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2

Restricting and Sorting Data


Objectives

After
After completing
completing thisthis lesson,
lesson, you
you should
should
be
be able
able to
to do
do the
the following:
following:
•• Limit
Limit the
the rows
rows retrieved
retrieved by
by aa query
query
•• Sort
Sort the
the rows
rows retrieved
retrieved by
by aa query
query

2-2
Limiting Rows Using a Selection
EMP
EMPNO ENAME JOB ... DEPTNO
"…retrieve all
7839 KING PRESIDENT 10 employees
7698 BLAKE MANAGER 30 in department 10"
7782 CLARK MANAGER 10
7566 JONES MANAGER 20
...

EMP
EMPNO ENAME JOB ... DEPTNO

7839 KING PRESIDENT 10


7782 CLARK MANAGER 10
7934 MILLER CLERK 10

2-3
Limiting Rows Selected
•• Restrict
Restrict the
the rows
rows returned
returned by
by using
using the
the
WHERE
WHERE clause.
clause.

SELECT [DISTINCT] {*| column [alias], ...}


FROM table
[WHERE condition(s)];

•• The
The WHERE
WHERE clause
clause follows
follows the
the FROM
FROM
clause.
clause.

2-4
Using the WHERE Clause

SQL> SELECT ename, job, deptno


2 FROM emp
3 WHERE job='CLERK';

ENAME JOB DEPTNO


---------- --------- ---------
JAMES CLERK 30
SMITH CLERK 20
ADAMS CLERK 20
MILLER CLERK 10

2-5
Character Strings and Dates
•• Character
Character strings
strings and
and date
date values
values are
are
enclosed
enclosed in
in single
single quotation
quotation marks.
marks.
•• Character
Character values
values are
are case
case sensitive
sensitive and
and
date
date values
values are
are format
format sensitive.
sensitive.
•• The
The default
default date
date format
format is
is DD-MON-YY.
DD-MON-YY.

SQL>
SQL> SELECT
SELECT ename,
ename, job,
job, deptno
deptno
22 FROM
FROM emp
emp
33 WHERE
WHERE ename
ename == 'JAMES';
'JAMES';

2-6
Comparison Operators

Operator Meaning

= Equal to

> Greater than

>= Greater than or equal to

< Less than

<= Less than or equal to

<> Not equal to

2-7
Using the Comparison
Operators

SQL> SELECT ename, sal, comm


2 FROM emp
3 WHERE sal<=comm;

ENAME SAL COMM


---------- --------- ---------
MARTIN 1250 1400

2-8
Other Comparison Operators

Operator Meaning

BETWEEN Between two values (inclusive)


...AND...

IN(list) Match any of a list of values

LIKE Match a character pattern

IS NULL Is a null value

2-9
Using the BETWEEN Operator
Use
Use the
the BETWEEN
BETWEEN operator
operator to
to display
display
rows
rows based
based on
on aa range
range of
of values.
values.
SQL> SELECT ename, sal
2 FROM emp
3 WHERE sal BETWEEN 1000 AND 1500;

ENAME SAL
---------- --------- Lower Higher
MARTIN 1250 limit limit
TURNER 1500
WARD 1250
ADAMS 1100
MILLER 1300

2-10
Using the IN Operator
Use
Use the
the IN
IN operator
operator to
to test
test for
for values
values in
in aa
list.
list.

SQL> SELECT empno, ename, sal, mgr


2 FROM emp
3 WHERE mgr IN (7902, 7566, 7788);

EMPNO ENAME SAL MGR


--------- ---------- --------- ---------
7902 FORD 3000 7566
7369 SMITH 800 7902
7788 SCOTT 3000 7566
7876 ADAMS 1100 7788

2-11
Using the LIKE Operator
•• Use
Use the
the LIKE
LIKE operator
operator to
to perform
perform
wildcard
wildcard searches
searches of
of valid
valid search
search string
string
values.
values.
•• Search
Search conditions
conditions can
can contain
contain either
either
literal
literal characters
characters or
or numbers.
numbers.
–– %
% denotes
denotes zero
zero or
or many
many characters.
characters.
–– __ denotes
denotes one
one character.
character.
SQL> SELECT ename
2 FROM emp
3 WHERE ename LIKE 'S%';

2-12
Using the LIKE Operator

•• You
You can
can combine
combine pattern-matching
pattern-matching
characters.
characters.
SQL> SELECT ename
2 FROM emp
3 WHERE ename LIKE '_A%';

ENAME
----------
MARTIN
JAMES
WARD
•• You
You can
can use
use the
the ESCAPE
ESCAPE identifier
identifier to
to
search
search for
for "%"
"%" or
or "_".
"_".
2-13
Using the IS NULL Operator

Test
Test for
for null
null values
values with
with the
the IS
IS NULL
NULL
operator.
operator.

SQL> SELECT ename, mgr


2 FROM emp
3 WHERE mgr IS NULL;

ENAME MGR
---------- ---------
KING

2-14
Logical Operators

Operator Meaning

AND Returns TRUE if both component


conditions are TRUE
OR Returns TRUE if either component
condition is TRUE

NOT Returns TRUE if the following


condition is FALSE

2-15
Using the AND Operator
AND requires both conditions to be TRUE.

