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You are on page 1of 43

Blade Nomenclature

Differences between turbine and compressor:

Compressor

Turbine

Blade 1

Long

Last blade

Short

Work as diffuser

Work as nozzle

Direction of rotation is

opposite

to lift direction

as

Life

<3

low

Temperature is high,

sometimes

blade cooling is required

Differences between Radial and Axial Types.

Radial

(Centrifugal)

Axial

Lower efficiencies

Better efficiencies

Cheap

Expensive

Easy to manufacture

Difficult to manufacture

Most of the gas turbines employ the axial

flow turbines.

The chapter is concerned with axial flow

turbines.

The radial turbine can handle low mass

flows more efficiently than the axial flow

machines.

Elementary Theory of Axial Flow Turbine

Velocity Triangles.

The velocity triangles for one axial flow turbine stage and

the nomenclature employed are shown. The gas enters the

row of nozzle blades with a static pressure and temperature

P1, T1, and a velocity C1, is expanded to P2, T2, with an

increased velocity C2 at an angle 2.

direction 2 of the gas velocity V2 relative to the blade at

inlet.

V2 and 2 are obtained from the velocity diagram of

known C2, 2, and U.

Elementary Theory

V3 at an angle 3.

C3 and 3 can be obtained from the velocity diagram.

Single Stage Turbine

C1 is axial 1 = 0, and C1 = C1. For

similar stages (same black shapes) C1 = C3, and

1 = 3, called repeating stage.

Due to change of U with radius, velocity

triangles vary from root to tip of the blade.

Assumptions

Consider conditions at the mean diameter of the

annulus will represent the average picture of what

happen to total mass flow.

This is valid for low ratio of tip radius to root radius.

For high radii ratio, 3-D effects have to be

considered.

The change of tangential (whirl) mass is . This

amount produces useful torque.

The change in axial component produces the axial

thrust on the rotor.

Also there is an axial thrust due to P2 P3.

These forces (net thrust on turbine rotor) are

normally balanced by the thrust on the compressor rotor.

Calculation of Work

Assume Ca= constant

Ca2 Ca3

Ca

U Ca tan 2 Ca tan 2

U

tan 2 tan 2

Ca

tan 3 tan 3

(1)

Applying principle of angular momentum

Ws U (C2 C3

U (Ca) (tan 2 tan 3 )

Ws U Ca (tan 2 tan 3 )

W C p Tos

Thus:

C p 1.148, 1.333 and

Elementary theory of axial flow turbine

Tos s Toisent

To3, isent

s To1 1

T

o

1

s To1 1

Po / Po

1

3

s is the isentropic stage efficiency based on

stagnation (total) temperature.

s

To1 To3

To1 To3

s (total to static)

To1 To3

To1 T3

Defining

= blade loading coefficient (temperature drop

coefficient)

2 C p Tos

U2

Thus,

2 Ca (tan 2 tan 3 ) / U

Degree of reaction: 0 1

h2,3

h1,3

rotor

total

T2,3

T1,3

T2 T3

T1 T3

(a)

U Ca (tan 2 tan 3 )

1 2

V3 V22

2

1 2

Ca sec2 3 sec2 2

2

1

Ca2 tan 2 3 tan 2 2

2

C p (T2 T3 )

Substitute in (a):

Ca tan 2 3 tan 2 2

T2 T3

T1 T3

U Ca (tan 2 tan 3

1

2

C1

(tan 3 tan 2 )

2U

V V

2

3

2

2

C C u C C u

C u C u

2

a

w3

2

w3

2

a

w2

w2

2 3 and 3 2

= 0 : Impulse turbine

V3 V2 and 3 2

=1:

C3 C2 , 3 2

Ca

2 (tan 2 tan 1 )

(tan 3 tan 2 )

2

Adding:

From:

1

tan 3

2

1

tan 2

2

U Ca (tan 2 tan 2 )

U Ca (tan 3 tan 3 )

tan 3 tan 3

tan 2 tan 2

If , , and are assumed, blade angles can be determined.

For aircraft applications:

3 < < s, 0.8 < < 1

For industrial applications:

is less (more stages)

is less (larger engine size)

3 < 20 (to min. losses in nozzle)

Loss coefficient:

n nozzle ( stator )

YN

T2 T2

2

C2 / 2 C p

Po1 Po2

Po1 P2

which is degraded by friction.

