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RM (Research Methodology)

:: Survey Research

:: Medium:
 Personal (response rate = 30-35%)
 Telephone (25-30%)
 Computer (0.5%)
 Mail/post (2%)

:: To decide which type to use:

 Do the respondents & interviewers have common
understanding of the information sought?
 Is the respondent able to provide a truthful answer?
 Is the respondent willing to provide a truthful answer?
RM (Research Methodology)

:: Survey Research

:: Criteria for selecting method:

 Complexity of questions
 Amount of data/time
 Data accuracy required – sensitive questions,
interviewer effects, error sources
 Cost
 Sample control
 Response rate

:: Unstructured indirect interview:

Projective techniques, underlying beliefs
Eg: Sentence completion, picture/story completion
RM (Research Methodology)


:: Experimentation:
Experimentation is the manipulation of one or more
variables to measure their effect on one or more
variables. That is, cause and effect studies

:: Types of variables:
 Independent
 Dependant variable

:: Treatment group:
Ample exposed to manipulation of independent variable
RM (Research Methodology)


:: Control group:
The independent variable is unchanged.
To ensure that the change in independent variable is
caused by independent variable, other variables need to
be controlled/measured in terms of their effects.
 Randomization
 Matching

:: Experimental design features

 Error control
 Time/Sample/Data
 Monetary requirements
RM (Research Methodology)


:: Symbols::
 MB = Pre-measurement
 MA = Post-measurement
 X = Treatment
 R = Random selection
RM (Research Methodology)


:: Basic designs :

i) After only design : X MA

ii) Before After Design : MB X MA
iii) Before After with design control : R1 MB1 X MA1
<<Eg: experiment of medicines to R2 MB2 X MA2
patients with placebo>>
(iv) Simulated Before After design : R1 MB
<<Eg: sensitivity increases after ad>> R2 X MA
(v) After only with control : R1 X MA1
<<Eg: test marketing>> R2 MA2
(vi) Solomon 4 group control :R MB1 X MA1
RM (Research Methodology)


:: Statistical design:
They permit measurement of effect of more than 1
independent variable. It allows researchers to control for
specific extraneous variables that may affect results. It is
more economical

:: Types :
 Randomized Blocks Design
 Latin Square Design
 Factorial Design
RM (Research Methodology)


(i) Randomized Blocks Design (RBD)

Completely random design assumes that each treatment
group is similar in reaction to independent variable and is
similar initially in terms of dependent variable.
This may be invalid. Hence RBD is used.
In RBD, experimental units are blocked/grouped on the
basis of blocking / grouping variable.
Hence, experimental/treatment group & control group are
better matched.

11 IV

11 EV
RM (Research Methodology)


Q1. Hoppers Hop has 800 outlets all over India. They are
planning a major sales promotion during the peak Diwali
buying period.
To determine the costing and maximized profitability, they
have identified three different price levels – P1, P2, P3 at
which they can offer their goods. The sales volumes at their
outlets vary from Rs.3,00,000 pm to Rs.30,00,000 pm. They
are apprehensive about trying out all the 3 prices at each
location as it may disturb their customer base.
Hence, they have approached you to design an ext which
would minimize customer disturbance, and at the same time
provide solution profit maximization during Diwali. Additional
information indicates that sales of the product specified are a
function of the total sales at that particular store. You have
identified 27 stores for your experiment and the process
used is RBD.
RM (Research Methodology)


Block no Store rank Treatment group

X1 X2 X3
1 1,2,3 3 2 1
2 4,5,6 4 5 6
3 7,8,9 8 7 8
4 10,11,12 10 11 12
5 13,14,15 14 13 15
6 16,17,18 17 18 16
7 19,20,21 20 19 21
8 22,23,24 22 23 24
9 25,26,27 25 26 27
RM (Research Methodology)


(ii) Latin Square Design (LSD)

This allows control of non-interacting extraneous variables
in addition to independent variables. It is similar to RBD

Q2. GKK Ltd. markets a face cream, Hair & Lovely thru 3
types of shops – medical sore, super market, grocery
(kirana) store. Sales of the product vary based on the
store type. Sales also vary based on seasonality, which
could be summer, monsoon, winter. The company desires
to test out the impact of 3 different price discounts so as
to rationalize its product pricing all India. For this purpose
they have asked you to conduct an experiment which can
be completed in 6-7 months. The process used is LSD.
RM (Research Methodology)


Process :
Each extraneous variable is divided into equal number of
blocks/levels. Independent variable is divided into same
number of levels. Extraneous variables make up rows and
columns of the table. IV is assigned to each cell such that
each IV level appears only once in each row/column.
Then use basic design on each cell.

