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TS4273 Traffic Engineering

SIGNALISED INTERSECTIONS

First Traffic Light


Traffic lights were used before the advent of the
motorcar. In 1868, British railroad signal
engineer J P Knight invented the first traffic light,
a lantern with red and green signals.
It was installed at the intersection of George and
Bridge Streets in front of the British House of
Commons to control the flow of horse buggies
and pedestrians.

http://www.didyouknow.cd/trafficlights.htm

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bersinyal
Suatu persimpangan membutuhkan lampu
lalulintas jika waktu tunggu rata-rata
kendaraan sudah lebih besar daripada waktu
tunggu rata-rata kendaraan pada
persimpangan dengan lampu lalulintas.

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bersinyal
Waktu tunggu rata-rata kendaraan pada
persimpangan bersinyal dipengaruhi oleh:
Arus lalulintas pada masing-masing arah,

Waktu antara kedatangan kendaraan dari


masing-masing arah,
Keberanian pengemudi untuk menerima waktu
antara yang tersedia guna menyeberangi jalan.

Prinsip-prinsip desain simpang


bersinyal

Delay

Unsignalised

Traffic Flow

Signalised

Scope of IHCM
Signalised Intersection Analyses
Isolated, fixed-time controlled signalised
intersections with normal geometry layout (fourarm and three-arm) and traffic signal control
devices.
Coordinated traffic signal control is normally
needed if the distance to adjacent signalised
intersections is small (< 200m).
Persimpangan Raya Darmo Polisi Istimewa
& Raya Darmo RA Kartini.

Objectives of IHCM
Signalised Intersection Analyses
To avoid blockage of an intersection by
conflicting traffic streams, thus
guaranteeing that a certain capacity can
be maintained even during peak traffic
conditions;

Objectives of IHCM
Signalised Intersection Analyses
To facilitate the crossing of a major road
by vehicles and/or pedestrians from a
minor road;
To reduce the number of traffic accidents
caused by collisions between vehicles in
conflicting directions.

Potential Conflict at Intersections

DIVERGING
MERGING
CROSSING

DIVERGING
MERGING

Primary and Secondary Conflictis in a


Four-Arm Signalised Intersections

Vehicle Stream

Primary Conflict

Pedestrian Stream

Secondary Conflict

Time Sequence
for Two-Phase Signal Control

Street A

Street B

Time Sequence
for Four-Phase Signal Control

Time Sequence
for Two-Phase Signal Control
Intergreen A B

Intergreen B A

Green Time

Intergreen A B

A
B
All Red A B

Green Time

All Red B A
Cycle Time
Street A

Street B

All Red A B

Kendaraan masih boleh lewat


pada saat lampu kuning menyala

Kendaraan tidak boleh lewat


pada saat lampu kuning menyala

Fase 1

Fase 2

Waktu antar hijau = 4 detik


Fase 1

Fase 2

Waktu antar hijau = 6 detik

Purpose of the Intergreen Period


Warn discharging traffic that the phase is
terminated. Amber Period (for urban traffic
signal in Indonesia is normally 3,0 sec)

Certify that the last vehicle in the green phase


which is being terminated receives adequate
time to evacuate the conflict zone before the first
advancing vehicle in the next phase enters the
same area. All-Red Period

Signal Phasing Arrangements


Introducing more than two phases
normally leads to an increase of the
cycle time and of the ratio of time
allocated to switching between phases
(especially for isolated and fixedcontrolled).

Signal Phasing Arrangements


Although this may be beneficial from the
traffic safety point of view, it normally
means that the overall capacity of the
intersection is decreased.

Rate of Discharge of Queue in


a Fully Saturated Green Period

Basic Model for Saturation Flow (Akcelik 1989)


Effective
Flow
Curve

Effective Green Time

Actual
Flow
Curve
Start Loss

End Gain
Saturation Flow

Time

Phases for the


Movement

Intergreen

Display Green Time

Fi (Starting Phase Change Time)

Phases for the


Conflicting
Movement

Fk (Terminating Phase Change Time)

Amber All-Red

Basic Model Saturation Flow


Discharge rate starts from 0 at the beginning of
green and reaches its peak value after 10-15
sec
Effective Green = Displayed Green Time Start
Loss + End Gain
Start loss End gain 4,8 sec (MKJI p.2-12)
Effective Green = Displayed Green Time

Basic Model Saturation Flow


Base saturation flow is different between
Protected approach and Opposed approach
For protected approach S0 = 600 x We
For opposed approach S0 in Indonesia
usually lower where there is a high ratio of
right turning movements, compare with
Western models.

