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Evaluating an employees current and/or past

performance relative to his or her performance


standard.

Making sure that you and your subordinate agree on


his or her duties and job standard and the appraisal
method will use.

Performance Appraisal Process


Setting Work Standard
Assessing Actual Employees Actual
Prformance Relative to Thoes Standard

Providing Feedback

Most employee still


base pay, promotion
retention decision on
the employees apprisal

Play a central role in


the employers
performance
management process

Facilitate career
planning

Develope plan

Identify employees
training dan
development

The Importance of Continuous Feedback


Its usually mistake to wait until the actual apprisal to let
employees know what they are doing wrong and doing
right.

Performance Management
The continuous process of identifying, measuring, and developing the
performance of individuals and teams aligning their performance with the
organization goals.

Defining The Employees Goals and


Performance Standard
Spesific
Measurable

Assign SMART Goal

Attainable
Relevant
Timely

1. Assign Spesific Goals

2. Assign Measurable Goals


3. Assigng Challenging but Double Goals
4. Encourage Participation

Based on skills matrix, the matrix shows:

The basic skill required to do that job


The minimum level of each skill that job required

What to appraise and how to appraise


will obvious from the job description.

Peer
Apprisal

Rating
Commitees

Apprisal by
Subordinates

Self-Ratings

360-Degree
Feedback

Anchor the 360-degree rating dimensions with spesific


behavioral examples
Carefully train the people who are giving and receive the
feedback
Make sure that the feedback the person receive is productive,
unbiased, and development oriented
Reduce administrative cost

What performance dimensions to measure?


Quality and Timeliness
Objectives Achievement
Work Output ( Quality and Quantity )
How to measure it ?
Use one and more of various tools and methods

Alternation
ranking

Behaviorally
anchored rating
scales (BARS)

Graphic rating
scale

Forced
distribution

Paired
comparison

Narrative forms

Critical incident

Management by
objectives
(MBO)

Merged methods

Computerized
and Web-based
performance
appraisal

Lists traits (such as quality and reliability or


teamwork) and a range of performance values (from
unsatisfactory to outstanding, or below
expectations to role model) for each trait. A Graphic
rating scales is the simplest and most popular method in
appraising performance

This form assesses the jobs main sets of job-specific duties, one of which is

Maintain adequate inventory of pizza dough. Here you would assess how well the
employee did in exercising each of these duties.

This form assesses the employees performance relating to both competencies and objectives. The employee and
supervisor would fill in the objectives section at the start of the year, and then assess results and set new ones as
part of the next appraisal.

The alternation ranking method

would use a form to alternately choose and


list employees who are the highest on the
characteristic being measured and the ones
who are the lowest.

helps make the ranking method more precise. For


every trait (quantity of work, quality of work, and
so on), you pair and compare every subordinate
with every other subordinate.

Similar to Grading on a curve, predetermined


percentages of rates are placed in various
performance categories

The supervisor keeps a log of positive and negative


examples (critical incidents) of a subordinates
work-related behavior. Every 6 months or so,
supervisor and subordinate meet to discuss the
latters performance, using the incidents as
examples.

Continuing Duties

Targets

Critical Incidents

Schedule production
for plant

90% utilization of personnel and


machinery in plant; orders
delivered on time

Instituted new production scheduling


system; decreased late orders by 10% last
month; increased machine utilization in
plant by 20% last month

Supervise procurement of
raw materials and on
inventory control

Minimize inventory costs while


keeping adequate supplies on
hand

Let inventory storage costs rise 15% last


month; over-ordered parts A and B by
20%; under-ordered part C by 30%

Supervise machinery
maintenance

No shutdowns due
to faulty machinery

Instituted new preventative maintenance


system for plant; prevented a machine
breakdown by discovering faulty part

All or part of the written appraisal may be in


narrative form .The supervisors narrative
assessment aids the employee in understanding
where his or her performance was good or bad,
and how to improve that performance.

An appraisal tool that anchors a numerical rating scale with


specific examples of good or poor performance. Its proponents
say it provides better, more equitable appraisals than do the
other appraisal tools. It takes more time to develop a BARS, but
the tool has several advantages.

1. Write Critical Incidents

2.
3.
4.
5.

Specific illustration of effective and ineffective performance on the job


Develop Performance dimensions
5 - 10 performance dimensions
Reallocate Incidents
Scale the incidents
Develop a final instruments

A more
accurate
gauge

Feedback

Independent
dimensions

Clearer
Standard

Consistency

MBO generally refers to a comprehensive and formal


organization wide goal setting and appraisal program.
Some employers use by Objective (MBO) as the primary
appraisal method.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Allow managers to keep notes on subordinates.

Notes can be merged with employee ratings.


Software generates written text to support appraisals.
Allows for employee self-monitoring and self-evaluation.

Use computer network technology to allow managers access to

their employees computers and telephones.