3 x 3 Latin Square:
Store Type
Time period Drug store Super market Grocery store
1 Price 2 P3 P1
2 P1 P2 P3
3 P3 P1 P2
RM (Research Methodology)


(iii) Factorial Design

This is used t measure the effect of 2 or more IV
especially if interaction is likely.

Interaction effect:
Sum of combined effect
<is not equal to>
Effect of IV1 + effect of IV2

Q3. Pesti Ltd. desires to launch a new soft drink for

which they have options of (a) 5 levels of sweetness (b)
5 levels of carbonation. They desire to know the best
combination for the new product. For this purpose, they
have conducted an experiment using factorial design.
RM (Research Methodology)


Process :
Each level of 1 IV is row, and the other is the column. A
separate cell is for each combination. Each
combination/cell is rated and average rating value is put
into the cell using basic design). Analysis of Variance
(ANOVA) is used to analyze favorable outcome and
Carbonation Sweetness
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 4 7 10 12
2 2 3 4 7 8
3 4 6 8 5 5
4 10 15 11 6 4
5 13 9 6 3 2
RM (Research Methodology)


:: LAB Design :
This is widely used in package pretesting, ads, products
and product concepts

(i) Package testing (projector used):

 Respondents exposed to package options
 Allowed to examine while “shopping”
(thru a controllable screen)
 “Shopping”/identification speed measured

(ii) Ads test (Tachistoscope used):

 Number of ads screened for ‘visual impact’
 Designs/messages evaluated fro recall.
RM (Research Methodology)


(iii) Products tests (blind tests used):

 Mainly for taste/utility

:: FIELD Experiments
 Advertising copy field tests (using Day After Recall)
 Test marketing :
- Standard Test Marketing (thru manufacturer
- Controlled Test Marketing (thru marketing
research firm)
- Electronic Test Marketing (using electronic test
marketing tools)
- Simulated Test Marketing (pre-qualify users)
RM (Research Methodology)


:: Definition:
Assignment of numbers to characteristics of objects,
persons, states or events, acc to some rules.

:: Concept :
A concept is an invented name for an object, person,
state or event.(The above characteristics are called
eg : Sales (measured by volume or by value), Market
share (Own sales / Total sales . Eg: For Bajaj Chetak,
market share is calculated as sales of B.Chetak / total
sales of all motorcycles/scooters. Therefore, be careful
when using the term M.S bcoz the Denominator may
vary. So always specify "MS of what??"), Brand Loyalty
(cud be towards product, store, manufacturer)
RM (Research Methodology)


Every concept is broken down into conceptual defn

(defines a concept in terms of other concepts) &
operational defn (describes activities to be completed in
order to assign a value to the concept)

Eg : take the concept 'Social class'.

Conceptual defn will be "Hierarchical divisions in society
to categories individuals / families with similar values,
lifestyle, interests, behavior"

Operational definition will be "Reputational: Ranking by

people who know them
Subjective : Based on self ranking
Objective : Based on some / combined chars such

as income, education, occupation"

RM (Research Methodology)

:: Measurement Scales :
There are 4 types of scales :
Numbers used to characterize objects or events (numbers
used as symbols – such as 0 for male & 1 for female)
Numbers/letters/symbols used to rank items (Rank 1, 2 etc.
But the problem is that 1st rank may have got 99% and 2nd
rank might have got 88%)

Numerically equal distance on the scale represents equal
distance in property being measured. Location of 'zero point'
not fixed. Eg : body temperature, CGPA scores

(d) RATIO –
Interval scale with a meaningful zero. Eg : sales (if A sold
10 units & B sold 20, B sold twice as much as A)
RM (Research Methodology)


