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PFD & P&ID

PFD: Process flow diagram .


P&ID: Piping & instrumentation diagram.
SR NO

DESCRIPTION

RESPONCIBL
E DEPT.

CONTENTS

PFD

Process

1)Symatric drg..
2)Elevation views.

P&ID

Process

3)Non
dimensional drg.

Plot Plan

Civil

1)Actual diagram.

Layout

Civil

2) Plan views.

Equipment
Layout

Equipment
Piping

Piping Layout

Piping

Isometrics

Piping

Detail drawings

Piping

MTO

Piping

PFD & P&ID

Industrial
Consultant
Formula:

R&D

C7 H8 +H2

Basic
Engg.Drawings

C6H6 +CH4

Block Flow Diagrams


Block Flow Process Diagram

Block flow Plant Diagram


Process Flow Diagram
PROCESS LINEAR
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PFD &P&ID
USE: The most effective way of
communicating information about a
process is through the use of flow
diagrams.
Block flow Diagrams:
This diagram was a series of blocks
connected with input and output flow
streams.
It concentrated on the main flow of
streams through the process.
Block flow diagrams drawn for a Single
process.
It differentiates two types.
1) Block flow process diagram.
2) Block flow Plant diagram.

PFD & P&ID


Block Flow Process Diagram:
It gives a clear overview of the
production of end product
unobstructed by the many details
related to the process.
Each block in the diagram represents a
process function and may in reality
consists of several pieces if equipment.
These diagrams often form the starting
point for developing a PFD.
Operations shown by blocks.
Major flow lines shown with arrows
giving direction of flow.
Flow goes from left to right whenever
possible.
Critical information unique to process
supplied & It describes the operations
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in a particular area.

PFD & P&ID


Block Flow Plant Diagram:
It gives a complete picture of the plant
does and how all the different process
interact.
It orients us the products and
important areas of operation.
Process flow Diagram(PFD):
PFD represents the quantum step from
the BFD interms of amount of
Information.
PFD Contains the following information:
All the major equipment in the process
will be represented on the
diagram. Each equipment have assigned
an identification number and a
descriptive name.
All process flow streams will be shown
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and identified by a number.

PFD & P&ID


A description of the process conditions
and chemical composition of each
stream will be displayed in the table.
All utility streams supplied to
equipment that provides a process
function will be shown.
Basic control loops to operate the
process during normal operations will be
shown.
All vents and drains of equipments will
be shown in the diagrams.
PFD Categorized Information:
The basic information provided by PFD
Can be categorized into one of the
following:
1) Process topology
2) Stream Information
3) Equipment Information
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PFD & P&ID


Process Topology :
The Skelton diagrams shows the
locations of equipment and the
connections that the process streams
make between equipment.
The location and interaction between
equipment and process streams is
referred to as the Process Topology.
Equipment is represented by Icons
that identify specific unit operation.
American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME) publishes a set of
symbols to use in preparing flow sheets.
It is not uncommon for companies to
use in house symbols.
The process stream numbers are used
to identify streams on the PFD and the
information given for each stream.
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PFD & P&ID


Conventions used for identifying Process
Equipment:
xx - for equipment classification.
C - Compressor or turbine.
E - Heat Exchanger.
H - Fired Heater.
P - Pump.
R - Reactor.
T - Tower.
TK- Storage tank.
V - Vessal.
y - Designated area within the plant.
ZZ Each item in an equipment class.
A/B Parallel units or backup units not
shown on a PFD.

PFD & P&ID


Symbols used for drawing process flow
diagram:

PFD & P&ID


Skelton Process Flow Diagram for the production of Benzene
via the Hydrodealkylation of Toluene.

