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Management

Management is a process of designing


& maintaining environment in which
individuals, working together in
groups,
efficiently
accomplish
selected aims

Management
Process of working with & through
others to achieve organizational
objectives in a changing environment.
Central to this process is the effective
& efficient use of limited resources.

Management
It is the process of planning,
organizing, leading and controlling,
individual and resources to achieve
organizational objectives

Organization
A consciously coordinated social
unit, composed of two or more
people that functions on a relatively
continuous basis to achieve a
common goal or set of goals

Components of Organization
People
Goals or Purpose

Structure
Technology

Characteristics of Todays Organization


Change

Bigness

Govt.
Interference
Competition

Organization

Information

Diversification

Globalization
Science & Tech

Management Process
HUMAN
RESOURCES

Planning

PHYSICAL
RESOURCES

ORGANIZATIONAL
GOALS

INFORMATION
RESOURCES

Leading

FINANCIAL
RESOURCES

Management Functions

Planning

Organizing

Management
Functions
Controlling

Leading

Management Functions

Planning

Organizing

Management
Functions
Controlling

Leading

Management Functions: Planning,


Organizing, leading & controlling
Planning
Setting performance
Objectives & deciding
How to achieve them

Controlling
Measuring performance
& taking action to
Ensure desired results

The
Management
Process

Leading
Inspiring people to
Work hard to achieve
High performance

Organizing
Arranging tasks, people,
& other resources
To accomplish the work

Interactive Nature of Management


Process
.
CONTROLLING
Managers make
sure org is
moving towards org
objectives

PLANNING
Managers use logic
& methods to think
through goals &
actions
ORGANIZING
Managers arranged &
allocate work authority
& resources to achieve
organization goals
LEADING
Managers direct,
Influence, & Motivation
employees to perform
essential tasks

Managerial Functions

Planning
Organization
Defining Goals,
Determining What
Establishing strategy, Needs to be done,
& developing
How it will be done,
Sub-plans to
& who is to do it
Coordinate activities

Leading
Controlling
Directing &
Monitoring activities
Motivating all
To ensure that they are
Involved parties
Accomplished as
& resolving conflicts
Planned

Lead to

Achieving the
Org Stated
purpose

Manager
The individuals who are responsible for
completing the tasks that requires
supervision
of
other
members
or
organization or organizational resources.
Individual in an organization who direct
the activities of others to achieve the
organizational objectives.
(Robbins)

Manager
People responsible for designing and
maintaining an environment in which
individuals, working together in
groups, efficiently accomplish selected
aims.
(Koontz)

Levels of Managers

Top
Managers
Middle Managers
First-line
Managers

Operatives

Top Level Managers


The individuals responsible for determining
the goals, objectives and plans that chart the
organizations long-range course. The most
important task of Top-level management is
strategic planning. Examples of Top Level
Mangers are Managing Directors, Directors
etc.

Middle Level Managers


All levels of mangers between the Top level
mangers and First Line Mangers are called
Middle Level Managers. They involve in
tactical planning and control. Examples of
Middle Level Mangers are General
Managers, Deputy General Managers and
Managers etc.

First Line Managers


They are directly responsible for
planning and controlling the activities
of workers so that higher-level targets
are met; this is the lowest level of
management in the organizational
hierarchy. Examples of First Line
Mangers are Assistant Managers,
Supervisors, and Foremen etc.

Types of Managers
Line Managers
Staff Managers

Line Managers
The term line refers to a position and
describes managers whose organizational
function contributes directly to the
achievement of organizational objectives.
Managers of Production, Quality and design
functions are called line managers and their
authority is called line authority.

Staff Managers
The term staff refers to a position and
describes managers who offer advice or
assist line managers to perform their
functions. They are not directly involved
in production activities. Managers of
Human Resource, Finance, Auditing and
Security functions are called Staff
Managers and their authority is called
Staff Authority.