:: Measurement Accuracy :

M = C+E
M - measurement
C - correct value
E - errors

Errors could be systematic (occurs consistently for

each measurement)
variable (occurs randomly for each measurement)
RM (Research Methodology)


:: Measurement Development :

Specify concept domain

Generate item samples
Collect data
Purify measure
Collect data
Assess reliability
Assess validity
Develop norms
RM (Research Methodology)



Formalized set of questions for eliciting information

A sound questionnaire requires applying:

- Applicable principles
- Common sense
- Concern for the respondent
- Clear concept of what information is needed
- Thorough pre-testing
RM (Research Methodology)


Decision areas involved in questionnaire construction are:

(a) Preliminary decisions
(b) Decisions about question content
(c) Decisions about question phrasing
(d) Response format
(e) Question sequence
(f) Layout of the questionnaire
(g) Pretest & revision
RM (Research Methodology)


Preliminary decisions -

The factors that determine this are –

- Required information

- From which respondents to get it (whom)

- Interview technique – cud be direct/indirect,

structured/unstructured, medium – personal, mail,
telephone, computer
RM (Research Methodology)


Question content:

For each question, the researcher must ascertain

I. Need for data

II. Ability of the question to produce data

III. Ability of respondent to answer accurately – cud be


IV. Willingness of respondent to answer accurately –

may not be willing in case of personal
information/embarrassing information/prestige or
normative information

V. Potential for external events to bias answer.

RM (Research Methodology)


I. Need for data –

The issue is “how am I going to use the data obtained?”.
The technique is
- create responses
- analyse
- ensure sufficiency
- delete questions not required

II. Ability of the question to produce data -

Is one question adequate or should I break it up. Eg: “Do
u like big, sporty cars” is ambiguous. It is better to ask
“Do u like big cars?” and “Do u like sporty cars?”
RM (Research Methodology)


III. Ability of respondent to answer accurately -

* uninformed
(eg: National Bureau for Consumer Complaints) (eg: “what is the
current assessed value of your house” can be answerd by the
owner of the house. There may be three types of respondents - a
genuine respondent who does not know; A genuine respondent
who knows; Not genuine respondent. To avoid this u can ask “Are
u aware of the CAV of your house?” Ans: Y/N. “What do you think
the CAV is?” “How close do you think your estimate is to the
actual assessed value? Options: Rs.10000, Rs. 100000, Rs.
200000, Don’t Know”
* forgetfulness
** omission – use aided recall with condition
** telescoping – something that happened in your distant
past, u feel it happened in the near past. Use split interval +
reverse position (split ballot)
RM (Research Methodology)


<<There are 2 types of ways to administer question – Scheduling

(where questions are read out to respondent) and Question
Administration (where respondents write down the answers). In
scheduling, the lazy respondent tends to choose the last option
bcoz he doesn’t remember the rest of the options. In QA the lazy
respondent is likely to choose the first option. To avoid this
problem, you break up the people into 2 sets. The second set
gets the options printed in reverse sequence, as the first set. If
the results are identical, it means there are no lazy respondents.
If you do get a wide disparity (especially in the first and last),
take only those in which there is no wide disparity. >>

**creation – use aided recall with condition

* inarticulate – use projective techniques like sentence/story
completion, and 2nd level association
RM (Research Methodology)


IV.) Willingness of respondent to answer accurately

Personal information – give explanation
Ask at the end
Ask in broad terms
Build rapport first

Embarrassing information - Use counterbiasing technique

Use randomized response technique

<<You could counter bias the question or the answer>>

Prestige & - Ask questions with graceful exits

normative technique Eg: reading best-selling book
RM (Research Methodology)


Randomized Response Technique: Used when sample size is large

(>1000). It should be a large sample because when applying
such probability you should work on large numbers. Used when
information needed is embarrassing. The assumption is if the
respondent is assured that the response cannot be tracked down
to him/her, then he/she would speak the truth. It is typically used
when the incidence of occurrence of certain events/conditions
need to be found out.
RM (Research Methodology)