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PFD & P&ID


Stream Information:
The chacterstics of a streams such as
temperature , pressures, compositions
and flow rates can be shown directly
on the figure.
Stream number is provided on the
diagram.
The stream information given in the flow
summary table is two types.
1) Required information.
2) Operational information.
Information Provided in a flow Summary
as follows:
Essential information:
Stream Number
Temperature(0 C)
Pressure (bar)
Vapor Fraction
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PFD & P&ID


Total mass flow rate (kg/h).
Total Mole flow rate (Kmol/h).
Individual component flow
rate(Kmol/h).
Optional Information:
Component mole fractions.
Component mass fractions.
Individual Component Flow rates(kg/h).
Volumetric flow rates (m3 /h)
Significant Physical Properties:
Density , Viscosity,etc.
Thermodynamic data:
Heat Capacity, Stream Enthalpy-Values
Stream name

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PFD & P&ID


Equipment Information:
It provides the information necessary
to estimate the costs of equipment and
furnish the basis for the detailed design
of equipment.
Equipment Description for PFD &P&ID:
Sr
no

Equipment Type

Description

Equipment

Description of Equipment

Towers

Size(Height and Diameter),Pressure,


Temperature, Number &type of trays.

Heat Exchangers

Type:Gas-Gas,Gas-Liquid,LiquidLiquid,Condensor,Vaporizer.
Process:Duty,Area,Temperature and
pressure for both streams.
No. of shell and tube passes
Material of Construction: Shell and
tubes

Tanks

Temperature ,Pressure, Orientation


Height,Diameter,Material for
Construction

Vassals

Same as Tanks

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PFD & P&ID


Sir
No

Equipment Type

Pumps

Rate of Flow, Discharge,


Pressure, Temperature, Driver,
Shaft Power, Materials of
Construction.

Compressors

Actual inlet flow rate,


Temperature,Presuure,
Driver type,Shaft Power, Materials
of Construction

Heaters(Fired)

Type, Tube Pressure,


Tube temperature uty,Fuel ,
Material of Construction .

Others

Provide critical Information.

Description

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PFD & P&ID


List out that information getting from
PFD:
1) Process flow line Diagram.
2) Symbolic represents of all equipments
with its specification number.
3) Direction of fluid flow.
4) Process input & Process output.
5)Equipment descriptions.
6) Equipment information like working
temperature, working
Pressure, dimensions &material of
construction.
7) Complete stream information with
working conditions ,flow rate and flow
involvements.
8) Stream nos (unique identity).
9) Topology(Description of symbolic
representation of equipments, streams).15

PFD &P&ID
Information not covered in PFD:
1) Line specification not indicated.
2) Insulation details .
3) Instrumentation details .
4) Type of vales.
5) Rooting of piping.
6) Fitting and supports details.

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PFD & P&ID


P&ID/MFD :
1) It provides the information to begin
planning for the construction of the
plant.
2) Each PFD requires many P&IDs to
provide the necessary data.
List out the information getting from P&ID:

1) In P&ID each pipe can be numbered


and specifies of every pipe line can be
provided in a separate table.
2) The physical size of large sized unit
operation reflected by the size of the
symbol in the diagram.
3) Utility connections i.e. input &outputs
are identified by a numbered box.
4) All process information that can be
measured in the plant shown by
circular flags.
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PFD & P&ID


5) Special flanges and orifice .
6) Valves and its operator.
7) Insulation details and heat tracing.
8) Drains and Vents.
9) Process interconnection between the
equipments.
10) Description of equipments.
11)Process inputs and outputs.
Information which is not covered in
P&ID:
1) Pipe rooting not covered.
2) Fittings and supports .
3) Location of equipment.
4) Valves orientation and specifications.
5) Component specification.
6) Nozzle Orientation.
7) Color coding is not given.
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PFD & P&ID


Location of Instrumentation:

1) Instrument located in the site and


display also in the site.

2) Instrument located in the site and


displayed on front panel in control
room.
3) Instrument located in site and
displayed on back of panel in control
room.

ANLOG
INSTRUMENT

DIGITAL

PLC
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PFD & P&ID


Identification s of Service Lines:
Sr no

Symbol

Description

Process Lines

Utility Line

Datum line

Mechanical line

Electrical line

Under ground line

Pneumatic line

Hydraulic line

Battery limit line


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PFD & P&ID


Contents of line Specification:
Fluid Code, Material Code, Area Code,
Line specification number , Schdule,
Personnel Protection( Insulation) , Heat
Tracing etc..
Example:
01-P-10013-4-1CS-1501/HC-1

01 :Document Code
P : Process Fluid
100: Area Code
13 : Line serial Number
4 : Size of line
1CS : Pipe Material CS grade1
1501 : #150
HC 1 :Hard Core insulation ,thk 1.
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PFD & P&ID


Specification Break:

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