Management Skills
Technical Skills
Human Skills
Conceptual Skills

Technical Skill
It is knowledge of and proficiency in
activities involving methods, processes
and procedures. It involves working
with tools and specific techniques

Human Skill
It is the ability to work with people; it
is cooperative effort; it is teamwork and
creation of an environment in which
people feel secure and free to express
their opinions

Conceptual Skill
It is the ability to see the big picture, to
recognize significant elements in a
situation,
to
understand
the
relationships among the elements and
the ability to solve problems in ways
that will benefit the enterprise

Managers and Skills


First-Line

Technical Skills

Human Skills

Conceptual Skills

Middle Level

Top Level

Manager Roles
Interpersonal Roles
Informational Roles
Decisional Roles

Interpersonal Roles
All managers are required to perform duties
that are ceremonial and symbolic in natureInterpersonal Roles. These are
Figurehead
Leader

Liaison

Informational Roles
Informational Roles-receiving and collecting
information
from
organizations
and
institutions their own. These roles are
Monitor
Disseminator

Spokesperson

Decisional Roles
These roles are the major part of managers
responsibilities. They include
Entrepreneur

Disturbance Handler
Resource Allocation Role

Negotiator

Management Seeks Efficiency &


Effectiveness
Ends:
Effectiveness

Means:
Efficiency

Low
Waste

Goals

High
attainment

Planning
Planning is the process of establishing
goals and a suitable course of action to

achieve these goals. It requires decision


making, that is, choosing future courses of
action from alternatives

Types of Plans
Single Use Plans
Programs
Projects
Policies
Procedures

Budget Plans
Contingency Plans

Mangers and Planning


Strategic Planning
Tactical Planning

Operational Planning

Mangers and Planning


Top Level Managers

Strategic Planning

Middle Level Managers

Tactical Planning

First Line Managers

Operational Planning

Strategic Planning
Planning that apply to the entire
organization,
establishes
the
organizations overall objectives and
seek to positions an organization in
terms of its environment is called
strategic planning. It takes place at the
highest level of the organization.

Tactical Planning
It is the technique of determining how
strategic
objectives
will
be
accomplished. It is usually the job of
Middle level Managers.

Operational Planning
It specifies the detail how overall
objectives are to be achieved. It is
typically the job of First Line
Managers.

Planning-Timeframe
Long-Range Planning
Intermediate Planning
Short-Range Planning

Planning Process
Mission
|
V

Objectives
|
V

Situation Analysis
|
V

Strategy Formulation
|
V

Implementation
|
V

Control

Organizational Mission
Concern for survival: What is the organizations
commitment to economic objectives?
Customers: Who
customers?

are

the

organizations

Products/Services: What are the organizations


major products or services?
Location:
compete?

Where

does

the

organization

Organizational Mission
Technology: What is the firms basic
technology?
Philosophy: What are the basic beliefs,
values, aspirations and philosophical
priorities of the organization?
Self-concept: What are the organizations
major
strengths
and
competitive
advantages?

Organizational Mission
Concern for public image: What are the
organizations public responsibilities, and
what image is desired?
Concern for employees: What is
organizations
attitude
toward
employees?

the
its

Tools for Planning


Brain Storming

Forecasting
Breakeven Analysis

Gantt Chart
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

Critical Path Method (CPM)


Delphi Technique

Barriers to Planning
Inappropriate Goals
Improper Reward System
Complex Environment
Resistance to Change
Constraints
Information Deficiency

Benefits of Goals
a. Increase Performance
b. Clarify Expectations
c. Facilitate the Controlling Function

d. Increase Motivation

Levels of Goals
Top Management

Middle Management

First Level
Management

Strategic Goals----Strategic Plans

Tactical Goals------Tactical Plans

Operational Goals ---------Operational Plans

Levels of Goals
Strategic Goals: Broadly defined targets or

future end results set by top management


Tactical goals: Targets or future end results

usually set by middle management for


specific departments or units
Operational goals: Targets or future end

results set by lower management that


address specific measurable outcomes
required from the lower levels

How Goals Facilitate Performance


Job Knowledge
and Ability

Goal Content:
Challenging
Attainable
Specific and
Measurable
Time Limited
Relevant

Task
Complexity

Work Behavior:
Direction
Effort
Persistence
Planning

PERFROMANCE

Goal Commitment:
Supervisory Authority
Peer & group Pressure
Public Display
Expectations of Success
Incentives & Rewards
Participation

Knowledge
of results
(or feedback)