Decisions about question phrasing -

Researcher & respondent should assign same meaning

to questions. Issues:
1. Words used (individual & together) should be understandable
Eg: “Would you be interested to buy any of these products?” is
different from “Which one of these products would you be
interested in buying?”
2. Biased words/leading questions : “Do you think India should
allow public speeches against democracy?” is different from “Do
you think India should ban p.s. against democracy?” <<”ban” is an
extreme word. Avoid using extreme words>>
RM (Research Methodology)


Decisions about question phrasing -

3. Clearly state alternatives involved in the questions (clarify): “If
there is further shortage of power, do u think there should be a law
to reduce use of A/Cs in establishments in summer?” or “Do u
oppose such a law?” or “Should it be left to each establishment’s
4. Implied assumptions :“Do you favor a ban on ads in movie
halls?” Clarify this by asking “Would you mind paying extra for
5. Frame of reference assumed : “Does GIC provide satisfactory
settlement of claims?” <<objective perception>> “DO you believe
that GIC provides….?” <<belief in between o.p & own
experiment>> “Were you satisfied with GIC’s settlement of your
latest claim?” <<own experience>>
RM (Research Methodology)


Response format

(i) Open ended

Advantages :
No influence on respondents
Wide variety of responses
Feel for quality
Quotes can be used
Disadvantages :
Not easy to analyze and interpret
Respondent may not answer adequately
Interviewer may not probe adequately

(ii) Close ended – multiple choice/dichotomous

RM (Research Methodology)


Response format
Multiple choice:
Advantages :
Easy to administer
Reduces interviewer bias
Tabulation & analysis is simple
Disadvantages :
Development needs a lot of effort
Issues: 1. Number of alternatives (each should appear only
once, all possible alternatives should be included) 2.
Alternative to be balanced <<very bad, bad, ok, good, very
good>> 3. Remove position bias by using split-ballot technique
(if alternatives are read out, preference is for last alternative) (if
alternatives are given together, preference is for first)
RM (Research Methodology)


Response format

1. May include 3rd option (don’t know, no opinion, can’t say)
2. Form may influence results, so use split ballot technique.
RM (Research Methodology)


Question sequence

1. Start with simple, interesting objective questions

2. Complete questions of one topic before moving to next topic
3. Move from topic to topic in a logical way
4. Initial questions to avoid providing biased frame of reference,
or suggest answers to future questions.
RM (Research Methodology)


Layout of the questionnaire

1. Physical appearance should make it easy to use

2. Layout to minimize mistakes (avoid “go to” statements)
RM (Research Methodology)

Pretest & revision
1. Mandatory for all questionnaires
2. Decisions involved are:
- What items to pretest? <<ALL>>
- How should it be conducted (std administration,
debriefing, protocol analysis)
- Who should conduct it
(Field exec, research associate, research head)
- Which respondents should be involved
(known people, unknown people, part of sample)
- How many respondents?
(Field exec should go to as many respondents as he can cover in one
working day, research associate should go to as many respondents
as required until further pre-testing does not result in any change in
the questionnaire, research head should pre-test it with 5-8
respondents outside the office)
3. Language issues: (Especially in India). Do back-translation
RM (Research Methodology)


:: Direct Response Attitude Scale

Attitude is a person’s enduring organization of cognitive,

affective & behavioral components & processes with respect to
some aspect of an individual’s world.

Cognitive : person’s beliefs or information about the object

Affective : person’s feelings of like/dislike about object
Behavioral : Action tendencies towards object

Substantial part of marketing effort is to assess/influence

attitudes of consumers & intermediaries.
RM (Research Methodology)


:: Direct Response Attitude Scale

Attitudes can be measured

- directly (DRAS)
- indirectly (Derived AS)

Measures attitude directly

Two types:
- Rating scale (to measure single dimension)
- Attitude scales (to measure multi dimensions,
it is a combination of rating scales).

