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CHAPTER ELEVEN

CONFLICT AND
NEGOTIATION

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CONFLICT-DEFINITION

Conflict refers to a process in


which one party (person or group)
perceives that its interests are
being opposed or negatively
affected by another party.

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CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

Consists of diagnostic processes,


interpersonal styles, negotiation
strategies, and other interventions
that are designed to avoid
unnecessary conflict and reduce or
resolve excessive conflict.

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VARITIES OF CONFLICT

Variety Core meaning

Goal conflict - Incompatible preferences


Cognitive conflict - Incompatible thoughts
Affective conflict - Incompatible feelings
Procedural conflict - Incompatible views on
processes

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ATTITUDES TOWARDS
CONFLICT
 Positive attitude- conflicts develop new
alternatives in decision making, better
communication, constructive organizational
change, better relationship outcomes.
 Negative attitude- conflicts divert efforts from
goal attainment depleting resources, especially
time and money.
 Balanced attitude- conflicts are sometime
desirable and at other times destructive

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EFFECTS OF VARIOUS
DIMESIONS OF CONFLICT
DimensionDifficult to Easy to resolve resolve
1. The issue itself A matter of Simply dividing
principle up something
2. Size of stakes Large Small
3. Continuity of Single long-term
interaction transaction relationship
4. Characteristics of Disorganized with Cohesive with
Participant groups weak relationship strong leadership
5. Involvement of No neutral third Trusted, neutral
third parties party available third party available

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LEVELS OF CONFLICT

 Intra personal- within an individual


 Inter personal- between individuals
 Intra group- within a group
 Inter group- between groups

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BASIC TYPES OF INTRA
PERSONAL CONFLICT

 Approach- approach conflict


 Avoidance-avoidance conflict
 Approach- avoidance conflict

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ROLE CONFLICT

 Intra sender role conflict


 Inter sender role conflict
 Inter role conflict
 Person role conflict

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INTER GROUP CONFLICT

 Vertical conflict
 Horizontal conflict
 Line and staff conflict
 Diversity based conflict

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INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT
HANDLING STYLES
 Avoiding: unassertive- uncooperative
 Forcing : assertive - uncooperative
 Accommo
-dating : unassertive- cooperative
 Collaborating: assertive - cooperative
 Compromising: intermediate- level of
assertivecooperative

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NEGOTIATION-DEFINITION

Negotiation is a process in which


two or more individuals or groups,
having both common and
conflicting goals, state and discuss
proposals for specific terms of a
possible agreement.

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ERRORS DURING
NEGOTIATION
Negotiators
 affected by form of presentation of information

 non rationally escalate commitment to a course of

action when it is no longer a reasonable alternative.


 assume one’s gain is another’s loss

 anchor on irrelevant information such as initial offer.

 relay on readily available information

 fail to focus on opponents perspective

 overconfident of attaining outcomes that favour

individuals involved.

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BARGAINING STRATEGIES

 Distributive bargaining- Fixed pie.


 Integrative bargaining- Enlarge the size
of the pie.
 Hard strategy- goal is victory, distrust
others dig to your position,
make threats, apply pressure.
 Soft strategy- goal is agreement, trust
others, change your position easily, make
offers, yield to pressure.

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LOW RISK NEGOTIATION
TECHNIQUES
1. Flattery
2. Addressing easy point first
3. Silence
4. Inflated opening position
5. Oh poor me

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HIGH RISK NEGOTIATION
TECHNIQUES

1. Unexpected temper losses


2. High balling
3. Boulwarism
4. Waiting until last moment
5. Psychological play

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PRINCIPLE NEGOTIATION
OR NEGOTIATION OF THE
MERITS APPROACH

1. People: separate people from the problem.


2. Interests: focus on interests, not positions.
3. Options: generate a variety of possibilities
before deciding what to do.
4. Criteria: insist on result based on objective
standard.

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NEGOTIATION STRATEGIES
COMPARED
Soft Hard Principled
Bargaining Bargaining Approach

 Participants Participants Problem


friends adversaries solver
 Trust distrust independent
of trust
 Offers threats explore common
interests

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THIRD PARTY NEGOTIATION

 Mediator- a neutral party who facilitates negotiated


solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and
suggestion for alternatives.
 Arbitrator- a third party to a negotiation who has the
authority to dictate a settlement.
 Conciliator- a trusted third party who provides an
informal communication link between the negotiator
and the opponent.

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CONSULTANT AS A
NEGOTIATOR
An impartial third party skilled in
conflict management, who
attempts to facilitate creative
problem solving through
communication and analysis.

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