Managers can monitor the employees rate, accuracy, and time
spent working online.
EPM can improve productivity because EPM represent the future
of performance feedback where supervisor can electronically
monitor the amount and quality of work an employee is
producing and have objective indicators of employee
performance immediately available and visible

Unclear
Standards
Leniency or
Strictness

Halo Effect

Central
Tendency

Bias

Recency
Effects

Know the
performance
appraisal
problems

Use the right


appraisal tool

Keep a diary

Ensure Fairness

Get agreement
on a plan

1. The firm based the


appraisals on subjective
supervisory observations
2. It didnt administer and
score the appraisals in
standardized fashion
3. Two of the three
supervisory evaluators did
not have daily contact with
the employees

Satisfactory - Promotable

Satisfactory Not Promotable


Unsatisfactory - Correctable
Unsatisfactory Uncorrectable

Talk in terms
of objective
work data

Dont get
personal

Encourage the
person to talk

Get agreement

Recognize that
defensive behavior is
normal

Never attack a
persons defenses

Postpone action

Recognize your own


limitations

Do it in a manner

Criticize in private, and do it constructively


Give daily feedback so that the review has
no surprises
Never say the person is always wrong

Criticism should be objective and free of


biases

Purposes of a Written Warning:


1. To shake your employee out of bad habits.
2. To help you defend your rating, both to your own boss and
(if needed) to the courts
A Written Warning Should:
Identify standards by which employee is judged.
Make clear that employee was aware of the standard.
Specify deficiencies relative to the standard.
Indicate employees prior opportunity for correction

A continuous process for continuous improvement


A strong linkage of individual and team goals to
strategic goals

A constant reevaluation and modification of work


processes

Direction sharing

Ongoing performance
monitoring

Ongoing
feedback

Coaching and
development support

Goal
alignment

Rewards, recognition, and


compensation

Using Information Technology to


Support Performance Management
Assign financial and nonfinancial goals
Inform all employees of their goals
Use IT-supported tools like scorecard software
and digital

Take corrective action at once

1. Identifying the workforce profiles that the firm needs to achieve its
strategic goals
2. Consciously thinking trough all the task required for managing the
companys talent
3. Consciously using the same profile for formulating recruitment plans for
the employee as you do for making the selection, training, appraisal, and
payment decision
4. Actively managing different employees recruitment, selection,
development, and rewards
5. Integrating the underlying talent management activities.

Segmenting and Actively Managing


Employees in Practice
Performance

Exceptional

Value
To
Organization

High

Average

Low

Mission
critical
Core
Necessary
Non-essential

Provide additional rewards & experiences and


provide development opportunities to benefit
indivisual and organization
Provide training and experiences to prepare
for mission-critical roles

Divest/seek alternative sourcing

Identify a risk: Provide additional training


and performance management attention to
improve motivation and performance, and
to movce into necessary or core roles

Application Case
Appraising The Secretaries At Sweetwater U
Point of the problem:
Rob Winchester ditugaskan untuk memperbaiki appraisal system di Sweetwater U.
Hasil dari performance appraisal saat ini berpengaruh langsung dengan kenaikan gaji.
Performance appraisal saat ini menggunakan graphic rating forms.
Dalam penilaian administrator terhadap karyawannya, administrator selalu memberikan

penilaian excellent pada karyawannya. Administrator khawatir jika ia tidak memberikan


penilaian tersebut, tingkat turn over akan tinggi.
Akibatknya, seluruh karyawan mendapatkan keniakan gaji.
Namun, budget tahun ini tidak cukup untuk menaikkan gaji seluruh karyawan.

Rob meminta bantuan ahli untuk menyelesaikan permasalahan ini.


Ahli tersebut menyarankan untuk tidak menggunakan hasil dari performance
appraisal sebagai dasar kenaikan gaji.

Ahli juga menyarankan untuk mengganti sistem performance appraisal.

Questions
1. Do you think that the experts recommendations will be sufficient to get
most of the administrators to fill out the rating forms properly? Why? Why
not? What additional action (if any) do you think will be necessary?

2. Do you think that Vice President Winchester would be better off dropping
graphic ratings forms, substituting instead one of the other techniques we
discussed in this chapter, such as a ranking method? Why?

3. What performance appraisal system would you develop for the secretaries
if you were Rob Winchester? Defend your answer.

Answers
1. Benar, karena perubahan pada sistem appraisal, terutama menjadikan

appraisal bukan merupakan tolak ukur kenaikan gaji akan membuat


administrator untuk mengisi form appraisal secara lebih baik dan objektif.
Perubahan sistem appraisal menjadi lebih spesifik juga akan membantu
administrator melakukan penilaian yang lebih akurat terdapat karyawannya.
Perubahan tentu membutuhkan adaptasi, sehingga tentu harus ada training
yang membantu seluruh karyawan beradaptasi dengan sistem yang baru
sehingga sistem yang baru dapat menghasilkan penilaian yang lebih baik
lagi.

2. Menurut kami lebih baik jika terdapat pergantian terhadap sistem appraisal,
dalam hal ini yaitu pergantian graphical rating form. Jika digantikan dengan
metode ranking, menurut kami bisa saja tidak memuaskan karyawan yang dinilai
karena tentu adanya perbedaan peringkat yang nantinya menjadi sesuatu hal
yang tidak adil menurut pandangan karyawan lainnya. Apalagi kita ketahui
sebelumnya bahwa karyawan sudah terbiasa mendapat nilai excellent pada
sistem appraisal sebelum-sebelumnya. Sehingga bisa saja menimbulkan
kecemburuan yang nantinya berujung pada tingkat turnover yang tinggi.

3. Menurut kami menggunakan sistem BARS dapat menjadi solusi terbaik


dalam kondisi seperti ini. Karena sistem penilaian BARS dapat membantu
administrator untuk menilai lebih spesifik sesuai dengan kejadian kritis yang
berhubungan dengan pekerjaan karyawan tersebut. Hal tersebut juga dapat
menyulitkan administrator dalam memberikan penilaian terhadap
karyawannya, sehingga tidak semua karyawan akan mendapat nilai excellent.
Sistem BARS juga menghindari perbedaan interpretasi tentang skala
pengukuran dalam form yang tentu terkadang berbeda Antara satu dengan
yang lainnya. Tentu sistem BARS memiliki kelemahan yaitu biaya
pengembangan yang tentu membutuhkan biaya yang tidak sedikit.