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Blade Nomenclature

Blade Nomenclature

Axial and Radial Flow Turbines


Differences between turbine and compressor:
Compressor

Turbine
Blade 1

Long

Last blade

Short

Work as diffuser

Work as nozzle

Direction of rotation is
opposite
to lift direction

Direction of rotation is same


as
Life

Number of stages are many

Number of stages is small


<3

Temperatures are relative


low

Temperature is high,
sometimes
blade cooling is required

Axial and Radial Flow Turbines


Differences between Radial and Axial Types.
Radial
(Centrifugal)

Axial

Used for small engines

Used for large engines

Small mass flow rates

Large mass flow rates

Lower efficiencies

Better efficiencies

Cheap

Expensive

Easy to manufacture

Difficult to manufacture

Axial Flow Turbines


Most of the gas turbines employ the axial
flow turbines.
The chapter is concerned with axial flow
turbines.
The radial turbine can handle low mass
flows more efficiently than the axial flow
machines.

Axial Flow Turbine


Elementary Theory of Axial Flow Turbine
Velocity Triangles.

The velocity triangles for one axial flow turbine stage and
the nomenclature employed are shown. The gas enters the
row of nozzle blades with a static pressure and temperature
P1, T1, and a velocity C1, is expanded to P2, T2, with an
increased velocity C2 at an angle 2.

The rotor blade angle will be chosen to suit the


direction 2 of the gas velocity V2 relative to the blade at
inlet.
V2 and 2 are obtained from the velocity diagram of
known C2, 2, and U.

Axial Flow Turbine

Elementary Theory

The gas leaves the rotor at 3, T3, with relative velocity


V3 at an angle 3.
C3 and 3 can be obtained from the velocity diagram.

Axial Flow Turbine


Single Stage Turbine
C1 is axial 1 = 0, and C1 = C1. For
similar stages (same black shapes) C1 = C3, and
1 = 3, called repeating stage.
Due to change of U with radius, velocity
triangles vary from root to tip of the blade.

Axial Flow Turbine


Assumptions
Consider conditions at the mean diameter of the
annulus will represent the average picture of what
happen to total mass flow.
This is valid for low ratio of tip radius to root radius.
For high radii ratio, 3-D effects have to be
considered.
The change of tangential (whirl) mass is . This
amount produces useful torque.
The change in axial component produces the axial
thrust on the rotor.
Also there is an axial thrust due to P2 P3.
These forces (net thrust on turbine rotor) are
normally balanced by the thrust on the compressor rotor.

Axial Flow Turbine

Axial Flow Turbine


Calculation of Work
Assume Ca= constant

Ca2 Ca3
Ca
U Ca tan 2 Ca tan 2
U

tan 2 tan 2
Ca

tan 3 tan 3

tan 2 tan e tan 2 tan 3


(1)

Axial Flow Turbine


Applying principle of angular momentum
Ws U (C2 C3
U (Ca) (tan 2 tan 3 )

From Equation (1)

Ws U Ca (tan 2 tan 3 )

W C p Tos

Steady-state energy equation:


Thus:

Tos U Ca (tan 2 tan 3 ) / C p


C p 1.148, 1.333 and

Axial Flow Turbine


Elementary theory of axial flow turbine

Tos s Toisent

s To1 To3, isent

To3, isent

s To1 1

T
o
1

s To1 1
Po / Po

1
3

Axial Flow Turbine


s is the isentropic stage efficiency based on
stagnation (total) temperature.
s

To1 To3
To1 To3

s (total to static)

To1 To3
To1 T3

(used for land-based gas turbines).