Perhitungan Arus Jenuh


Metode Time Slice
Time Period

Traffic Flow (veh)

Traffic Flow (veh)

LV

HV

MC

LV

HV

MC

0.0

5.0

1.0

0.0

1.2

2.2

5.1

10.0

1.0

0.0

1.6

2.6

10.1

15.0

2.0

1.3

1.2

4.5

15.1

20.0

2.0

1.3

0.4

3.7

20.1

25.0

2.0

1.3

0.8

4.1

25.1

30.0

2.0

0.0

0.4

2.4

30.1

35.0

2.0

0.0

0.0

2.0

35.1

40.0

1.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

Total

30

Max

4.5

Arus jenuh/jam (3.600/5)x4,5 = 3.240 smp/jam


Jika lebar lajur = 4,0m (3.240/4) = 810 smp/jam/m
Maka S = 810 x We

Traffic Safety Considerations


Traffic accident rate for signalised
intersections has been estimated as
0,43 accidents/million incoming
vehicles as compare to 0,60 for
unsignalised intersections and 0,30 for
roundabouts.

STEP A-1: Geometric, Traffic Control


and Environmental Conditions

General information (date, handled by, city, etc.)


City size (to the nearest 0,1 M inhabitants)
Signal phasing & timing
Left turn on red (LTOR)
Approach code
Road environment and level of side friction
Median
Gradient
Approach width (to the nearest tenth of a meter)

Geometry of Signalised Intersection

STEP A-2: Traffic Flow Conditions


pce for Approach Type

Vehicle Type
Protected

Opposed

Light Vehicle (LV)

1,0

1,0

Heavy Vehicle (HV)

1,3

1,3

Motorcycle (MC)

0,2

0,4

Q = QLV + (QHV x pceHV) + (QMC x pceMC)

STEP B-1: Signal Phasing and


Timing
If the number and types of signal phases
are not known, two-phase control should
be used as a base case.
Separate control of right-turning
movements should normally only be
considered if a turning-movement exceeds
200 pcu/h and has a separate lane.

STEP B-1: Signal Phasing and


Timing
Early start = leading green one approach is
given a short period before the start of the green
also in the opposing direction (usually 25%-33%
from total green time)
Late cut-off = lagging green the green light in
one approach is extended a short period after
the end of green in the opposing direction.
The length of the leading and the lagging green
should not be shorter than 10 sec.

STEP B-2:
Intergreen time and lost time
Intersection
Size

Mean Road
Width

Intergreen Time
Default Values

Small

69m

4 sec/phase

Medium

10 14 m

5 sec/phase

Large

15 m

6 sec/phase

Only for planning purposes !!!

STEP B-2:
Intergreen time and lost time
For operational and design analysis !!!

LEV lEV LAV


ALLREDi max

VAV
VEV
LEV, LAV distance from stop line to conflict
point for evacuating and advancing vehicle (m)
lEV length of evacuating vehicle (m)
VEV, VAV speed of evacuating and advancing
vehicle (m/sec)

LAV
LAV

AV
LEV

CRITICAL CONFLICT
POINT

L l
L
ALLREDi max EV EV AV
VAV
VEV
EV

lEV

STEP B-2:
Intergreen time and lost time

VAV 10m/sec (motor vehicles)


VEV 10m/sec (motor vehicles)
VEV 3m/sec (un-motorised)
VEV 1,2m/sec (pedestrians)
lEV 5m (LV or HV)
lEV 2m (MC or UM)

STEP B-2:
Intergreen time and lost time
LTI ALLRED AMBERi IGi
IG Intergreen = Allred + Amber
The length of AMBER usually 3,0 sec

STEP C-1: Approach Type


PROTECTED (P)
Discharge without any
conflict between rightturning movements and
straight-through/leftturning movements.

