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DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

Mayank Sharma(0133ce111030)
ntiin kumar soni(0133ce111035)
rajat nawani(0133ce123d07)
sourabh singh(0133ce111056)
navneet harinkhere(0133ce111032)
mohit bhumarkar(0133ce111031)

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

Presented by:
Mayank Sharma
7th sem
Civil Engg. Dept.
R.no:0133CE111030

Contents:
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Introduction
Underwater construction techniques
Caissons
Types
Advantages
Dangers encountered

Cofferdams
Types
Components
Advantages

Underwater lying of concrete


Tremie method
Pump method
Toggle bags
Bagwork

Conclusion
References

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

During the construction of brides , dams or any other


structure where the foundation part of the structure is
most likely to lie underwater, we have to opt for
underwater construction
Construction in water poses many difficulties especially
in the places where there the depth is considerable.
During underwater construction our main objective is to
create dry and water free environment for working in such
a manner that the structural stability of the structure is not
compromised.
DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

Construction
techniques

Caissons
Cofferdams
Tremie
method

UNDERWATER
CONSTRUCTION
Methods of
Placing of
concrete

Pump
method
Toggle bags

Bag works
DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

Caissons:
Watertight retaining structure .
Permanent in nature.

Used to work on foundation of bridge pier, construction


of concrete dam or for the repair of ships.
Constructed in such a manner so that the water can be
pumped out.
Keeps working environment dry.
DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

Working inside a caisson


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DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

TYPES OF CAISSONS

Control post

Open caisson

grab
Ground
water
level

Circumferential
gap

pontoon

Ballast water

Box caisson

shoe

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

PNEUMATIC CAISSON

Large inverted box on which pier is built.


Compressed air is used to keep the water
and mud out.
Used to work on riverbed or quicksand's.
DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

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Suction caisson
More suitable for off shore construction.
Upturned bucket embedded in marine sediment.
Embedment achieved by pushing or by creating negative
pressure.
DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

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ADVANTAGES OF CAISSONS

Economic.

Slightly less noise and reduced vibrations.


Easily adaptable to varying site conditions.
High axial and lateral loading capacity.

Minimal handling equipment is required for placement


of reinforcing cage.
Placement is sometimes possible in types of soil that a
driven pile could not penetrate
DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

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Dangers encountered:

Caisson disease is so named since it appeared in


construction workers when they left the compressed
atmosphere of the caisson and rapidly re entered normal
(decompressed) atmospheric conditions.
Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge, which was built
with the help of caissons, resulted in numerous workers
being either killed or permanently injured by caisson
disease during its construction, including the designer's
son and Chief Engineer of the project.
DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

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Cofferdams:

Temporary structure
Built within or in pairs across a body of water
Allows the enclosed space to be pumped out, creating a dry
work environment .
Enclosed coffers are commonly used for construction and
repair of oil platforms, bridge piers and other support structures
built within or over water.
A cofferdam involves the interaction of the structure, soil, and
water. The loads imposed include the hydrostatic forces of the
water, as well as the dynamic forces due to currents and waves.
Used for shallow constructions having depth less than 10m.
DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

Working inside a cofferdam


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DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

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Components of cofferdam:

Sheet piling
Sheet piling is a manufactured
construction product with a
mechanical connection
interlock at both ends of the
section. These mechanical
connections interlock with one
another to form a continuous
wall of sheeting.

Brace piling
Concrete seal
Sheet piles
DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

Bracing frame

COFFERDAM CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE:


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1. Pre-dredge to remove soil or soft sediments and level the area of the

cofferdam
2. Drive temporary support piles.
3. Temporarily erect bracing frame on the support piles

4. Set steel sheet piles.


5. Drive sheet piles to grade.
6. Block between bracing frame and sheets, and provide ties for sheet
piles at the top as necessary
7. Excavate inside the grade or slightly below grade, while leaving the
cofferdam full of water
8. Drive bearing
9. Place rock fill as a levelling and support course.
10. Place Tremie concrete seal .

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

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ADVANTAGES OF COFFERDAM:

Allow excavation and construction of structures in


otherwise poor environment.
Provides safe environment to work.

Contractors typically have design responsibility.


Steel sheet piles are easily installed and removed.
Materials can typically be reused on other projects.

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

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UNDERWATER CONCRETING
It is a process in which the prepared concrete is
poured below the water surface by using suitable
methods.

PLACEMENT
METHODS:

Tremie method.

Pump method.

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

Toggle bags.

Bags work.

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TREMIE METHOD
A Tremie is a watertight pipe
Generally 250mm in dia.

Funnel shaped hopper at its upper end


and a loose plug at the bottom.
It is supported on a working platform
above water level.

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

Laying of concrete by using Tremie


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Basic principle behind Method


of underwater concreting Tremie method
DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

Method of underwater
concreting Tremie
method (inside view)

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Specifications of concrete to be
used in Tremie method:

Coarse Aggregate: Gravel of 3/4 (20mm) max. size. Use 50-55 %


of the total aggregate by weight.
Sand, 45-50% of the total aggregate by weight.
Cement: Type II ASTM (moderate heat of hydration), 600 lbs./yd3
Water/Cement Ratio: 0.42 (0.45 Maximum).
Water-Reducing Admixture (preferably it is also plasticizer): Do not
use super plasticizers.
Air-Entrainment Admixtures: To give 6% total air.
Retarding Admixture: To increase setting time to 4-24 hours, as
required.
Slump: 6 1/2" 1"
This mix will develop compressive strength in the range of 5,600
7,000 psi at 28 days.
DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

PUMP METHOD:

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Pumping concrete directly into its final

position, involving both horizontal and


vertical delivery of concrete.
Pumping concrete has the advantage of
operational efficiency with potential

savings of time and labour.


For

massive

underwater

concrete

construction of navigation structures,


the

pump

method

prohibited.

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

should

be

PUMP METHOD OF LAYING

CONCRETE

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TOGGLE BAGS:
Toggle bags are ideal for
small amounts of concrete
placement.
The bag is filled in the dry
with wet concrete
Used for repair work.

BAGWORK:

Bags are made of open


weave material.
Diver-handled bags are
usually of 10 to 20 litres
capacity but 1cub.m bags
can be placed using a crane.

The concrete is squeezed


out by a diver.
Used only in special cases like repair works, etc.
DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

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CONCLUSION:

Cofferdams are temporary structures and used in cases where the plan area
of foundation is very large, depth of water is less and for the soft soils, where
soils allow easy driving of sheet piles.
Caissons are permanent structures and becomes economical in cases where
the plan area of foundation is small, large depth of water and for loose soils.
Suction caisson anchors are gaining considerable acceptance in the offshore
industry.
At present, the Tremie placement method is the standard way of placing
high-quality concrete underwater. The other placement method are not able
to reliably place high-quality underwater concrete for major structures,
although they may find application in special cases.
For massive underwater concrete construction of navigation structures, the
pump method should be prohibited.
DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU

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THANK YOU!!

DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GCET JAMMU