Rating scales:
Attribute of an object being marked on a numerically valued
continuum or in numerically ordered category.
RM (Research Methodology)


Types of rating scales:



Graphic Itemised Graphic Itemised Specific


Rank order

RM (Research Methodology)


Non-comparative (monadic):
Respondent not provided with a standard to use in the
rating. Only one product/brand is evaluated (hence,
monadic). Commonly used at product concept testing stage
in new product development process
Eg: Intention to buy, using a Juster scale (11 pt)
10. Certain/practically certain (99 in 100)
9. Almost sure (9 in 10)
8. Very possible (8 in 10)
7. Probable (7 in 10)
6. Good possibility (6 in 10)
5. Fairly good possibility (5 in 10)
4. Fair possibility (4 in 10)
3. Some possibility (3 in10)
2. Slight possibility (2 in 10)
1. Very slight possibility (1 in 10)
0. No chance/almost no chance (1 in 100)
RM (Research Methodology)


Non-comparative (monadic):

Reduce position bias by reversing order on 50% of


Top box score is used for prediction. Top box : % of

respondents who mark one of two most favourable ratings.

If at least x% threshold of top box score is crossed, product

concept is taken forward. <<given in T & H as 30%, but
may be too high>> <<may vary with industry>>
RM (Research Methodology)


Graphic Non-Comparative Rating Scale:

Requires respondent to indicate rating by placing a mark on

the line that runs from one extreme to the attitude being
studied to the other extreme

<<There is a line with “great” at one end & “poor” at the

other, and a mark is made on the line>>

Response is then broken up into categories for analysis.

Never used.
RM (Research Methodology)


Itemized Non-Comparative Rating Scale:

Requires respondent to select one of a limited number of
categories, ordered in terms of their scale positions

(i) D-T scale (Delighted – Terrible) scale.
Eg: How do u feel after seeing the movie KKHH?
Scale varies as “Delighted, Pleased, Mixed, Unhappy, Terrible”.

(ii) Percentage scale.

Eg: How much did u like KKHH?”
Scale varied from 0, 25, 50…..100%. 100 is completely
satisfied,0 is not at all satisfied.

(iii) Need semantic differential scale:

Eg: “To what extent does your AC meet your needs?”
Scale is from 1 to 7. 1 is poorly. 7 is extremely well.
RM (Research Methodology)


Recommendations on using itemized rating scales:

1. Use precise verbal definitions for at least some categories
2. Use 5 categories when several scales are to be summed up
for 1 scale
3. Use up to 9 categories when attributes are being compared
across objects by knowledgeable respondents.
4. Use balanced scales as much as possible.
5. Use odd number of categories if respondent could feel
neutral, even if this is unlikely
6. Let the choice not be forced upon the respondent. That is,
give option of not knowing/not applicable unless it is known
that all respondents have required knowledge.
7. Adjust rating scale to nature of information required and
characteristics of respondents.
RM (Research Methodology)


Comparative rating scales:

In non-comparative, rater evaluates the object without direct
response to a specific standard. Hence respondent may apply
different reference points.

Eg: rate quality of brand X?

- ideal brand
- current brand
- average ebrand

To obtain uniformity, use known reference pt (pre-specify).

Eg: Compared to the soft drink I generally drink, Diet Coke
<<Scale from vastly superior to vastly inferior>>

You have to find out what soft drink the guy usually drinks
(ref pt). Otherwise it is like non-comparative scale.
RM (Research Methodology)


Comparative rating scales:


Visual inspection  Brand B is preferred

RM (Research Methodology)


Rank order rating scale :

Requires respondent to rank a set of objects according to

some criterion. All relevant brands need to be included
(options). Simulates actual shopping environment. Faster
response time. Produces only ordinal data.
RM (Research Methodology)


Constant sum scale :

Requires respondent to divide a constant sum (10 or 100)

among two or more objects/attributes in order to reflect
respective relative preference for each objects/attributes.

Can be used for 2 objects (paired comparison)

More than 2 : quadric comparison
Eg: Suppose 2 wheeler attributes are to be ranked with 1
being more important. Following median ranks are produced:

Price : 1
Economy : 2
Reliability : 3
Safety : 4
Comfort : 5
Style : 6
RM (Research Methodology)


Constant sum scale :

In constant sum, divide 100 pts among characteristics so

that the division indicates how important each characteristic
is in he purchase decision.

TOTAL = 100
RM (Research Methodology)


Constant sum scale :

3 groups emerge:
Group A Group B Group C
Price 35 20 65
Eco 30 18 9
Rel 20 17 8
Saf 10 16 7
Comf 3 15 6
Style 2 14 5

Findings are more detailed than rank order.