Street B

Street A

STEP C-1: Approach Type


OPPOSED (O) Discharge with conflict
between right-turning movements and straightthrough/left-turning movements from different
approaches with green in the same phase.
Street A

Street B

STEP C-2:
Effective Aproach Width (We)
Without LTOR
For Approach Type P (Q = QST)
If WEXIT We x (1 - pRT - pLT)
We = WEXIT

WLTOR
WA

WENTRY

WEXIT

STEP C-2:
Effective Aproach Width (We)
If WLTOR 2m (it is assumed that the LTOR
vehicle can bypass the other vehicle)
We = min { (WA-WLTOR) , (WENTRY) }

For Approach Type P (Q = QST)


If WEXIT < We x (1 pRT)
We = WEXIT

STEP C-2:
Effective Aproach Width (We)
If WLTOR < 2m (it is assumed that the LTOR
vehicle cannot bypass the other vehicle)
We = min { (WA) , (WENTRY+WLTOR) ,
(Wax(1+pLTOR)-WLTOR) }
For Approach Type P (Q = QST)
If WEXIT < We x (1 pRT pLTOR)
We = WEXIT

STEP C-3: Base Saturation Flow (S)

S S o F1 ... Fn
For protected approach

So 600 We

STEP C-3: Base Saturation Flow (S)


For Approach Type P

S0 600 We
S0 base saturation flow (pcu/hg)
We effective width (m)
Figure C-3:1 page 2-49

STEP C-3: Base Saturation Flow (S)


For Approach Type O (opposed)
QRT and QRTO (Column 14 Form SIG-II opposed
discharge right-turning)
Figure C-3:2 page 2-51 for approaches without
separate right-turning.
Figure C-3:3 page 2-52 for approaches with
separate right-turning.
Use interpolation if approach width larger or
smaller than actual We

STEP C-3: Base Saturation Flow (S)


Ex: without separate right-turning lane
QRT = 125 pcu/h, QRTO = 100 pcu/h
Actual We = 5,4m
Obtain from Figure C-3:2 p. 2-51 (We=5 & We=6)
S6,0 = 3.000 (pcu/hg) ; S5,0 = 2.440 (pcu/hg)
Calculate;
S5,4 =(5,4-5,0)x(S6,0 - S5,0)+ S5,0
=0,4(3.000-2.440)+2.440 2.660 (pcu/hg)

STEP C-3: Base Saturation Flow (S)


If right-turning movement > 250 pcu/h, protected
signal phasing should be considered
For No Separate RT-lane
If QRTO < 250 pcu/h
Determine SPROV for QRTO = 250 pcu/h
Determine Actual S as
S = SPROV [(QRTO - 250) x 8]pcu/h

STEP C-3: Base Saturation Flow (S)

For No Separate RT-lane


If QRTO > 250 pcu/h
Determine SPROV for QRTO and QRT= 250 pcu/h
Determine Actual S as
S = SPROV [(QRTO + QRT - 500) x 2]pcu/h

If QRTO < 250 pcu/h and QRT > 250 pcu/h


Determine S as for QRT = 250 pcu/h

STEP C-3: Base Saturation Flow (S)


For Separate RT-lane
If QRTO > 250 pcu/h
QRT < 250 pcu/h Determine S from Figure C3:3
through extrapolation
QRT > 250 pcu/h Determine SPROV as for QRTO
and QRT= 250 pcu/h
If QRTO < 250 pcu/h and QRT > 250 pcu/h
Determine S from Figure C3:3 through
extrapolation

STEP C-4: City Size Adjustment


Factor FCS [ Table C-4:3 p.2-53]
City Size

Inhab. (M)

FCS

Very Small

0,1

0,82

Small

> 0,1 - 0,5

0,88

Medium

> 0,5 - 1,0

0,94

Large

> 1,0 - 3,0

1,00

Very Large

> 3,0

1,05

STEP C-4: Side Friction Adjustment


Factor FSF [ Table C-4:4 p.2-53]

1.00

0.95

Fsf

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.75

0.70
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

pUM

CHO

CHP

CMO

CMP

CLO

CLP

0.25

STEP C-4: Side Friction Adjustment


Factor FSF [ Table C-4:4 p.2-53]

1.00

0.95

Fsf

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.75

0.70
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

pUM

RHO

RHP

RMO

RMP

RLO

RLP

0.25

STEP C-4: Side Friction Adjustment


Factor FSF [ Table C-4:4 p.2-53]

1.05

1.00

0.95

Fsf

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.75

0.70
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

pUM

RAO

RAP

0.20

0.25

STEP C-4:Gradient Adjustments


Factors FG [Figure C-4:1 p.2-54]
1.05
1.04

If G 0 1 (0,01 x G)