Situational
Constraints
(tools, materials
and Equipment

Characteristics of Goals
SMARTER
Specific
Measurable

Acceptable/Attainable
Realistic/Relevant
Timeframe
Extending
Rewarding

Strategy
The broad program for defining and
achieving
an
organizations
objectives. It can be
Corporate Level Strategy
Business Unit Strategy
Functional Level Strategy

Types of Strategies
Corporate Level Strategy
Strategy formulated by top management to
oversee the interests and operations multiline
corporations

Business Unit Strategy


Strategy formulated to meet the goals of a
particular business

Functional Level Strategy


Strategy formulated for a specific functional
area to meet business unit objectives

Decision Making
The process of selecting a course of
action or alternative among different
alternatives

Types of Decisions
Programmed decisions
Nonprogrammed decisions

Types of Decisions
Programmed Decisions

Nonprogrammed Decisions

Type of problem

Type of problem

Frequent, repetitive, routine,


much certainty regarding
cause and effect
relationship.
Procedure
Dependence on policies,
rules, and definite
procedures.
Examples
Business, University,
Healthcare.

Novel, unstructured, much


uncertainty regarding cause
and effect relationship.

Procedures
Necessity for creativity,
intuition, tolerance for
ambiguity, creative problem
solving.
Examples
Business, University,
Healthcare.

Conditions of Decision-making
Certainty
Risk

Uncertainty

Barriers to Effective Decision


Making
Psychological biases
Illusion of control
Farming effect
Discount the future
Time pressures
Real time information
Involve people more effectively and efficiently
Social realities

Decision-making Process

Problem Identification
Identification of Decision Criteria
Allocating Weights to Criteria
Generating Alternative Solutions
Evaluating Alternatives
Making the Choice
Implementation of Decision
Evaluating the Decision

Decision Making Process


Problem
Identification
New Supplier is required

Analysis of
Alternatives
Anex
Haji & sons
Linkers
Hassan Bro.
Globe Inn

Identification of
Decision Criteria
Price
Quality
Mode of payment
Credibility
Location

Selection of an
Alternative
Anex
Haji & sons
Linkers
Hassan Bro.
Globe Inn

Allocation of
Weights to
Criteria
Quality
10
Price
8
Mode of Pay 5
Location
4
Credibility 3

Development of
Alternatives
Anex
Haji & sons
Linkers
Hassan Bro.
Globe Inn

Implementation
of an Alternative

Hassan Bro.

Evaluation
of Decision
Effectiveness

Organizing
It is the process of arranging & allocating
work authority & resources to achieve
organization goals. It involves
Identifying tasks to be performed
Allocating the tasks among members
Integrating efforts to achieve its
objectives

Key Concepts
Span of Management Control
The number of subordinates reporting directly to
a given manger

Chain of Command
The plan that specifies who reports to whom in
an organization, such reporting lines are
prominent features of organization chart

Key Concepts
Coordination
The integration of the activities of the separates
parts of an organization to accomplish
organizational goals

Downsizing
A version of organizational restructuring which
results in decreasing the size of the organization
and often results in a flatter organizational
structure

Types of Organizational
Structures
Product
Functional

Customer

Options for
Departmentalization
MarketChannel

Matrix
Geography

Functional Organization

President

Marketing Mgr

Production Mgr.

Finance Mgr

HRM Mgr

Geographical Organization

President

VP South Asia

VP East Asia.

VP Australia

VP North America

Product Organization

President

VP Tea Line

VP Oil Line.

VP Soap Line

VP W/Powder Line

Customer Organization
President
North America

Metals and
Chemicals
Group

Packing
Systems
Group

Material
Science
Group

International
Group

Aerospace &
Industrial
Products

Matrix Organization
Chief Executive

Production

Finance

Project A
Manager

Production
Grp

Finance
Grp

Project B
Manager

Production
Grp

Finance
Grp

Marketing

Marketing
Grp

Marketing
Grp

Material
&
Procurement

Human
Resource

Materials
Grp

HR
Grp

Materials
Grp

Line operation Work performance


Support assistance from functional departments

HR
Grp

Power
The ability to exert influence or force
in an attempt to change attitude or

behavior of individuals or groups.