Defining
= blade loading coefficient (temperature drop
coefficient)

2 C p Tos
U2

Axial Flow Turbine


Thus,
2 Ca (tan 2 tan 3 ) / U
Degree of reaction: 0 1

h2,3

h1,3

rotor
total

T2,3
T1,3

T2 T3
T1 T3

(a)

For, Ca = const. and C3 = C1

C p (T1 T3 ) C p To1 To3

U Ca (tan 2 tan 3 )

and relative to rotor blades no work, thus

Axial Flow Turbine


1 2
V3 V22

2
1 2
Ca sec2 3 sec2 2
2
1
Ca2 tan 2 3 tan 2 2
2

C p (T2 T3 )

Substitute in (a):

Ca tan 2 3 tan 2 2

T2 T3

T1 T3
U Ca (tan 2 tan 3
1
2

C1

(tan 3 tan 2 )
2U

V V
2
3

2
2

Axial Flow Turbine


C C u C C u


C u C u
2
a

w3
2

w3

2
a

w2

w2

Ca2 tan 2 3 Ca2 tan 2 2

= 0.5 Symm. velocity triangles

2 3 and 3 2

= 0 : Impulse turbine

V3 V2 and 3 2

=1:

C3 C2 , 3 2

Defining flow coefficient:

Ca

Axial Flow Turbine


2 (tan 2 tan 1 )

(tan 3 tan 2 )
2

Adding:

From:

1
tan 3
2

1
tan 2
2
U Ca (tan 2 tan 2 )
U Ca (tan 3 tan 3 )
tan 3 tan 3
tan 2 tan 2

Axial Flow Turbine


If , , and are assumed, blade angles can be determined.
For aircraft applications:
3 < < s, 0.8 < < 1
For industrial applications:
is less (more stages)
is less (larger engine size)
3 < 20 (to min. losses in nozzle)

Loss coefficient:

n nozzle ( stator )
YN

T2 T2
2
C2 / 2 C p

Po1 Po2
Po1 P2

and Y: The proportion of the leaving energy


which is degraded by friction.

Axial Flow Turbine


Example (Mean diameter design)
Given:
Single-stage turbine
m = 20 kg/s

t = 0.9
To1 = 1100 K
Temperature drop, To1 To3 = 145 K
Pressure ratio, Po1 / Po3 = 1.873
Inlet pressure, Po1 = 4 bar

Assumptions:
Rotational speed fixed by compressor: N = 250 rps
Mean blade speed: 340 m/s
Nozzle loss coefficient:
T2 T2
N 2
C2 / 2 C p

Axial Flow Turbine


Calculation:
a) degree of reaction at mean radius
b)Plot velocity diagrams
c)Blade height h, tip/root radius, rt / rr

Assume:

Ca2 Ca3 , C1 C3

1 0
The temperature drop coefficient:

2 C p Tos
U2

2 1.148 145 103

2.88
2
340

Assume (try):

Ca
flow coefficient
0.8
U

Axial Flow Turbine


* To calculate degree of reaction :

Get 3:
3 = 0

tan 3 tan 3

To get use

tan 3 1.25
1 1

tan 3

2 2

0.28

This is low as a mean radius value because will


be low or negative at the root.
This introduce a value for 3.
Take 3 = 10

Axial Flow Turbine


tan 3 tan 3

tan 3 1.426

1 1

2 2

0.421 (Acceptable)

tan 3

Reaction at root should be checked.


Thus 3 = 10, 3 = tan-1 1.426 = 54.96

0.374
2

0.421

1
tan 2
2

2.88
0.8
2 20.49

Axial Flow Turbine


tan 2 tan 2

1.624

2 58.38
With knowledge of

3 , 3 , 2 , 2 , U

plot velocity diagrams.


* Determine blade height h and tip/root radius ratio,

rt / rr

Assumption:

C1 :axial Ca1

Calculation of area at Section 2 (exit of nozzle)

Axial Flow Turbine


Ca2 U 340 0.8 272 m/s
C2 cos 2 Ca2 C2 519 m/s
To2 To1 1100 K
C22
To2 T2
T2 5.9 K
2Cp
C22
T2 T2 N
0.05 117.3 5.9 K
2Cp
T2 976.8 K
/ 1