Example (Mean diameter design)

Given:

Single-stage turbine

m = 20 kg/s

t = 0.9

To1 = 1100 K

Temperature drop, To1 To3 = 145 K

Pressure ratio, Po1 / Po3 = 1.873

Inlet pressure, Po1 = 4 bar

Assumptions:

Rotational speed fixed by compressor: N = 250 rps

Mean blade speed: 340 m/s

Nozzle loss coefficient:

T2 T2

N 2

C2 / 2 C p

Calculation:

a) degree of reaction at mean radius

b)Plot velocity diagrams

c)Blade height h, tip/root radius, rt / rr

Assume:

Ca2 Ca3 , C1 C3

1 0

The temperature drop coefficient:

2 C p Tos

U2

2.88

2

340

Assume (try):

Ca

flow coefficient

0.8

U

* To calculate degree of reaction :

Get 3:

3 = 0

tan 3 tan 3

To get use

tan 3 1.25

1 1

tan 3

2 2

0.28

be low or negative at the root.

This introduce a value for 3.

Take 3 = 10

tan 3 tan 3

tan 3 1.426

1 1

2 2

0.421 (Acceptable)

tan 3

Thus 3 = 10, 3 = tan-1 1.426 = 54.96

0.374

2

0.421

1

tan 2

2

2.88

0.8

2 20.49

tan 2 tan 2

1.624

2 58.38

With knowledge of

3 , 3 , 2 , 2 , U

* Determine blade height h and tip/root radius ratio,

rt / rr

Assumption:

C1 :axial Ca1

Ca2 U 340 0.8 272 m/s

C2 cos 2 Ca2 C2 519 m/s

To2 To1 1100 K

C22

To2 T2

T2 5.9 K

2Cp

C22

T2 T2 N

0.05 117.3 5.9 K

2Cp

T2 976.8 K

/ 1

To1

Po2 T2

Po1

Po1 4

P2 2.49 bar

For the nozzle:

To1

T1

T1 C 2 /(2 C p )

T1

1

2

M 1

1

2

4

1 1

Pc

2.16

Pc 2

1.853

Po1

P2

2

2 0.833kg / m3

RT2

m

A2

, or , m 2Ca A2 , A2 0.0833m 2

2 Ca

m

throat area of nozzles; A 2 N

2 C2

or , m 2C2 A2 N A2 N 0.0437m 2 , also A 2 cos 2 A2 N

Calculate areas at section (1) inlet nozzle and (3) exit rotor.

Ca1 C1 , but C1 C3 and C3

C12

T1 To1

T1 1067 K

2c p

T1 1

P1

P1 3.54bar

Po1

To1

P1

1

1 1.155kg / m3

RT1

m 1Ca1 A1 A1 0.626m 2

Ca3

cos 3

, Ca1 276.4m / s

Similarly at outlet of stage ( rotor)

To3 To1 To5 1100 145 955 K , given

C3 2

T3 To3

T3 922 K

2c p

T3 1

P3

P3 1.856bar

Po3

To3

P3

3

5 0.702kg / m 3

RT5

3 P3 / RT5 5 0.702kg / m 2

m 3Ca3 A3 A3 0.1047 m 2

Blade height and annulus radius ratio

Mean radius

340

um 2 Nrm rm

0.216m

2 (250)

also for known (A); A 2 rm h

h

A

2 rm

h

h

then rt rm , rr rm

2

2

Location

A1 m 2

h1 m

rt / rr

0.0626

0.0833

0.1047

0.04

0.0612

0.077

1.24

1.33

1.43

Blade with width W

Normally taken as W=h/3

Spacing s between axial blades

space s

0.25, should not be less than 0.2 W

width w

rt

*

should be 1.2 1.4

rr

unsatisfactory values such as 0.43 can be reduced by

changing axial velocity through .

increasing Ca will reduce rt check has to be made for mach number M v .

Vortex Theory

The blade speed ( u=r) changes from root to tip, thus

velocity triangles must vary from root to tip.

Free Vortex design

axial velocity is constant over the annulus.

Whirl velocity is inversely proportional to annulus.

C a3 cons tan t , C3 r const,

Along the radius.