Sources of Power
Reward Power
Coercive Power

Legitimate Power
Expert Power

Referent Power

Sources of Power
Reward Power
It is the ability to reward another person for
carrying out orders which may be expressed or
implied

Coercive Power
The negative side of reward power, it is the ability
to punish another person

Legitimate Power
It is the lawfully entitled ability to exert influence
or force on other. It is also called formal authority

Sources of Power
Expert Power
It is based on the belief or understanding
that the influencer has specific knowledge
or relevant expertise that the influencee
does not

Referent Power
It is the desire of the influencee to be like or
identity with the influencer

Authority
It is the right to exert influence or
force on other due someones
position, knowledge or status. It is
lawfully entitled power.

Types of Authority
Line Authority
Staff Authority

Functional Authority

Line Authority
The authority of those mangers
directly responsible, throughout the
organizations chain of command, for
achieving organizational objectives

Staff Authority
The authority of those groups of
individuals
who
provide
line
managers with advice, support and
services

Functional Authority
The authority of members of staff
departments to control the activities
of other departments as they relate to
specific staff responsibilities

Delegation
The act of assigning formal authority
and responsibility for completion of
specific activities to a subordinate

Advantages of Delegation
It provides opportunities to seek and
accept increased responsibilities from
higher level managers
It
causes
employees
to
accept
accountability and exercise judgment
It not only train employees but also
improves their self confidence and willing
to take initiative

Advantages of Delegation
It leads to better decisions
It speeds
process

up

decision

making

Centralization
In
centralized
organization
considerable authority, responsibility
and accountability remain at the top
of the hierarchy

Decentralization
In
decentralized
organization
considerable authority, responsibility
and accountability are passed down
the organizational hierarchy

Job Design
The division of an organizations wok
among its employees

Job Redesign
Job Enlargement
Job Enrichment

Job Rotation

Controlling
It is the process of monitoring
organizational activities to ensure that
they are being accomplished as they
planned and taking corrective actions
if there are significant deviations

Control Process

No
Establish
Standards

Measure
Performance

Does it match
standards
Yes
Do Nothing

Take Corrective
Action

Why Control Needed


To create better quality
To cope with change

To create faster cycles


To
facilitate
teamwork

delegation

and

Types of Controls
Financial Controls
Budgetary Controls

Administrative Controls
Internal Control

Auditing

Levels of Controls
Strategic Control
Tactical Control

Operational Control

Stages of Controls
Preliminary or Feed forward Control
Screening or Concurrent Control

Post Action or Feedback Control

Barriers to Control
System Barriers
Behavioral Barriers

Political Barriers

Leadership
Leadership empowers, motivates &
organizes people to achieve common

objective
guidance.

and

provides

moral

Leadership
It is the art or process of influencing
people so that they will strive willingly

and

enthusiastically

towards

achievement of group goals

the

Leadership
It is the process of motivating and
directing subordinates, selecting the

most

effective

communication

channels and resolving conflicts

Leadership
It is the lifting of mans vision to
higher sights, the praising of mans

performance to higher standard, the


building of mans personality beyond

its normal limitations

Leader Versus Manager


Leader

Manager

Innovator
Originator
Develops
Inspire Trust
Focus on People
Challenge status co
Owns the people
Does the right thing

Administrator
Copier
Maintain
Control
Focus on System
Maintain status co
Classic good soldier
Does thing right

Characteristics of Leader
Vision
Communication
Motivation
Integrity
Patience

Influence
Decisive Persistent

Motivation
It is an energetic force within and
outside human by which results lead
into a behaviour. It is an attempt to
satisfy need. The factors that cause,
channel and sustain an individuals
behaviour.

Theories of Motivation
Need Theory
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
ERG Theory

Two Factor Theory


Equity Theory

Expectancy Theory

Reinforcement Theory
Goal Setting Theory

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Self-Actualization
Needs

Self-Esteem Needs
Social Needs
Security/Safety Needs
Physiological Needs

ERG Theory
The theory of motivation that says
people strive to meet a hierarchy of
existence, relatedness and growth
needs, if efforts to reach one level of
needs are frustrated individuals will
regress to a lower level.

