequency means the number of times something occurs
within a given time period. Frequency for waves is usually
measured per second. The unit for frequency is Hertz (Hz),
which means per second.

Spectrum Decomposition

Design Trade-offs
Two types of testing stations that generate vibrations
for the piezo buzzer are designed, with/without a
gearbox .
The gearbox provides the flexibility to tune the
vibration frequency to match the resonant frequency
of the piezo buzzer.
The more complex the design is, the longer the
time and higher the costs it takes to implement it,
but the more chance that it should provide better
results.

Lesson Learned
More Complex is not Always Better

Simple Design

Spectrum

Time response

Experimental Results
Simple Design

Charging the Battery

Time response

Experimental Results
Complex Design
Time
(minutes)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30

Battery
(Volts)
.010
.037
.050
.067
.076
.085
.092

Charging the Battery

Engineering Design Process


Identify the need
or problem
Modify to improve
the design if needed

Test and evaluate


the prototype
Construct a
prototype

Research the
need or problem

Develop possible
solutions

Select the best


solutions

Reflective Problem Solving


Strategies
define the problem
Test, evaluate,
and improve
the design

analyze the problem

reflect
identify design variables
propose solutions

Implement the design

Societal Impact
Energy harvesting or the process of acquiring energy
from the surrounding environment has been a
continuous human endeavor throughout history.

Societal Impact
Piezoelectric materials, such as the lead zirconate
titanate (PZT), are great candidates for energy
harvesting using vibrations from the surrounding
environment.

Application Areas
Wireless corrosion monitoring
systems
vibrating structure

mechanical energy
Accel. PSD

vehicle

frequency

Self-powered Wireless Corrosion Sensor


energy harvester

corrosion sensor

low power
wireless transceiver

Biomechanical Energy
Harvester

References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

M. Raju, Energy Harvesting, ULP meets energy harvesting: A game-changing


combination for design engineers, Texas Instrument White Paper, Nov. 2008
R.J.M. Vullers, V. Leonov, T. Sterken, A. Schmitz, Energy Scavengers For
Wireless Intelligent Microsystems, Special Report in Microsystems &
Nanosystems, OnBoard Technology, June 2006
Imec, Design for analog and RF technologies and systems, www.imec.be
Imec, Micropower generation and storage, www.imec.be
F. Whetten, Energy Harvesting Sensor Systems A Proposed Application for
802.15.4f, DOC: IEEE802.15-09/0074-00-004f
C. Cossio, Harvest energy using a piezoelectric buzzer, EDN, pg.94-96,
March 20, 2008