Can even help to determine target market.
If total > 100 or < 100, adjust it to 100.
RM (Research Methodology)


Attitude scales::

Carefully constructed set s of rating scales designed to

measure individual’s attitude towards objects.
Response to various scales may be summed up or examined
Scale developed using method studied before.

Forms -
1. Semantic differential scale
2. Stapel scale
3. Likert scale
RM (Research Methodology)


1. Semantic differential scale

Rater is required to rate objects on a number of itemized 7-
point rating scale, bounded by oppositely adjectives at each
end (bipolar adjectives).

Eg: for the Zen

Fast ----------------- Slow
Plain -------------- Stylish

You can also compare 2/more brands on the same scale:

Fast ----------------- Slow
Plain -------------- Stylish
RM (Research Methodology)


1. Semantic differential scale

People place the Zen, Alto, Matiz on different scales.

Numbers can be assigned to each option (1-7)

Analysis may be through

- Aggregate analysis (combination of constant sum and SD
scale. Multiply the weight by the rating, for each product)
- Profile analysis
RM (Research Methodology)


2. Stapel scale:
Simplified version of the SD. Standard is unipolar, 10
interval rating scale with values from +5 to -5. Any number
of values can be used. Values can be all positive.

Eg: What are your views about XYZ stores:

Large 3 2 1 -1 -2 -3
Friendly 3 2 1 -1 -2 -3
Low priced 3 2 1 -1 -2 -3

It is good for telephonic interviews, because it saves time.

It is similar to SD, and easy to administer.19
RM (Research Methodology)


3. Likert scale (summated scale):

Respondent needs to indicate agreement/disagreement to a

series of statements related to objects.
Value may be assigned to each option for analysis.

5 pt Likert : Strongly agree, agree, neither, disagree,

strongly disagree
7 pt : SA, moderately agree, mildly agree,

XYZ is one of the most attractive stores (SA,A,N,D,SD)
Service at XYZ is not satisfactory (SA,A,N,D,SD)
Service is very important to me (SA,A,N,D,SD)
RM (Research Methodology)


Which Scale to Use ?

Depends on:
• Information requirements of the problem
• Characteristic of response
• Means of administration
• Cost

In general,
- Use multiple measures since summation of
is more accurate.
RM (Research Methodology)


Need for sample planning:

Objective of MR is
- estimation
- hypothesis testing.

 Each involves making inferences about a population on the

basis of information from a sample.

 Accuracy of survey results are affected by the manner of

RM (Research Methodology)


Steps in Define Population

sample planning:

Census Vs Sample

Sample Design

Sample Size

Estimation of
sampling costs

Execute sampling
RM (Research Methodology)


Population definition:
Definition should include -
- element
- sampling unit
- extent
- time

Eg: MR for detergents: The population should include price of

each brand kirana outlets, in Mah & Guj, from Jan-Mar 2005-

Eg: Financial institution with new loan instruments: Population

should be all depositors who have borrowed money from
NBFCs, in metros Mumbai & Chennai, during the last 2 years.
RM (Research Methodology)


Census vs Sample:
 Census includes the entire population. Sample is a
representative part of the population.
 Census may not be feasible all the time. Hence use sample.
 Advantages of sampling: speed/timelines & costs
 However we need to use census in cases when the population
is very small.

Eg: If you supply to 15 clients (the census), you can do a

research on all 15 (since the population is very small).
Eg: Medical research for rare disorders.
RM (Research Methodology)


Sample design:
Sample frame: This is a means of representing elements of the
Eg: telephone directory. It is not used for non-probability sampling.

Sampling unit: This is the basic unit containing elements of the

population to be sampled.
Eg: Loan instrument – Sampling Unit could be businessmen with over 5 yrs
experience (because 5 yrs is the repayment period. So they would have
gone through the entire cycle).

Sampling method: This describes the method by which sample

units are to be selected for measurement.
- probability/non-probability
- single unit/cluster of units
- stratified/unstratified
- equal unit probability/unequal unit probability
- single stage/multi stage
RM (Research Methodology)


Non-probability sampling procedures:

(i) Convenience sampling: Based on convenience of sampling.