Two Factor Theory


Herzbergs theory that work dissatisfaction
and satisfaction arise from two different
sets of factors. Dissatisfiers which he
called hygiene factors included salary,
working conditions, and company policy.
Satisfiers or motivating factors include
achievement, recognition, responsibility
and advancement

Equity Theory
According
to
equity
theory,
individuals are motivated when they
experience satisfaction with what they
receive from an effort in proportion to
the effort they apply.
As input = Bs Input
As output = Bs output

Expectance Theory
A theory of motivation that says that
people choose how to behave from among
alternative courses of behaviour based on
their expectations of what there is to gain
from each behaviour.
Expectancy

Instrumentalities
Valence

Reinforcement Theory
A theory of motivation based on law
of effect- the behaviour with positive
consequences tends to be repeated
while
behaviour
with
negative
consequences tends not to be
repeated.

Goal-Setting Theory
A theory of motivation that says that
individuals are motivated when they
behave in ways that move them to
certain clear goals that they accept
and can reasonably expect to attain.

Techniques of Leadership
Time Management or Budgeting of Time
Putting First Things First
- Pick the future as against the past
- Focus on opportunities rather on problems
- Choose own decisions rather than climb on
- Aim on something which will make difference

Maintenance of options
Ability of making quick decisions
Mobilizing Resource

bandwagon

Techniques of Leadership
Create Friendship and avoid Enemies
Do not Open so many Fronts
Be Magnanimous (Ignore) instead of
Vindictim (Revenge)

Theories or Approaches of
Leadership

Trait
Behavioral

Contingency

Integrative

Trait Approach to Leadership


It
attempts
to
explain
distinctive
characteristics accounting for leadership
effectiveness to identify a set of traits that
all successful leaders possess. This
approach assumed that leaders share
certain inborn personality traits.

Trait Approach to Leadership


Specific traits related leadership ability:
Physical traits (energy, appearance, height)
Intelligence & ability traits

Personality traits (adaptability, aggressiveness,


enthusiasm, self-confidence)
Task-related
characteristics
drive, persistence, tenacity)

(achievement,

Social
characteristics
(cooperativeness,
interpersonal skills, administrative ability).

Behavioural Approach to
Leadership
It attempts to explain distinctive styles used by
effective leaders or the nature of their work. It
determines the types of leadership behaviors
that lead to successful task performance and
employee satisfaction. Researchers at Ohio state
and University of Michigan performed the most
extensive series of leadership studies in
developing this theory.

Leadership Styles
(High)

Consideration

Low Structure
High Structure
and
and
High Consideration High Consideration

Low Structure
and
Low Consideration

(Low)

High Structure
And
Low Consideration
(High)

(Low)
Initiating Structure

The Managerial Grid


It is a network of management styles
developed by Blake and Mouton which
explains these styles by using two
variables concerned for people and
concerned for productivity.

MANAGERIAL GRID
(9,9)
Team
Management

(1,9)
Country Club
Management

(5,5)
Middle of the Road
Management

Impoverished
Management

Concern for people

HIGH

(1,1)

LOW

LOW

AuthorityCompliance
Management
(9,1)

3
4
5
6
7
8
Concern for production

HIGH

Impoverish Managers (1,1)


They do not have the initiative to resolve the
conflict between the organizational objectives
and employees objectives
They neither identify with the people nor with
the organization
They avoid personal improvements
They pass on the bug to others and do not
make decisions
Neither they conduct evaluation and nor have
effective communication skill

Task Managers (9,1)


They show little concern for the
development and morale of subordinates
They tightly plan their goals
They focus to avoid mistakes
Their communication is restricted and
downward

Country Club Managers (1,9)


They focus on being supportive and
considerate of subordinates to the
exclusion of concern for task efficiency
They are overly concerned with morale
and personal objectives of employees
Their communication style is upward

Middle of the Road Managers (5,5)


They maintain adequate task efficiency
and satisfactory morale
They do give specific instructions but
also allow freedom
They evaluate success and failure quite
objectively

Their style of communication is generally


two way

Team Managers (9,9)


They facilitate task efficiency and high morale
by coordinating and integrating work related
activities
They inspire people, motivate
support them to the last

them

and

Their evaluation is an ongoing process with


objective to improve teamwork and enhance
productivity
Their communication style is completely open,
multidirectional and highly supported

Continuum of Leadership Behavior


Subordinat
e-centered
Leadership

Boss-centered
Leadership
Use of authority
by the manager

Manager Manager
Manager
makes
sells presents ideas
decision and decision
and invites
announces it
questions

