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ESCORTS AGRI MACHINERY GROUP

INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT

SUBMITTED BY:
NAME:- shaleen
ROLL NO:- 1149240091
COLLEGE:- KCC INSTITUTE OF TECHNLOGY AND
MANAGEMENT
BRANCH:- MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

ESCORTS AGRI MACHINERY GROUP


INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT

ESCORTS AGRI MACHINERY GROUP


INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT

CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
PREFACE
THE SYMBOL OF ESCORT
ESCORTS PROFILE
INTRODUCTION
ESCORTS:RESTRUCTURING
AGRI-MACHINERY GROUP
TRACTOR M/C SHOP(PLANT 1)
SHAFT HYDRAULIC LIFT ARM
FACING AND TURNING
ROUGH TURNING
FINISH TURNING
DRILLING
HOBBING
ROLLING
WELDING
GRINDING
HARDENING AND TEMPERING
INSPECTION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to thank to all those with whom I worked and whose thoughts and insights
helped me in increasing my knowledge and understanding of working in the
organization .
I would like to pay my sincere gratitude to MR. RAJENDRAYADAV & all employees, my project guide, who
helped me during the course of my training by providing his valuable suggestion, ideas and
guidance which proved beneficial for completion of my project . Besides I would also thank to all
the supervisors, Foreman and workers who helped me to understand the depth of my project, what
they want out of the project.

These people made me comfortable to understand the functioning of each machine &
about the operation occuring on the machines. They tried their best to make me
understand about the fixtures, tools and gauges used on the machine. These
peoples never made me feel as a trainee in the department rather provide an
atmosphere like a family and feel proud being the part of their through for short
while. Without their help this project would never have taken its present form. In
fact this project is the result of their vision, optimistic and encouraging attitude.

In the end I would like to thank the ESCORTS AGRI MACHINERYGROUP for providing
me with this brilliant opportunity to understand the working of an industry and
developing my technical aptitude

PREFACE
Industrial training now a days one & the only one method to make
students familiar with the modern techniques, latest equipments &methods used in
various industries. During industrial training , students visit to various companies
and make themselves familiar with the practical aspect of the production method.

This training has provided and ultimate experience& opportunity to have practical
knowledge which has increased my level of thinking and dealing with different
kinds of people in all walks of life. It helps us a lot while appearing to the
interviews. Industrial training in proves the theoretical and the practical concept
of the student about engineering.

The well planned, properly executed & evaluated industrial training helps a lot in inculcating good
work culture. It provides linkage between the students & the industries in order to develop
and awareness of industrial approach to problem solving based on broad understanding of
plant.

THE SYMBOL OF ESCORTS


ESCORTS symbol holds more than meets the eye graphically. It has been prepared with certain objective in
mind & symbolic in more than one way .

The philosophy behind ESCORTS & ESCORTS symbol is an enterprise.


The hexagon is a symbol of precision when interpreted as a nut; it symbolizes craftsmanship &unending
productivity. The spanner superimposed the hexagon represent the work and the people of
ESCORTS. This forms the letter E the letter ESCORTS an ever on the move changing invading the future.
E - ENSURE INBUILT QUALITY
S - SAVING ENERGY
C - CALTIVATE SAFE HABITS
O - OBSERVE PROCESS NORMS
R - REDUCE WASTAGE
T - TAKE CARE OF MACHINE
S - STRIVE FOR EXCELLENCE

They hopes, aspirations, teamwork and sense of communication help ESCORTS to achieve what it is today, a good reason to
work harder or a still better tomorrow.

ESCORTS PROFILE
Escorts came into being with a vision that was nurtured by MR. HARI NANDA and Late
MR. YUDI NANDA.
The foundation of ESCORTS Limited was laid in the formation of ESCORTS (agents) Ltd. On 17th
October 1944 and of ESCORTS(Agriculture and machines) Ltd. in 1948. These two were later
merged in 1953 to form ESCORTS Agents Pvt. Ltd. The companys
incorporation in its present name ESCORTS Ltd. was effected on 19th January 1960.
Having initially started with a franchise with Westing House domestic appliance, it has come a
long way in manufacturing and marketing arrange of products. It has pioneered farm
mechanization in India through import and distribution of agriculture tractors.
The manufacturing operations commenced in 1954 and since then the following range of new
products has been produced in the country.