Eg: to test new food product, add it to menu card at a restaurant.
Advantages: quick, inexpensive

(ii) Judgement sampling/purposive sampling: Representative

sampling is drawn up using judgement selection procedure.
Eg: An organization’s new products always failed. Hence sample for
study was competition with compatible products (products that are not

competing, but are being sold in the same way. Eg: shampoo &
RM (Research Methodology)


Non-probability sampling procedures:

(iii) Quota sampling: Sizes of subclasses of population estimated.

Sample would contain compatible % of subclasses.

Eg: in a research for fountain pens, subclasses would be students,
employees, businessmen, persons, housewives. Whatever % these
subclasses constitute, you should choose people from these subclasses
in the same % for your sample.
(iv) Snowball sampling: Sample few based on judgment /
random/convenience. Take referrals, include referrals in
your sample. Called ‘Snowball’ because the size of your
sample keeps increasing as your research proceeds.
Eg: MR for travel/tourism, Reader’s Digest asks for referrals.
RM (Research Methodology)


Probability sampling:
Sampling unit is selected by chance. Chance of each unit being
selected is known.

(i) Simple random sampling (SRS): Each sample unit has a
known and equal probability of selection. It is drawn by
random procedures from the sample frame.

(ii) Systematic sampling: Each sampling unit has a known

probability of selection. Permissible samples have known &
equal probability. Others have known & zero probability.
Eg: Population size = N, sample required = n, arrange units (in say,
ascending order). At N/n th interval, select a unit (maybe 1st or 2nd). N
= 600, n = 60, Sampling interval = 10. Select random number between
1-10 (say 5). Then sample elements are 5/15/25/35.
RM (Research Methodology)


(iii) Stratified sampling : Divide population into strata based on

some criteria. Then do SRS within strata.
Difference in: in quota sampling, you use convenience
sampling, in this you use SRS.

(iv) Cluster sampling:

- Select primary sampling unit at random.
- Sample all elements in selected PSU.
- Eg: survey of sales staff of a pharma company
- Select geographical area at random.
- Sample all sales staff in selected area.
- Advantage : Depth interviews possible at low cost.

(v) Area sampling:

- Select areas at random.
- Within areas, select respondents at random.
RM (Research Methodology)


Sample size :

Sample size determined using following approaches:

- Unaided judgment
- Affordability (all you can afford)
- Size indicated by similar studies (take average)
- Required size per cell
- Traditional statistical methods
- Bayesian statistical model <<will not be covered>>

Unaided judgment:
- Arbitrary approach
- Precision not clear
- Costing not taken into account
- Used commonly, nut should be avoided
RM (Research Methodology)


Sample size :

Affordability (all you can afford)

- Based on budget
- At times practical
- Sometimes leads to unnecessary data collection

Size indicated by similar studies (take average)

- Can be used as initial aid
- Formal judgment to be used case-to-case

Required size per cell

- Used for SRS/stratified random/purposive/quota
- Eg: Fast food joint: Information required from 2 groups –

service/businessmen. Four age groups created: 20-

25/25-35/35-50/50+. Sample of 30 needed in each
group. Hence total sample = 30 * 4 * 2 = 240
RM (Research Methodology)


Sample size :

Traditional statistical methods

Sampling distribution of mean: This is the relative frequency
distribution of the means of all possible samples of size n,
taken from a population the size N.
Eg: Super Shoppe has a direct mail campaign during Diwali, which
generated 1250 invoices. Suppose sample size = 50.

Then total possible samples =
(1250 – 50!) 50!

This is a very high number. Hence (take for eg) 500 samples.
Determine mean of each sample.
RM (Research Methodology)

Value of mean Frequency of Rel Freq of sample
occurrence mean
38 – 39.99 1 .002
40 – 41.99 2 .004
42 – 43.99 17 .034
44 – 45.99 39 .078
46 – 47.99 52 .104
48 – 49.99 85 .170
50 – 51.99 110 .220
52 – 53.99 77 .154
54 – 55.99 64 .128
56 – 57.99 37 .074
58 – 59.99 10 .020
60 – 61.99 4 .008
62 – 63.99 2 .004
TOTAL 500 1.00
RM (Research Methodology)


<<if u draw a graph with frequency on the y-axis, and sample

means on the x-axis, you will get a bell-shaped normal

These means would be distributed normally in terms of their

relative frequency of occurrences.