Area of freedom
for subordinates

Manager
presents
tentative
decision
subject to
change

Manager
presents
problem, gets
suggestions,
makes
decision

Manager
Manager
permits
defines
limits; asks subordinates
to function
group to
within limits
make
defined by
decision
supervisor

Leader Behavior
Characteristics

of
subordinates

Functions

Leader

Motivated

Effective

of leader

behavior

subordinates

organization

Work

Environment
4-44

Contingency or Situational
Leadership Theory
It attempts to explain the appropriate
leadership style based on the leader,
followers, and situation. It holds that there
is no universal approach to leadership;
rather, effective leadership behavior
depends on situational factors that may
change over time. Current leadership
depends on three variables: the leader, the
led, and the situation

Situational Leadership Model


This approach to leadership by Hersey
and Blanchard -describes
how

leaders

should

adjust

their

leadership style in response to their


subordinates

evolving

achievement,

experience,

desire

ability

willingness to accept responsibility.

for

&

Situational Model of Leadership


(High)
Relationship Behaviour
(Low)

High Relationship
and
Low Task

High Task
and
High Relationship

Low Relationship
and
Low Task

High Task
and
Low Relationship

(Low)

Task Behaviour

(High)

Fiedlers Contingency Model of Leadership


Style
Of
leadership
Taskdirected

Human
Relations

Very
un favorable

unfavorable

+
favorable

Very
favorable

Favorableness of the situation


4-65

Fiedlers Contingency Model of Leadership


Leader-member
relations

Task structure

Position power

3
Variables of
Situational
Favorableness.

The Future of Leadership


Theory
Transactional Leaders
Transformational Leaders

Charismatic Leader

Transactional Leader
Leaders
who
determine
what
subordinates need to do to achieve
objectives,
classify
those
requirements and help subordinates
become confident they can reach
their objectives

Transformational Leader
Leaders who, through their personal
vision and energy, inspire followers
and have a major impact on their
organizations also called charismatic
leaders.

Phases of Transformation
Process
1. Recognizing need
for change.

2. Create a new vision.

3. Manage Transition
4. Institutionalize
the change.

Webers Charismatic
Leadership
Influence
based
on
follower
perceptions that the leader is
endowed with the gift of divine
inspiration or supernatural qualities

Charisma and Leadership


It is the capacity to be heroic and
colourful. It steers the emotions of
people and capture their heart and
minds. Charismatic leadership can be
disadvantageous
and
dangerous
because
people
abdicate
responsibility and put on their leader
to take care of every problem.

Common Characteristics
Self-confidence
Vision
Ability to articulate
Strong convictions
Out of the ordinary behavior

Perceived as change agents


Environmentally sensitive

Verbal
Skills
Visionary

Self
Promoting

Self
Confidence
Moral
Conviction

Charismatic
Leader
Characteristics

Empowers
Others
Minimum
Internal
Conflict

Relational
Power
Base

Inspires
Trust

High Risk
Orientation

High Energy
Action
Orientation

Strategies to Develop
Charismatic Qualities
Develop visionary skills
Practice being candid
Develop warm, positive,
humanistic attitude.

Develop an enthusiastic,
optimistic, energetic personality.

Ethical Charismatic
Leader

Unethical
.
Charismatic Leader

Uses power to serve


others
Aligns
vision
with
followers needs and
aspirations
Considers and learns
from criticism
Stimulates followers to
think independently & to
question the leaders
view
Open,
two
way
communication

Uses power only for


personal gain or impact
Promotes own personal
vision
Censures
critical
or
opposing views
Demands own decision
be accepted without
question
One way communication

Ethical Charismatic
Leader

Unethical
.
Charismatic Leader

Coaches, develops, Insensitive


to
and
supports
followers;
shares followers needs
recognition
with
others
Relies on convenient,
Relies on internal external
moral
moral standards to
satisfy org & societal standards to satisfy
interests
self-interests

Team
Two or more people who interact with
and influence each other toward a
common purpose. Each member of
the team has a shared responsibility
for getting the job done.