For variable density,

m is given by

m 2 (2rr )C a

rt

m 2C a2

2 rdr

rr

C r cons tan t r C

2

but Ca 2 is cosntant,

a2

tan 2

thus 2 changes as

rm

tan 2 tan 2 m

r 2

similarly

rm

tan 3 tan 3m

r 3

(a)

(b)

u

u Ca2 tan 2 Ca2 tan 2 , thus, tan 2 tan 2

Ca2

r um

rm

tan 2 m

r 2

rm Ca2

(c)

r u

rm

thus tan3 tan 3m

(d)

r 3

rm 3 Ca3

Ex: Free vortex

Results from mean diameter calculations

3 m 54.96, h2 0.0612, rm 0.216,

h3 0.077, rr rm

h

2

rm

rm

rm

rm

1.164, ( ) 2 0.877, 1.217, 0.849

rt

rr 3

rt 2

rt 3

u

1 u

also m m 1.25, Results are

Ca 2 Ca3

Tip

54.93

8.52

58.33

Root

62.15

39.32

12.12

51.13

mean

58.38

20.49

10

54.96

U

tan 2 tan 2 tan 3 tan 3

Ca

c p Tos m

c p (To1 To3 ) m

UCa (tan 2 tan 3 ) m

UCa (tan 2 tan 3 )

Wm

UCa (tan 2 tan 1) m

UCa (tan 2 tan 1)

m

To' 3

p

Tos To1 To3 sTo1(1

) sTo1(1 ( o3 ) /( 1) )

To1

po1

T T

where s o1 o3

To1 To' 3

Known Information

To 1 = 1100

P ratio =

DelTs

[K]

1.873

145

Etta turbine

0.9

Assumptions

U = 340

N rps

=

3

[m/s]

250

0.8

=

10

Loss nozzle

0.05

cp =

1148

DelTs

1.333

To 1 To 3

Po 3

C2 cos (

Ca

U

Gamr =

Epsi

0.287

Po 1

P ratio =

Ca =

R =

1

2 cp

DelTs

U

Epsi =

Reaction

( tan (

( tan (

) + tan (

) tan (

U =

Ca ( tan (

) tan (

))

U =

Ca ( tan (

) tan (

))

))

))

Calculate A2

Loss nozzle

T2 T2dash

C2

2 cp

To 2 =

To 1

C2

To 2 T2 =

Po 1

Po 1

Pth =

Rho2 =

A2

Gamr

T2dash

+ 1

Pc

2 cp

To 1

P2

Gamr

2

P2

Pth

R T2

m

Rho2 Ca

A2 cos (

) =

A2N

Calculate A3

Calculate A1

To 1 T1 =

Po 1

To 1

P1

A1

To 3 T3 =

2 cp

Gamr

T1

P1

Rho1 =

C1 =

C1

Po 3

To 3

P3

C3 =

m

Rho1 Ca

A3

Gamr

P3

Rho3 =

2 cp

T3

R T3

R T1

Ca

C3

Ca

m

Rho3 Ca

Blade height at section 2

Blade height

U =

A2 =

r t2 =

rm +

r r2 =

rm

N rps r m

r m h2

A1 =

r t1 =

r r1 =

rratio 1

r m h1

rm +

rm

rratio 2 =

h1

2

h1

2

2

h2

2

r t2

r r2

A3 =

r m h3

r t3 =

rm +

r r3 =

rm

r t1

r r1

h2

rratio 3 =

r t3

r r3

h3

2

h3

2

A1 = 0.06345

3 = 10

C3 = 272

Ettaturbine = 0.9

A2 = 0.08336

2 = 20.49

Ca = 272

= 1.333

A2N = 0.04372

3 = 54.97

A3 = 0.1046

2 = 58.37

C1 = 272

C2 = 518.7

cp = 1148 [J/kgK]

DelTs = 145

Epsi = 2.88

Gamr = 4.003

h1 = 0.04666

h2 = 0.06129

P1 = 355.1

h3 = 0.07692

m = 20 [kg/s]

P2 = 248.8

P3 = 186.1

Pc = 215.9

Po3 = 213.6

Pth = 248.8

Pratio = 1.873

R = 0.287 [kJ/kgK]

Reaction = 0.4211

Rho1 = 1.159

Rho2 = 0.8821

Rho3 = 0.7029

rratio1 = 1.242

rratio2 = 1.33

rratio3 = 1.432

rm = 0.2165

rr1 = 0.1931

rr2 = 0.1858

rr3 = 0.178

rt1 = 0.2398

rt2 = 0.2471

rt3 = 0.2549

T1 = 1068

T2 = 982.8

T2dash = 977

T3 = 922.8

To3 = 955

U = 340 [m/s]

= 0.8

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