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End-to-End QoS Contract

Negotiation

Hélia Pouyllau
Outline
 Context and motivations
 A framework for QoS contracts
 1st problem: Individual request negotiation: DP
 2nd problem: Multi-request negotiation:
Symmetric DP
 Other problems
 Conclusion
Outline
 Context and motivations
 A framework for QoS contracts
 1st problem: Individual request negotiation: DP
 2nd problem: Multi-request negotiation:
Symmetric DP
 Other problems
 Conclusion
Internet: multi-service networks to
multi-network service
Networks
•DiffServ Protocols Services
•MPLS •Routing (BGP ...) •Multimedia
•IntServ •IP •VPN

Domain
Domain

Heterogeneous No QoS information Need of resources


Independent Reservation
•QoSR
•Distributed Self-Management •Contract approach (SLA, SLS)
•Extended-RSVP
•WS architectures •Service Level negotiation
•Resource Reservation
(MESCAL, SWAN) (COPS-SLS)
(RSVP)

Service provider's challenges: client satisfaction, cost control


Service establishment
Domain
Domain66
Domain
Domain00 Domain
Domain11

 Heterogeneous domains
 Different QoS classes per trail
 Different QoS parameters Domain
Domain22
 Contract privacy
 Routing : Main route + P2P view (domain
Domain 44
knows
Domain target and neighbouring domains)

Domain Domain
Domain33
Domain55
QoS contract Negotiation

Contracts
Contractson
onMiddle-to-End
Middle-to-Endpaths
paths
QoS budget

End-User
(via EUM)
State of the art
 Distributive QoS management
 [TIPHON,ETSI],[EUROSCOM],[MESCAL]: distributed model
 [Kamienski03]: centralized negotiation, SLA
 [Lima05],[Lima03], [Nguyen03]: COPS-SLS
 [Nguyen06]: qos composition fuzzy distributed CSP

 Service selection driven by QoS


 [YuLin05]: centralized , knapsack problem
 [GuNahrstedt03], [GuNahrstedt04]: distributed service compostion
 [SEO05]: centralized, SLA
 [ZengBenatallah03], [Berbner06]: centralized

 QoS and cost control


 [LiuSquillante01]: queueing model
 [Johari,Tsitsiklis04],[Shakkottai05]: game theory
Outline
 Context and motivations
 A framework for QoS contracts
 1st problem: Individual request negotiation: DP
 2nd problem: Multi-request negotiation:
Symmetric DP
 Other problems
 Conclusion
SLOs: QoS Parameters
SLOs: QoS Parameters
SLOs: QoS Parameters
Notations
QoS vector composition
Example
Outline
 Context and motivations
 A framework for QoS contracts
 1st problem: Individual request negotiation: DP
 2nd problem: Multi-request negotiation:
Symmetric DP
 Other problems
 Conclusion
Individual request negotiation
 Given a target, an end-to-end QoS
requirement,
 Negotiate QoS contracts of each participant
 Minimizing a global cost,
 Subject to an individual QoS budget
Problem formulation
DP formulation
Distributed algorithm in DP
 1st sweep: middle2end QoS budget + cost to that point
 2nd sweep: best local commitment selection

Commitment remaining QoS select best Best cost for


+ cost budget + cost commit. choice QoS request
QN-1
Q1,C1 Q2,C2 CN-1 QN,CN
Q’1,C’1 Q’2,C’2 Q’N,C’N
Q0

domain1 domain2 domainN-1 domainN


Global QoS Message from Select commitment Select commitment
request domain 1 in domain N-1 in domain N
Outline
 Context and motivations
 A framework for QoS contracts
 1st problem: Individual request negotiation: DP
 2nd problem: Multi-request negotiation:
Symmetric DP
 Other problems
 Conclusion
Resource conflict
Domain
Domain66
Domain
Domain00 Domain
Domain11

Domain
Domain22

Domain
Domain44

Domain Domain
Domain33
Domain55
30 60
Example 5 15

40 50
5 15

30 90
30 120 15 20 30 55
10 35 5 20

35 85
10 25 40 45
delay 5 20
SP3
150 SP1 SP2
45 30 30
5 10
30 60
jitter 15 15
60 90 40 20
15 30 5 10
35 55
10 20
30 25
5 15

40 15
5 15
Example
30
5

40
10
30 45
30 75 15 5 30 10
5 20 5 5
35 40
10 10 40 SP6
10
SP5 SP2
105
25 30
5
30
15
55 50 40
10 15 10
35 15
10 5
Multi-request negotiation
 In a finite set of domains, given a target, end-
to-end QoS requirements,
 Negotiate QoS contracts of each participant
 Minimizing a global cost,
 Subject to an individual QoS budget and
QoS capacities of participants
Problem formulation
Number N of domains is finite
Forward-Backward DP
 Suited to intra-domain optimization of QoS commitments
 Starts at both extremities
 Each “peer” decides its own best commitment

Best local
QoS commitment
Left QoS commit. matching QoS request Right QoS commit.
+ best cost + best cost

QL,CL QR,CR
Local optimization

 Branch and Bound, Interior point, Branch


and Cut
Local optimization
 Allows to renegotiate a first QoS commitment to allow extra
users
 Distributes QoS bottlenecks to less committed/constrained
nodes (so requires cooperating domains!)

Joint QoS commitment


Back propagation of
For both connections
QoS/cost constraints Q’+,p’+

Q+,p+ R-,p-

Forward propagation of
No more possible QoS/cost constraints
Q’-,p’-
QoS commit.
for second connection
Generalization (on-going)
Request dependence

r1

r3 a b

s t
c d
r2
Pipe (set of paths) negotiation (on-
going)
 Path wise vs. Pipe wise
 Forward-Backward DP
 Local optimization: LP(?) => choice of a path

QN-1
Q1,C1 Q2,C2 CN-1 QN,CN
Q’1,C’1 Q’2,C’2 Q’N,C’N
Q0

domain1 domain2 domainN-1 domainN


Negotiation in an open system
 Finite set of domains are cooperating to achieve
negotiation
 Is negotiation realistic in an open system ? 
Can we compel every domain to cooperate ?
 A solution: Modelizing QoS request from « the
rest of the world » as disruptive flows:
 We respect their constraints
 We do not search to optimize their prices
 So any candidate for cooperation ?
Outline
 Context and motivations
 A framework for QoS contracts
 1st problem: Individual request negotiation: DP
 2nd problem: Multi-request negotiation:
Symmetric DP
 Conclusion
Conclusion
 Description of a framework to handle composition and decomposition of QoS vectors

Description Implementation
Individual request Done MatLab, WS

Multi-request with single path Done Matlab (centralized and


distributed), WS
Multi-request in a graph; On-Going On-Going
negotiation in an open system;
negotiation of pipes

 Re-negotiation, failure cases


Future work
 Multi-request negotiation in a graph: mechanism to detect request dependencies, termination
 Pipe negotiation, Negotiation in an open system
 Comparison of the different solution performances

 Margin
 Use of failure cases, Definition of re-negotiation, negotiation policies ...etc.
 Negotiation learning and QoS routing
 QoS classes definition based on service –> based on demand (game theory)
End-to-End QoS Contract
Negotiation

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Performances