To1

Po2 T2
Po1

Po1 4

P2 2.49 bar

Axial Flow Turbine


For the nozzle:
To1
T1

T1 C 2 /(2 C p )
T1

1
2

M 1

1
2

4
1 1

Pc
2.16

Pc 2
1.853

Po1

P2 > Pc, the nozzle is not choked. Thus, Pthroat P2 2.49


P2
2
2 0.833kg / m3
RT2
m
A2
, or , m 2Ca A2 , A2 0.0833m 2
2 Ca
m
throat area of nozzles; A 2 N
2 C2
or , m 2C2 A2 N A2 N 0.0437m 2 , also A 2 cos 2 A2 N

Axial Flow Turbine


Calculate areas at section (1) inlet nozzle and (3) exit rotor.
Ca1 C1 , but C1 C3 and C3
C12
T1 To1
T1 1067 K
2c p

T1 1
P1

P1 3.54bar

Po1
To1
P1
1
1 1.155kg / m3
RT1
m 1Ca1 A1 A1 0.626m 2

Ca3

cos 3

, Ca1 276.4m / s

Axial Flow Turbine


Similarly at outlet of stage ( rotor)
To3 To1 To5 1100 145 955 K , given
C3 2
T3 To3
T3 922 K
2c p

T3 1
P3

P3 1.856bar

Po3
To3
P3
3
5 0.702kg / m 3
RT5

3 P3 / RT5 5 0.702kg / m 2
m 3Ca3 A3 A3 0.1047 m 2
Blade height and annulus radius ratio

Axial Flow Turbine


Mean radius
340
um 2 Nrm rm
0.216m
2 (250)
also for known (A); A 2 rm h
h

A
2 rm

h
h
then rt rm , rr rm
2
2

using areas at stations 1,2,3 thus


Location

A1 m 2
h1 m
rt / rr

0.0626

0.0833

0.1047

0.04

0.0612

0.077

1.24

1.33

1.43

Axial Flow Turbine


Blade with width W
Normally taken as W=h/3
Spacing s between axial blades

space s
0.25, should not be less than 0.2 W
width w
rt
*
should be 1.2 1.4
rr
unsatisfactory values such as 0.43 can be reduced by
changing axial velocity through .
increasing Ca will reduce rt check has to be made for mach number M v .

Axial Flow Turbine


Vortex Theory
The blade speed ( u=r) changes from root to tip, thus
velocity triangles must vary from root to tip.
Free Vortex design
axial velocity is constant over the annulus.
Whirl velocity is inversely proportional to annulus.

C a2 cons tan t , C 2 r cons tan t


C a3 cons tan t , C3 r const,
Along the radius.

Ws u C2 C3 (C2 r C3 r ) cons tan t

Axial Flow Turbine


For variable density,

m is given by

m 2 (2rr )C a
rt

m 2C a2

2 rdr

rr

C r cons tan t r C
2

but Ca 2 is cosntant,

a2

tan 2

thus 2 changes as

rm
tan 2 tan 2 m
r 2
similarly
rm
tan 3 tan 3m
r 3

(a)

(b)

Axial Flow Turbine


u
u Ca2 tan 2 Ca2 tan 2 , thus, tan 2 tan 2
Ca2
r um
rm
tan 2 m
r 2
rm Ca2

(c)

for exit of rotor u Cas tan 3 Ca3 tan 3


r u
rm
thus tan3 tan 3m
(d)
r 3
rm 3 Ca3
Ex: Free vortex
Results from mean diameter calculations

2 m 58.38, 2m 20.49, 3 m 10o ,


3 m 54.96, h2 0.0612, rm 0.216,
h3 0.077, rr rm

h
2

Axial Flow Turbine

rm
rm
rm
rm
1.164, ( ) 2 0.877, 1.217, 0.849
rt
rr 3
rt 2
rt 3
u
1 u
also m m 1.25, Results are
Ca 2 Ca3

Tip

54.93

8.52

58.33

Root

62.15

39.32

12.12

51.13

mean

58.38

20.49

10

54.96

Axial Flow Turbine


U
tan 2 tan 2 tan 3 tan 3
Ca
c p Tos m
c p (To1 To3 ) m
UCa (tan 2 tan 3 ) m
UCa (tan 2 tan 3 )
Wm
UCa (tan 2 tan 1) m
UCa (tan 2 tan 1)
m
To' 3
p
Tos To1 To3 sTo1(1
) sTo1(1 ( o3 ) /( 1) )
To1
po1
T T
where s o1 o3
To1 To' 3