SQL> SELECT empno, ename, job, sal


2 FROM emp
3 WHERE sal>=1100
4 AND job='CLERK';

EMPNO ENAME JOB SAL


--------- ---------- --------- ---------
7876 ADAMS CLERK 1100
7934 MILLER CLERK 1300

2-16
Using the OR Operator
OR
OR requires
requires either
either condition
condition to
to be
be TRUE.
TRUE.
SQL> SELECT empno, ename, job, sal
2 FROM emp
3 WHERE sal>=1100
4 OR job='CLERK';

EMPNO ENAME JOB SAL


--------- ---------- --------- ---------
7839 KING PRESIDENT 5000
7698 BLAKE MANAGER 2850
7782 CLARK MANAGER 2450
7566 JONES MANAGER 2975
7654 MARTIN SALESMAN 1250
...
7900 JAMES CLERK 950
...
14 rows selected.
2-17
Using the NOT Operator

SQL> SELECT ename, job


2 FROM emp
3 WHERE job NOT IN ('CLERK','MANAGER','ANALYST');

ENAME JOB
---------- ---------
KING PRESIDENT
MARTIN SALESMAN
ALLEN SALESMAN
TURNER SALESMAN
WARD SALESMAN

2-18
Rules of Precedence

Order Evaluated Operator


1 All comparison
operators
2 NOT
3 AND
4 OR

Override
Override rules
rules of
of precedence
precedence by
by using
using
parentheses.
parentheses.

2-19
Rules of Precedence
SQL> SELECT ename, job, sal
2 FROM emp
3 WHERE job='SALESMAN'
4 OR job='PRESIDENT'
5 AND sal>1500;

ENAME
ENAME JOB
JOB SAL
SAL
----------
---------- ---------
--------- ---------
---------
KING
KING PRESIDENT
PRESIDENT 5000
5000
MARTIN
MARTIN SALESMAN
SALESMAN 1250
1250
ALLEN
ALLEN SALESMAN
SALESMAN 1600
1600
TURNER
TURNER SALESMAN
SALESMAN 1500
1500
WARD
WARD SALESMAN
SALESMAN 1250
1250

2-20
Rules of Precedence
Use
Use parentheses
parentheses to
to force
force priority.
priority.
SQL> SELECT ename, job, sal
2 FROM emp
3 WHERE (job='SALESMAN'
4 OR job='PRESIDENT')
5 AND sal>1500;

ENAME
ENAME JOB
JOB SAL
SAL
----------
---------- ---------
--------- ---------
---------
KING
KING PRESIDENT
PRESIDENT 5000
5000
ALLEN
ALLEN SALESMAN
SALESMAN 1600
1600

2-21
ORDER BY Clause
•• Sort
Sort rows
rows with
with the
the ORDER
ORDER BYBY clause
clause
–– ASC:
ASC: ascending
ascending order,
order, default
default
–– DESC:
DESC: descending
descending order
order
•• The
The ORDER
ORDER BY BY clause
clause comes
comes last
last in
in the
the
SELECT
SELECT statement.
statement.
SQL> SELECT ename, job, deptno, hiredate
2 FROM emp
3 ORDER BY hiredate;

ENAME JOB DEPTNO HIREDATE


---------- --------- --------- ---------
SMITH CLERK 20 17-DEC-80
ALLEN SALESMAN 30 20-FEB-81
...
14 rows selected.
2-22
Sorting in Descending Order
SQL> SELECT ename, job, deptno, hiredate
2 FROM emp
3 ORDER BY hiredate DESC;

ENAME JOB DEPTNO HIREDATE


---------- --------- --------- ---------
ADAMS CLERK 20 12-JAN-83
SCOTT ANALYST 20 09-DEC-82
MILLER CLERK 10 23-JAN-82
JAMES CLERK 30 03-DEC-81
FORD ANALYST 20 03-DEC-81
KING PRESIDENT 10 17-NOV-81
MARTIN SALESMAN 30 28-SEP-81
...
14 rows selected.

2-23
Sorting by Column Alias
SQL> SELECT empno, ename, sal*12 annsal
2 FROM emp
3 ORDER BY annsal;

EMPNO ENAME ANNSAL


--------- ---------- ---------
7369 SMITH 9600
7900 JAMES 11400
7876 ADAMS 13200
7654 MARTIN 15000
7521 WARD 15000
7934 MILLER 15600
7844 TURNER 18000
...
14 rows selected.

2-24
Sorting by Multiple Columns
•• The
The order
order of
of ORDER
ORDER BY
BY list
list is
is the
the order
order of
of
sort.
sort.
SQL> SELECT ename, deptno, sal
2 FROM emp
3 ORDER BY deptno, sal DESC;

ENAME DEPTNO SAL


---------- --------- ---------
KING 10 5000
CLARK 10 2450
MILLER 10 1300
FORD 20 3000
...
14 rows selected.

•• You
You can
can sort
sort by
by aa column
column that
that is
is not
not in
in the
the
SELECT
SELECT list.
list.
2-25
Summary

SELECT [DISTINCT] {*| column [alias], ...}


FROM table
[WHERE condition(s)]
[ORDER BY {column, expr, alias} [ASC|DESC]];

2-26
Practice Overview
Selecting
Selectingdata
dataand
andchanging
changingthe
theorder
orderof
ofrows
rowsdisplayed
displayed
• •Restricting rows by using the WHERE clause
Restricting rows by using the WHERE clause
• •Using
Usingthe
thedouble
doublequotation
quotationmarks
marksinincolumn
columnaliases
aliases
••

2-27