Relative frequency then can be a measure of probability. If all

possible samples were taken, we would have obtained mean
which would also be distributed normally with a mean value
very close to mean value calculated from 500 samples.

Hence sample characteristics can be said to represent the

RM (Research Methodology)


We can infer that a sampling distribution of the mean for SRS

samples has:
- Normal distribution
- Mean equal to population mean
- SD called standard error of mean <<sigma x>>. That is
equal to population standard deviation <<sigma>> divided

by square root of sample size <<square root of n>>

<<sigma x = sigma / square root of n>>

RM (Research Methodology)


Basically we are trying to find out the ideal sampling size. We

would want the sample size to be as close to the population
mean as possible. The larger the sampling size, the closer it is
to the mean & thus the error is smaller.

N = 1250
N = 50

N = s2z2 /E2
RM (Research Methodology)


Q1. A soft drink company desires to determine the annual per

capita consumption of soft drinks in Pune. For this purpose
they would like to carry out a research for which a max error
is 0.5lt per capita per year. With a confidence level of 95%. A
pilot sample taken to estimate population dispersion (SD)
indicates a value of 8 liters of per capita per year. Determine
the minimum sample size if the response rate is 25%.
Now the 0.95
<divide this by 2 since it is distributed normally on either side of the
0.95 / 2 = 0.475.
Form the table, the value is read as 1.96.
Therefore, z = 1.96
E = 0.5
N = s2z2 /E2 = 984.
RM (Research Methodology)


Multiply by 4 for the 25% response rate.

Therefore answer = 984 * 4 = 3936

If the error is 1, and the confidence level is 60%

Z = 0.84

<<<A research proposal consists of PRO, SRO, value of

information, data collection (secondary, primary),
experimental & exploratory research, questionnaire design &
attitude scales, sampling, selection of data analysis method,
time (presented as a Gantt chart) & cost>>>
RM (Research Methodology)


This is the process of getting data ready for analysis. It is

intermediate to data processing.

Steps involved:
(i) Field controls
(ii) Editing
(iii) Coding
(iv) Transcribing
(v) Generating new variables
(vi) Summary statistical calculation
RM (Research Methodology)


(i) Field controls

These are procedures designed to minimize errors during actual
data collection, thru monitoring and validation. Monitoring happens
when data is being collected. Validation is checking it after data
(ii) Editing
Data considered should be current, present <<opposite of
absent>>, readable & accurate. This is the editor’s responsibility.
Missing data could be filled in through imputation, trend analysis
and plug-in values. For ambiguous data, the editor has to set
standards for evaluation.

(iii) Coding
Coding involves establishing categories and assigning data to
them. Categories established as per QD procedures. Categories
shown by numbers as much as possible. Data assignment is
relatively simple for close-ended questions. For open-ended,
create a code-book to indicate system of coding used. That
ensures uniformity.
RM (Research Methodology)


(iv) Transcribing
This is the process of physically transferring data from
measurement instrument to computer storage. At times may be

time consuming, hence it needs to be planned for.

(v) Generating new variables

This may be required as a pre-cursor to analysis. New variables
may be generated from combinations of other variables in data.
Eg: person’s age/marital status/number and age of children
indicates stage in family life cycle. Data may be collected thru
interval scale and later assigned to classes. Eg: Family income in
Rupees/year may then be put into groups. New variables may be
added thru secondary data Eg: median income/education in a
geographic area. Data may need to be transformed into another
functional form (inverting the 50% where you have used split-
ballot technique).
RM (Research Methodology)


(vi) Summary statistical calculation

 Create basic data array.

 Tabulate frequency distributions.
- One way tabulation (with one variable)
- Cross tabulation (two variable)
- Banners ( more than 2 variables)
 Calculate central tendency and dispersion (SD, variance, range)
 Estimation (either point or interval estimation). Both are in
terms of means & proportions.
 If the sample size < 30, use t statistic
 If the sample size < 30, use z statistic