YEAR
1961

PRODUCT
Escorts Tractors

1962

Railway Couplers & Shock


Absorbers
Automotive Shock Absorbers

1963

COMPANY DIVISION

LOCATION

Escorts ltd. (Tractor


Division)
Escorts Railway
Equipments Division
Automotive Suspension
Product (Engg. Division)

Faridabad
Faridabad
Faridabad

1969

Ford Tractors, Now


manufactured under the
FARMTRAC

Escorts Tractors Ltd.

Faridabad

1971

Industrial & Construction


Equipment

Escorts Construction &


Equipment Ltd.

Faridabad

1991

Financial Services

Escorts Finance Ltd.

Faridabad

1996

Disengagement of joint venture


with new Holland & launch of
FARMTRAC Tractor
Foundation of Tractor
Transmission Plant (J.V. ca
rraro Grp, Italy)
Foundation of 3rd Tractor plant

Escorts Farmtrac div.

Faridabad

Carraro India Ltd.

Faridabad

Escorts ltd.

Pune

1998

1998

INTRODUCTION
In todays competitive world with fast depleting material resource, and with all its limitations, it has become
imperative to develop human resources and its effectiveness. The continued effectiveness and efficiency of
an organization to some extent depend on the ability of its employees to produce at high levels of
efficiency, and to keep a breast with role, which the job demands. Training should be a long terms
investment in human resources which can be achieved by following the equation.

Performance = Ability * Efficiency


Training can have an impact of both these factors. It is a powerful tool that can have a major impact on the
employees productivity and Morale.
The first and foremost activity concerned with this effort is to identify their training needs. The needs of the
employees may very from department to department, from person to person and from organization to
organization.
The concept aims to meet an employees needs/goals with current or future opportunities with in organization
and pertaining to changing environment of the industry. The activity recognizes the employees needs for
advancement in his carrier and of better opportunities to use his talent.
It appreciates the fact that employees should be trained for new technology. The organization may move into
other areas, changing the type of skills necessary to do, Training of employees can be a fruitful means for
the organization to increase its productivity, to sustain the existence of the organization in a better way and
finally, to prepare them for the future.

ESCORTS: RESTRUCTURING
Escorts Limited is all set to face the future by drawing on its 50 years of experience, its inherent strengths
and a strong presence in the core sector providing complementary product line and a vast marketing
network combining them with Indias intrinsic cost advantages to become a global source point for
high value engineering products. In order to meet the challenges in the future and to leave an
indelible mark on the industrial scenario, Escorts has restructured the group along six business lines,
each headed by an independent CEO. The business groups are as follows:-

1.
2.
3.
4.

Agri- Machinery Group


2. Construction-Equipment
3. Automotive Ancillaries
Financial Services

The flag ship of the ESCORTS group is ESCORTS LTD. In the work of MR. RAJAN NANDA, Chairman Escorts Ltd.

In the last 50 years ESCORTS has been more than merely one of the INDIAS largest engineering
companies. It has been a prime mover on the industrial front, at every stage introducing products
&technologies that helped to take the country forward in key areas. Today as the nation engages
in its most momentous economic transformation ever, we are once again adapting ourselves towards
being catalyst for qualitative growth by engineering change with a global prospective.

THIS INFRASTRUCTURE COMPRISES:

23 Main Associates/subsidiary Companies


12 manufacturing Locations
A full-fledged R&D facility
Nearly 10,000 Employees
24 Regional marketing offices
Nearly 500 Sales & Services Outlets
4 Financial Services Companies

Asias best training institute of Farm Mechanization with 100 acre


demonstration farm
Escorts Dealer Development Association (EDDAL) Ltd.
Providing Management & Financial supports to dealers.

AGRI MACHINERY GROUP


Escorts Agri Machinery group is one of the six strategic business units of Escorts group and the largest
contributor to the group turnover. Escorts initiated its venture tractors with an assembly plant in1961. The
first agricultural tractors under the brand name of
ESCORTS were produced in 1961. Following the collaboration
with ford motor company, Escorts started another brand name to its portfolio
the ford series of tractors in 1969. Following the disengagement agreed with FORD NEW HOLLAND, Ford as
FARMTRAC in 1966 & was relaunched in Indian market.