EES Design Calculations of Axial Flow Turbine


Known Information
To 1 = 1100
P ratio =
DelTs

[K]

1.873

145

Etta turbine

0.9

Assumptions
U = 340
N rps

=
3

[m/s]

250

0.8
=

10

Loss nozzle

0.05

EES Design Calculations of Axial Flow Turbine


cp =

1148

DelTs

1.333

To 1 To 3

Po 3
C2 cos (

Ca
U

Gamr =

Epsi

0.287

Po 1

P ratio =
Ca =

R =

1
2 cp

DelTs
U

Epsi =

Reaction

( tan (

( tan (

) + tan (

) tan (

U =

Ca ( tan (

) tan (

))

U =

Ca ( tan (

) tan (

))

))

))

EES Design Calculations of Axial Flow Turbine


Calculate A2
Loss nozzle

T2 T2dash

C2

2 cp
To 2 =

To 1
C2

To 2 T2 =
Po 1

Po 1

Pth =
Rho2 =

A2

Gamr

T2dash
+ 1

Pc

2 cp
To 1

P2

Gamr

2
P2
Pth
R T2
m
Rho2 Ca

A2 cos (

) =

A2N

EES Design Calculations of Axial Flow Turbine


Calculate A3
Calculate A1
To 1 T1 =
Po 1

To 1

P1

A1

To 3 T3 =

2 cp
Gamr

T1
P1

Rho1 =
C1 =

C1

Po 3

To 3

P3

C3 =
m

Rho1 Ca

A3

Gamr

P3

Rho3 =

2 cp

T3

R T3

R T1
Ca

C3

Ca
m
Rho3 Ca

EES Design Calculations of Axial Flow Turbine


Blade height at section 2

Blade height
U =

A2 =

r t2 =

rm +

r r2 =

rm

N rps r m

r m h2

Blade height at section 1


A1 =
r t1 =

r r1 =

rratio 1

r m h1

rm +

rm

rratio 2 =

h1
2
h1
2

2
h2
2

r t2
r r2

Blade height at section 3


A3 =

r m h3

r t3 =

rm +

r r3 =

rm

r t1
r r1

h2

rratio 3 =

r t3
r r3

h3
2
h3
2

EES Design Calculations of Axial Flow Turbine

A1 = 0.06345
3 = 10

C3 = 272
Ettaturbine = 0.9

A2 = 0.08336
2 = 20.49

Ca = 272
= 1.333

A2N = 0.04372
3 = 54.97

A3 = 0.1046

2 = 58.37

C1 = 272

C2 = 518.7

cp = 1148 [J/kgK]

DelTs = 145

Epsi = 2.88

Gamr = 4.003

h1 = 0.04666

h2 = 0.06129

Nrps = 250 [rev per sec]

P1 = 355.1

h3 = 0.07692

Loss nozzle = 0.05

m = 20 [kg/s]

P2 = 248.8

P3 = 186.1

Pc = 215.9

Po3 = 213.6

Pth = 248.8

Pratio = 1.873

R = 0.287 [kJ/kgK]

Reaction = 0.4211

Rho1 = 1.159

Rho2 = 0.8821

Rho3 = 0.7029

rratio1 = 1.242

rratio2 = 1.33

rratio3 = 1.432

rm = 0.2165

rr1 = 0.1931

rr2 = 0.1858

rr3 = 0.178

rt1 = 0.2398

rt2 = 0.2471

rt3 = 0.2549

T1 = 1068

T2 = 982.8

T2dash = 977

T3 = 922.8

To1 = 1100 [K]

To2 = 1100 [K]

To3 = 955

U = 340 [m/s]

= 0.8

Po1 = 400 [kPa]

Axial Flow Turbine

Axial Flow Turbine