1.03
1.02
1.01

Gradient Factor Fg

1.00
0.99
0.98
0.97
0.96
0.95
0.94
0.93
0.92

If G < 0 1 (0,005 x G)

0.91
0.90
-10

-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

Gradient (%)

10

STEP C-4: Effect of Parking Adjustments


Factors FP [Figure C-4:2 p.2-54

LP

LP

FP WA 2 g / WA / g
3

LP distance between stop-line


and first parked vehicle (m)
WA Width of the approach (m)
g Green time in the approach (default value 26 sec)
It should not be applied in cases were the effective width
is determined by the exit width.

STEP C-4: Right Turn Adjustments


Factors FRT

1.300

FRT = 1.0 + pRT x 0.26


1.250

Frt

1.200

1.150

1.100

1.050

1.000
0.000

0.100

0.200

0.300

0.400

0.500

pRT

0.600

0.700

0.800

0.900

1.000

STEP C-4: Left Turn Adjustments


Factors FLT

1.000

FLT = 1.0 - pLT x 0.16

Flt

0.950

0.900

0.850

0.800
0.000

0.100

0.200

0.300

0.400

0.500

pLT

0.600

0.700

0.800

0.900

1.000

Calculated the adjusted value


of saturation flow S

S SO FCS FSF FG FP FRT FLT pcu / hg

SO Base saturation flow


FCS City size
FSF Side friction
FG Gradient
FP Parking
FRT Right turn
FLT Left turn

STEP C-5: Flow/Saturation Flow


Ratio
Calculate the Flow Ratio (FR) for each approach

FR Q / S
Calculate the Intersection Flow Ratio (IFR)

IFR FRCRIT

Sum of the critical (highest) flow ratios for


all consecutive signal phases in a cycle

Calculate the Phase Ratio (PR) for each phase

PR FRCRIT / IFR

STEP C-6: Cycle Time and Green


Time
Unadjusted cycle time (Cua)

LTI = S off all intergreen periods

cua 1,5 LTI 5 / 1 IFR


Green time (g)

g i cua LTI PRi


Adjusted cycle time (c)

c g LTI

2 phase 40-80 sec


3 phase 50-100 sec
4 phase 80-130 sec

green times < 10 sec


should be avoided !!!

STEP D-1: Capacity


Calculate the capacity of each approach

C Sg /c
Calculate the Degree of Saturation

DS Q / C

Acceptable value
normally 0,75 !!!

If the signal timing has been correctly


done, DS will be nearly the same in all
critical approaches !!!

STEP D-2: Need For Revisions


Increase of approach width (especially for the
approaches with the highest critical FR value)
Changed signal phasing (i.e. separate phase for
right-turning traffic)
Prohibition of right turning movements will
normally increase capacity (i.e. reduction of the
phase required).

STEP E-1: Preparations


Fill in the information required in the
head of Form SIG-V

STEP E-2: Queue Length


For DS > 0,5

NQ1 0,25 C DS 1

8 DS 0,5
DS 1

NQ1 number of pcu that remain from the previous


green phase
DS degree of saturation = Q/C
GR green ratio
C capacity (pcu/h) = saturation flow x green ratio
For DS 0,5

NQ1 0

STEP E-2: Queue Length

1 GR
Q
NQ2 c

1 GR DS 3600
NQ2 number of queuing pcu that arrive during
the red phase
GR green ratio = g/c
g green time (sec)
c cycle time (sec)
DS degree of saturation = Q/C
Q traffic flow (pcu/h)

STEP E-2: Queue Length

NQ NQ1 NQ2

NQMAX 20
QL
WENTRY

QL Queue length (m)


NQMAX adjust NQ with desired probability for
overloading [for planning and design 5%, for
operation 5-10%] figure E-2:2 p.2-66
20 average area occupied per pcu (20 sqm)
WENTRY entry width (m)

STEP E-3: Stopped Vehicle


NQ
NS 0,9
3600
Qc

NS stop rate
NQ total number of queuing vehicle
Q traffic flow (pcu/h)
c cycle time (sec)