Escorts have made dent in exports as well as tapped the U.S. Market in a significant way. Escorts is acquiring
49% equity in long manufacturing company based in north Carolina which is currently distributing its
tractor, with over 5 lakhs tractor having been sold by company till date, every fourth tractor is a tractor from
ESCORTS. Technology up gradation, product improvement, better services, wider distribution network &
capacity expansion is the BUZZ WORDS in ESCORTS AMG.

ESCORTS with its two brands of FARMTRAC & ESCORTSTRACTORS are amongst Indias largest manufacturers of
tractors in25 to 50 HP range. The performance characteristics of ESCORTSAND FARMTRAC are un matched AMG
of ESCORTS limited is responsible for the marketing of both ESCORTS & FARMTRAC brands of tractors. The
operational structure of AMG comprises of 4 regional & 19 area offices and functions on countrywide scale.
Service and part personnel are responsible for promoting sales, extending services to the customer and
ensuring availability of spare parts. Thus AMG continues to playits productive role on the farm front by
putting more & more tractors at the service of Indian market.

AGRI MACHINERY GROUPPRODUCT


RANGE:
1.
2
3

ESCORTS SERIES (ECONOMY RANGE) 27-35 HP


POWERTRAC SERIES (VALUE RANGE) 30-47 HP
FARMTRSC SERIES (PREMIUM RANGE) 30-75 HP

THE ESCORTS RANGE:


E325 :
27 HP Diesel Engine, 2 cylinders, 6+2 sliding mesh transmission,shoe brakes, lower link sensing, colorwhite & auto glow.
E335 :
35 HP Diesel Engine, 2 cylinders, 6+2 sliding mesh transmission,shoe brakes, lower sensing, color-white
& auto glow.
E340 :
40 HP Diesel Engine, 3 cylinders, 6+2 or 10+2 sliding meshtransmission, dry disc brakes.

THE FARMTRAC RANGE:


FT30 :

30HP Diesel Engine, 3 cylinder, 6+2 constant mesh transmission, Drydisc brakes, color-blue

FT35 :
35 HP Diesel Engine, 3 cylinder, 8+2 constant mesh transmission,Dry disc brakes, color-blue
FT45 :
42HP Diesel Engine, 3 cylinder, 8+2 constant mesh transmission, Drydisc brakes, color-blue
FT50 :
42HP Diesel Engine, 3 cylinder, 8+2 constant mesh transmission,shoe brakes, color-blue
FT55 :
47HP Diesel Engine, 3 cylinder, 8+2 constant mesh transmission, Drydisc brakes, color-blue
FT60 :
50HP Diesel Engine, 3 cylinder, 8+2 constant mesh transmission, Drydisc brakes, color-blue
FT70 :
60HP Diesel Engine, 3 cylinder, 12+12 partially synchroshuttletransmission, oil immersed
brakes, color-blue

TRACTOR M/C SHOP (PLANT-1)


The various departments of the Tractor Machine Shop Plant-1 are as follows:

1. Gears and Shafts:


The major components manufactured by Gears and Shafts division are:

Engine gears
Transmission Gears and Shafts
Differential Gears and Shafts
Lever

2. Tool Room:
The Tool Room caters to jig, fixtures, dies manufacturing etc.

3. Power house:
The Power House has generators and compressors of varying capacities.

4. Heavy Castings:
The components manufactured by Heavy Castings Division are:

2 Cylinder Engine Block


3 Cylinder Engine Block
Gear Box Housing
Differential Housing

Escorts Plant-3 is engaged in assembly of various models of


Escorts Tractors. It has the following shops:

Engine Assembly Line


Engine Testing
Paint Shop
Transmission Assembly
Main Assembly
Rear Line
Front Line

Our project is concerning about manufacturing SHAFT HYDRAULIC LIFT ARM


(Serration Shaft).
The various processes involved are:1)Facing & Centering
2) Rough Turning
3) Finish Turning
4) Drilling
5) Rolling
6) Hobbing
7) Welding
8) Green grinding
9) Induction hardening
10) Tempering
11) Straightening
12) Hard grinding
13) Hand work
14) Inspection