Types of Teams
Formal and Informal Teams
Command Team

Committee
Task Force or Project Team

Self-Managed Teams

Group & Team


Comparison
Work Group
Share Information
Neutral

Work Team
Goal

Collective Performance

Synergy

Positive

(Sometimes Negative)

Individual

Accountability

Random and Varied

Skills

Individual & mutual


Complementary

Characteristics of Teams
Leadership Roles
Team Norms

Team Cohesiveness

Leadership Roles
Enhanced Performance
Increased Awareness and Choice

More Focus and Integration


Rationale
Taking

Innovation

and

Conducive Team Atmosphere

Risk

Team Norms
These
are
assumptions
and
expectations about how members of a
group will behave. Norms can be
carried over from society or it can be
particular to a group or team.

Team Cohesiveness
It is the degree of solidarity and positive
feelings held by individuals toward their
group or team. Ways to Improve
cohesiveness:
Introduce Competition
Increase Interpersonal Attraction

Increase Interaction
Create Common Goals and Fates

Stages of Team Development


Forming
Storming

Norming
Performing

Adjourning

Team Roles
Driver (Develops ideas, directs & Innovates)
Planner (Estimates needs, plans strategies &
Schedules)

Enabler (The fixer manages resources, promotes


ideas & negotiates)

Executor (The producer, co-ordinates & maintains


the team)

Controller (Records, audits & evaluates progress)

Drivers Characteristics

Driver

Developer

Director

Innovator

Planners Characteristics

Planner

Strategist

Estimator

Scheduler

Enablers Characteristics

Enabler

Resource
Manager

Promoter

Negotiator

Executors Characteristics

Exec

Producer

Coordinator

Maintainer

Controllers Characteristics

Controller

Auditor

Monitor

Evaluator

Human Resource Management


It can be defined as the effective
selection and utilization of employees
to best achieve the goals and
strategies of the organization, as well
as the goals and needs of employees.

Challenges to HRM
Technology Change
Govt.
Interference

Diversification

HRM

Globalization

Competition

Workforce Diversity

Organization Chart of HRM


Function
Vice President
HRM

Director
HR Research
& Planning

Director
Staffing

Director
Employee
Relations

Director
HRD

Director
Compensation
& Benefits

A Human Resource Management Department


Vice President of Personnel/Human
Resource Management
Employment
Division

Wage & Salary


Division

Labor Relations
Division

Job Analysis
Human resource
planning
Recruitment
Interviewing
Testing
Placement
Resignations
Terminations
Records

Job Analysis
Job Evaluation
Wage/salary
surveys

Collective bargaining
Legal grievances
Suggestion plans
Contracts

Training &
Development Division

Employee Benefits &


Services Division

Organizational need
analysis
Career planning
Development & training
Appraisal

Health services
Insurance
Safety
Recreation facilities
Pensions

Primary HRM Functions


Human Resource Planning
Equal Employment Opportunity
Staffing (Recruitment and Selection)
Compensation and Benefits
Employee Relations

Health, Safety and Security


Human Resource Development

Secondary HRM Functions


Organization/Job Redesign
Performance Management

Performance Appraisal
Research and Information Systems

Human Resource Planning


The processes of planning, developing,
implementing,
administering
and
performing ongoing evaluation of
recruiting, hiring, orientation and
organizational exit, to ensure that the
workforce will meet the organization's
goals and objectives

Equal Employment Opportunity


These activities are intended to satisfy
both the legal and moral responsibilities
of the organization through the
prevention of discriminatory policies,
procedures, and practices.

Human Resource Development


It can be defined as a set of systematic
and planned activities designed by an
organization to provide its members
with
the
opportunities
to
learn
necessary skills to meet current and
future job demands.

