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TIG Welding Introduction

Outline
Background/Advantages

& Disadvantages

Safety
Preparation

for TIG Welding


Techniques for Basic Weld Joints
TIG Shielding Gases
Welding Parameters
Tungsten Electrode Selection
Conclusion

Conclusion

TIG welding is an exciting skill that proves itself useful in


countless applications
Because it welds more metal and metal alloys than any
other process, TIG welding should be regarded as an
important tool where experience is the teacher
Welding parameters and tungsten electrode selection
tables are recommended values and should be used as a
guideline
Information presented here is only the tip of the iceberg,
and further research and hands-on involvement should be
pursued to be comprehensive

Background
What

is TIG?

Tungsten Inert Gas


Also

referred to as GTAW

Gas Shielded Tungsten Welding


In

TIG welding, a tungsten electrode heats


the metal you are welding and gas (most
typically Argon) protects the weld from
airborne contaminants
4

Background
TIG

welding uses a non-consumable


tungsten
Filler metal, when required, is added by
hand
Shielding gas protects the weld and
tungsten

Advantages
Welds

more metals
and metal alloys than
any other process
High quality and
precision
Pin point control
Aesthetic weld beads
No sparks or spatter
No flux or slag
No smoke or fumes
6

Disadvantages

Lower filler metal


deposition rates
Good hand-eye
coordination a required
skill
Brighter UV rays than
other processes
Slower travel speeds than
other processes
Equipment costs tend to
be higher than other
processes
7

Safety
Electric

shock can kill.

Always wear dry insulating gloves


Insulate yourself from work and ground
Do not touch live electrical parts
Keep all panels and covers securely in place

Fumes

health.

and gases can be hazardous to your

Keep your head out of the fumes


Ventilate area, or use breathing device
8

Safety
Welding

can cause fire or explosion.

Do not weld near flammable material


Watch for fire; keep extinguisher nearby
Do not locate unit over combustible surfaces
Do not weld on closed containers

Arc

rays can burn eyes and skin; Noise can


damage hearing.
Wear welding helmet with correct shade of filter
Wear correct eye, ear, and body protection
9

Safety
Hot

parts can cause injury.

Allow cooling period before touching welded


metal
Wear protective gloves and clothing
Magnetic

fields from high currents can affect


pacemaker operation.
Flying metal can injure eyes.
Welding, chipping, wire brushing, and grinding
cause sparks and flying metal; wear approved
safety glasses with side shields
10

Safety
Welding

vehicles.

current can damage electronic parts in

Disconnect both battery cables before welding on a


vehicle
Place work clamp as close to the weld as possible

11

Techniques for Basic Weld Joints


Arc Length
Arc

length normally one electrode diameter, when


AC welding with a balled end electrode
When DC welding with a pointed electrode, arc
length may be much less than electrode diameter

12
*Figure copied from TIG Handbook

Techniques for Basic Weld Joints


Gas Cup Size
Inside

diameter of gas
cup should be at least
three times the
tungsten diameter to
provide adequate
shielding gas coverage
Picture on right shows
example of gas cup
size and torch position
1-Workpiece, 2-Work clamp, 3-Torch, 4-Filler rod,
5-Gas cup, 6-Tungsten electrode
*Figure copied from TIG Handbook

13

Techniques for Basic Weld Joints


Electrode Extension
Refers

to distance the tungsten extends out


beyond the gas cup
May vary from flush with the gas cup to no more
than the inside diameter of the gas cup
Longer the extension, the more likely it may
contact something by accident
General rule would be to start with an extension of
one electrode diameter
14

Techniques for Basic Weld Joints


Arc Starting with High
Frequency

Torch position on left shows


recommended method of starting
the arc with high frequency when
the torch is held manually
By resting gas cup on base metal
there is little danger of touching
the electrode to the work
After arc is initiated, torch can be
raised to proper welding angle
15

*Figure copied from TIG Handbook

Techniques for Basic Weld Joints


Manual Torch Movement

ENBE 499
*Figure copied from TIG Handbook

16

Techniques for Basic Weld Joints


Manual Torch Movement
Torch

and filler rod must be moved progressively


and smoothly so the weld pool, the hot filler rod
end, and the solidifying weld are not exposed to
air that will contaminate the weld metal area or
heat affected zone
When arc is turned off, postflow of shielding gas
should shield the weld pool, electrode, and hot
end of the filler rod
17

Techniques for Basic Weld Joints


Butt Weld and
Stringer Bead
Be

sure to center weld


pool on adjoining
edges
When finishing a butt
weld, torch angle may
be decreased to aid in
filling the crater
Torch and rod position for welding the butt weld and stringer
bead
18
*Figure copied from TIG Handbook

Techniques for Basic Weld Joints


Lap Joint

Pool is formed so that the


edge of the overlapping
piece and the flat surface
of the second piece flow
together
Torch angle is important
because the edge will
become molten before the
flat surface
Enough filler metal must
be added to fill the joint as
illustrated on the right

Torch and rod position for welding the lap joint


19
*Figure copied from TIG Handbook

Techniques for Basic Weld Joints


T-Joint

Edge will heat up and melt


sooner
Torch angle illustrated will
direct more heat onto the
flat surface
Electrode may need to be
extended further beyond
the cup in order to hold a
short arc
Torch and rod position for welding the T-joint
20

*Figure copied from TIG Handbook

Techniques for Basic Weld Joints


Corner Joint
Both

edges of the
adjoining pieces should
be melted and the pool
kept on the joint
centerline
Sufficient filler metal is
necessary to create a
convex bead as shown
Torch and rod position for welding the corner joint
21
*Figure copied from TIG Handbook

TIG Shielding Gases


Argon

Helium
Argon/Helium

Mixtures

22

TIG Shielding Gases


Helium

Argon

Good arc starting


Good cleaning action
Good arc stability
Focused arc cone
Lower arc voltages
10-30 CFH flow rates

Faster travel speeds


Increased penetration
Difficult arc starting
Less cleaning action
Less low amp stability
Flared arc cone
Higher arc voltages
Higher flow rates (2x)
Higher cost than argon

23

TIG Shielding Gases


Argon/Helium Mixtures

Improved travel speeds over pure argon


Improved penetration over pure argon
Cleaning properties closer to pure argon
Improved arc starting over pure helium
Improved arc stability over pure helium
Arc cone shape more focused than pure helium
Arc voltages between pure argon and pure helium
Higher flow rates than pure argon
Costs higher than pure argon

24

Welding Parameters

Aluminum weld parameters


25
*Figure copied from TIG Handbook

Welding Parameters

Aluminum with advanced squarewave weld parameters

26
*Figure copied from TIG Handbook

Welding Parameters

Stainless steel weld parameters


27
*Figure copied from TIG Handbook

Welding Parameters

Titanium weld parameters


28
*Figure copied from TIG Handbook

Welding Parameters

Mild steel weld parameters


29
*Figure copied from TIG Handbook

Tungsten Electrode Selection

Guide to selecting a tungsten electrode based on amperage range

30
*Figure copied from Guidelines to Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)

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