Facing & Centering


Facing is part of the turning process. It involves moving the cutting tool at right angles to the axis of
rotation of the rotating work piece. This can be performed by the operation of the cross-slide, if
one is fitted, as distinct from the longitudinal feed (turning). It is frequently the first operation
performed in the production of the work piece, and often the last- hence the phrase "ending up".
This process is used for reducing length and smoothening the face.
Tooling element :-STD Self Centering ViceTGR-F-3951 PADS
Swiveling Stopper
Cutting Tool Details :-STD Centre Drill DIA 5/16 inch STD Face Mill Cutter
Speed :-Centre Drill -1000rpmFace Mill Cutter -139rpm

Cutting Time:- 1.5 min


Tool Life:- Centre Drill 500 componentsFace Mill Cutter 100 components
Gauge Details:- STD Height gauge (0-500)TGR-G-9120 Centre Depth Checking Gauge 5.20/5.0

Rough Turning
When a great deal of stock is to be removed, you should take heavy cuts to complete
the job in the least possible time. This is called rough turning. Select the proper
tool for taking a heavy chip. The speed of the work and the amount of feed of the
tool should be as great as the tool will stand. When you take a roughing cut on
steel, cast iron, or any other metal that has a scale on its surface , be sure to
set the tool deep enough to get under the scale in the first cut. Unless you do, the
scale on the metal will dull or break the point of the tool. Rough machine the
work to almost the finished size; then take careful measurements.

Tooling element:- clamping jaws MAS-317/24


Indexing plate MAS-317/9
Tool holder L-170-5-3225
Tool change frequency:- 200 pcs per edge
Feed :-0.28 mm/rev
Spindle speed :-800 rpm
Gauge details :-STD SNAP gauge 51.000.15
DIAL indicator L.C 0.01

Finish Turning
When you have rough turned the work to within about 1/32 inch of the finished size, take a finishing
cut. A fine feed, the proper lubricant, and, above all, a keen-edged tool is necessary to produce a
smooth finish. Measure carefully to be sure you are machining the work to the proper dimension.
Stop the lathe when you take measurements if you must finish the work to close tolerances, be
sure the work is not hot when you take the finish cut. If you turn the work piece to exact size when
it is hot, it will be undersize when it has cooled.
Perhaps the most difficult operation in machine work is to make accurate measurements. So much
depends on the accuracy of the work that you should make every effort to become proficient in the
use of measuring instruments.
Tooling element :-Soft Jaws TGR-F-9114
Cutting Tool Details :STD T-Max Tool Holder PDJNL-2525
Speed :-750rpm
Feed :-0.2mm/min
Cutting Time:- 3.2 min
Tool Life:- 500 components
Gauge Details:- STD SNAP gauge
DIA 59.69/59.45

Drilling
Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole in solid materials. The drill
bit is a multipoint, end cutting tool. It cuts by applying pressure and rotation to the work
piece, which forms chips at the cutting edge.

Machine name :-Radial drill machine


Tooling element :-quick change chuck and sleeve
Cutting tool :-HSS drill dia 11.5 mm
Counter drill dia 13 mm
Tap 20 UNF-2B
Reamer H11
Cutting speed :-HSS drill 580 rpm
Counter drill 300 rpm
Tap 180 rpm
Reamer 180 rpm
Feed :-HSS drill 0.2mm/rev
Counter drill 0.2mm/rev
Gauge Details :-STD Threading gauge
GO , NO GO for 20 UNF-2B thread
Center distance gauge
FTHL-G-9008

Hobbing
Hobbing uses a hobbing machine with two non-parallel spindles, one mounted with a blank work piece and the other
with the hob. The angle between the hob's spindle and the work piece's spindle varies ,depending on the type of
product being produced. For example, if a spur gear is being produced, then the hob is angled equal to the helix
angle of the hob; if a helical gear is being produced then the angle must be increase by the same amount as the
helix angle of the helical gear. The two shafts are rotated at a proportional ratio, which determines the number of
teeth on the blank; for example, if the gear ratio is 40:1 the hob rotates 40 times to each turn of the blank, which
produces 40 teeth in the blank. Note that the previous example only holds true for a single threaded hob; if the
hob has multiple threads then the speed ratio must be multiplied by the number of threads on the hob. The hob is
then fed up into work piece until the correct tooth depth is obtained. Finally the hob is fed into the workpiece
parallel to the blank's axis of rotation .
Up to five teeth can be cut into the workpiece at the same time.
Oftentimes multiple gears are cut at the same time.
For larger gears the blank is usually gashed to the rough shape to make hobbing easier
.