STEP E-3: Stopped Vehicle


N SV Q NS
NSV number of stopped vehicles
Q traffic flow (pcu/h)
NS stop rate

NSTOTAL

SV

QTOTAL

STEP E-4: Delay


0,5 1 GR
A A
1 GR DS
2

GR green ratio
DS degree of saturation = Q/C

STEP E-4: Delay


NQ1 3600
DT c A
C
DT mean traffic delay (sec/pcu)
c cycle time (sec)
NQ1 number of pcu that remain from the
previous green phase
C capacity (pcu/h)

STEP E-4: Delay


DG j 1 pSV pT 6 pSV x 4
DGj mean geometric delay for approach j
(sec/pcu)
pSV proportion of stopped vehicles in the
approach = MIN (NS, 1)
pT proportion of turning vehicles in the
approach
Geometric Delay for LTOR = 6 sec [p.2-69]

STEP E-4: Delay

DI

Q D

sec/ pcu

QTOTAL

DI average delay for the whole intersection


Average delay can be used as an indicator of
the Level of Service (LOS) of each individual
approach as well as of the intersection as a
whole.

Indeks Tingkat Pelayanan (ITP) Lalulintas


Di Persimpangan Dengan Lampu Lalulintas
Indeks Tingkat Pelayanan
(ITP)

Tundaan per kendaraan


(detik)

5.0

5.1 15.0

15.1 25.0

25.1 40.0

40.1 60.0

> 60.0

Sumber: Perencanaan & Pemodelan Transportasi, Tamin, 2000

Cara-cara untuk meningkatkan


kapasitas Simpang Bersinyal
Pelebaran lengan pendekat
Kapasitas tergantung pada arus jenuh yang
melewati garis henti (lebar lengan pendekat).
Melebarkan lengan pendekat meningkatkan
kapasitas persimpangan.
Panjang dari pelebaran lengan pendekat juga
sangat penting untuk diperhatikan.

Cara-cara untuk meningkatkan


kapasitas Simpang Bersinyal
Menaikkan waktu siklus
semakin lama waktu siklus semakin besar
kapasitas persimpangan semakin tinggi
antrian dan tundaan yang terjadi
Menurut MKJI 1997 [p.2-60] kisaran waktu siklus
adalah 40 s/d 130 detik
Pada kondisi tertentu terpaksa digunakan
waktu siklus > 130 detik.

Cara-cara untuk meningkatkan


kapasitas Simpang Bersinyal
Perubahan pola fase
Perlu dilakukan simulasi untuk mendapatkan
pola fase yang paling efisien.
Semakin sedikit fase semakin tinggi kapasitas
persimpangan semakin besar kemungkinan
konflik yang dapat terjadi.
Umumnya jumlah fase yang digunakan berkisar
antara 2 s/d 4.
Siklus dengan 2 fase umumnya dilengkapi
dengan early cut-off atau late-start.
persimpangan Raya Darmo Polisi Istimewa

Cara-cara untuk meningkatkan


kapasitas Simpang Bersinyal
Meminimalkan waktu antar-hijau
Waktu antar-hijau diperlukan untuk menjamin
keamanan kendaraan yang melewati simpang
pada saat detik akhir hijau, agar tidak tertabrak
kendaraan yang mendapatkan fase hijau
berikutnya.
Meminimalkan waktu hijau mendekatkan
garis henti dengan pusat persimpangan.

Cara-cara untuk meningkatkan


kapasitas Simpang Bersinyal
Larangan belok kanan
Meningkatkan kapasitas akibat pengurangan
fase.
Namun harus dilakukan manajemen lalulintas
untuk melayani kendaraan yang hendak belok
kanan dengan menyediakan U-turn atau Rerouting.

Prinsip-prinsip desain simpang


secara umum di Indonesia
Jari-jari tikungan berkisar antara 6 s/d 9 meter
Hindari jari-jari terlalu kecil kendala manuver
bagi bus & truk
Fasilitas penyeberang jalan (zebra cross) 2,5
s/d 5 meter sejarak 2 meter didepan garis henti
Panjang pelebaran harus lebih besar dari
probabilitas panjang antrian terbesar

Prinsip-prinsip desain simpang


secara umum di Indonesia
Jalur khusus bus berakhir pada awal panjang
antrian terbesar
Jika arus lalulintas belok kanan cukup besar,
perlu dibuatkan jalur khusus belok kanan
dilengkapi dengan rambu dan marka yang
sesuai