Tooling Element :-Job Carrier


Cutting Tool Details :-HOB Cutter
Gauge Details:- OUTSIDE MICROMETER 50-75 mm
L.C- 0.01
DIAL indicator L.C 0.01
CONCENTICIT BENCH

Rolling
Tooling Element :-STD Collet for clamping
ALT. for Hobbing
Cutting Tool Details :-STD Grob Rool
HOB Cutter
Cutting Time:- 2 min
Gauge Details:- Outside Micrometer 50-75mm
Least count - 0.01mm
FTHL-G-9030
Serration Ring Gauge Go

Welding
The arc welding makes arcs between a material and a welding rod.
And it is a well used welding method. In the arc welding, we use a torch with a
welding rod. And both of the material and the welding rod are meant in the arc.
The arc welding is very high speed, and if the welding is very well, the strength is
very high. But the arc is very light, then we cannot see the welding processes. All
weldings, including the arc welding, need higher technique than cutting
processings, because we do not have the same conditions.

Grinding
Grinding practice is a large and diverse area of tool making. It can produce very fine finishes and very accurate
dimensions; yet in mass production contexts it can also rough out large volumes of metal quite rapidly. It
is usually better suited to the machining of very hard materials than is "regular" machining (that is, cutting
larger chips with cuttin tools such as tool bits or milling cutters), and until recent decades it was the only
practical way to machine such materials as hardened steels. Compared to "regular" machining, it
is usually better suited to taking very shallow cuts, such as reducing a shaft's diameter by half a thousand
of an inch (thou).(1 thou == 25 um)
Technically, grinding is a subset of cutting, as grinding is a true metal cutting process. Each grain of abrasive
functions as a microscopic single-point cutting edge (although of high negative rake angle), and shears a
tiny chip that is analogous to what would conventionally be called a "cut" chip (turning, milling, drilling,
tapping, etc.). However, among people who work in the machining fields, the termcuttingIs
oftenunderstood to refer to the macroscopic cutting operations, andgrindingis often mentally categorized
as a "separate" process. This is why the terms are usually used in contradistinction in shop-floor practice,
even though technically grinding is a subset of cutting.

Tooling element
Speed
Cutting tool

:::-

Grinding abrasive wheel


39 and 220 rpm
Pneumatic grinder

Hardening & Tempering


Tempering is a heat treatment technique for metals, alloys and glass. tempering is done to "toughen" the metal by
transforming brittle martensite or bainite into a combination of ferrite and cementite. Precipitation hardening
alloys, like many grades of aluminium and super alloys, are tempered to precipitate inter metallic particles which
strengthen the metal. Tempering is accomplished by a controlled reheating of the work piece to a temperature
below its lower critical temperature.
The brittle martensite becomes tough and ductile after it is tempered. Carbon atoms were trapped in the austenite
when it was rapidly cooled, typically by oil or water quenching, forming the martensite. The martensite becomes
strong after being tempered because when reheated, the microstructure can rearrange and the carbon atoms
can diffuse out of the distorted body-centred-tetragonal (BCT) structure. After the carbon diffuses, the result
is nearly pure ferrite with body-centred structure.
In metallurgy, there is always a trade-off between strength and ductility. Precise control of time and temperature
during the tempering process are critical to achieve a metal with well balanced mechanical properties.

Power :-220-244 V
Pre-Heating Time :-1.4 sec
Feed Rate :-9mm/sec (53 spline gauge)
Quench dwell time :-32 sec
Speed :-80 rpm

Inspection
INSPECTION IS THE LAST STAGE OF MANUFACTURING.ITIS DONE MANUALLY TO CHECK FOR
DEFECTS AND OTHERIRREGULARITIES.

Gauge details

:-

SERRATION RING GAUGE


FTHL-G-9030 GO
SERRATION RING GAUGE
FTHL-G-9031 NO GO
ON MATERIAL 6 SPLINE