Compensation and Benefits


The processes of analyzing, developing,
implementing,
administering
and
performing ongoing evaluation of a total
compensation and benefits system for
all employee groups consistent with
human resource management goals

Health, Safety and Security


The processes of analyzing, developing,
implementing,
administering
and
performing ongoing evaluation of
programs, practices and services to
promote the physical and mental wellbeing of individuals in the workplace
and to protect individuals and the
workplace from unsafe acts, unsafe
working conditions and violence

Employee Relations
The process of analyzing, developing,
implementing, administering and performing
ongoing evaluation of the workplace
relationship between employer and employee
(including the collective bargaining process
and union relations), in order to maintain
effective
relationships
and
working
conditions that balance the employer's needs
with the employees' rights in support of the
organization's strategic objectives

Recruitment
It is the process
attracting
capable
employment

of finding
applicants

and
for

Recruitment: Challenges and


Constraints

Strategic and Human Resource Plans


EEO Legislation
Recruiter Habits
Environmental Conditions
Job Requirements
Costs
Incentives
Organizational Policies

Recruitment Channels
Internal Recruitment Channels
External Recruitment Channels

Internal Recruitment Channels


Job-Posting Programs
Departing Employees

External Recruitment Channels

Walk-ins and Write-ins


Employee Referrals
Advertising
Sate employment Agencies
Private Placement Agencies
Professional Search Firms
Educational Institutions

External Recruitment Channels

Professional Associations
Labour Organizations
Military Operations
Govt Funded and Community Training
Programs
Temporary Help Agencies
Leased Employees
International Recruiting Agencies

Selection
The selection process is a series of
specific steps used to decide which
recruits should be hired. The process
begins when recruits apply for
employment and ends with the hiring
decision

Steps in Selection Process

Receipt of Applications
Employment Tests
Selection Interview
Reference and Background Checks
Medical Evaluation
Supervisory Interview
Realistic Job Previews
Hiring Decision

Types of Interviews

Unstructured Interviews
Structured Interviews
Mixed Interviews
Behavioral Interviews
Stress Interviews

Orientation or Socialization
A program designed to help employees
fit smoothly into an organization, also
called socialization.

HRD Functions
Training and Development
Organization Development
Career Development

HRD Process

Need Assessment
Design Phase
Implementation
Evaluation

T & D Approaches
On the Job Training
Off-the Job Training

On-the Job Training

Job Instruction Training


Job Rotation
Apprenticeships
Coaching

Off-the Job Training

Lecture
Video Presentation
Role Playing
Case Study
Simulation
Laboratory Training
Programmed Learning

Performance Appraisal
It is the process by which organizations
evaluate individual job performance. It
can be
Informal Appraisal
Formal Appraisal

Advantages of Performance
Appraisal

Personal Improvement
Compensation Adjustments
Placement Decisions
Training and Development Needs
Career Planning and Development
Staffing Process Deficiencies
Job Redesign
Equal Employment Opportunities
Feedback to Human Resource

Outcomes of Performance
Appraisal

Promotions
Transfers
Demotions
Separations

Planned Change
The systematic attempt to redesign an
organization in a way that will help it
adapt to changes in the external
environment or to achieve new goals.

Velocity of Change
While change and uncertainty have
always been a part of life, what has been
shocking over the last years has been
both the quantum and suddenness of
change

Model for an Organizations


Environment
Macro or Far Environment

Technological
Factors

Near or Operating
Environment
Partners

Customers

Clients

Economic
Factors

ORGANIZATION
Suppliers

Social
Factors

Competitors

Political
Factors

Brain Teaser
It is not the strongest of the species
that survives, nor the most
intelligent, but rather the one most
responsive to change
Charles Darwin

Forces for Change


New Technology
Workforce
Competition

Economic Shocks
Social Trends
World Politics

Sources of Resistance
Organizational Culture
Self Interests
Force of Habit
Fear of Unknown
Economic Threats
Resource Allocation

Lewins Process of Change


Unfreezing
Changing
Refreezing

Types of Planned Change


Structural Change
Technological Change
Human Change
Combined Change

Approaches to Planned Change

Change
Agent

Change in
Structure

Organization Redesign
Decentralization,
Modification of Work Flow

TechnoStructural
Change

Redesign of Structure
and Work Operations

Change in
Technology

Redesign of Work
Operations

Change in
People

Changes in Skills,
Attitudes, Expectations,
Perceptions

Improved
Organizational

Performance

Techniques or Methods of
Organizational Change
Mergers and Acquisitions
Re-organization
Restructuring
Right-Sizing

The Creative Process


Generation of Ideas
Problem Solving or Idea Development
Implementation

Prescriptions for Fostering


Organizational Creativity

Develop an Acceptance of Change


Encourage New Ideas
Permit more Interaction
Tolerate Failure
Provide Clear Objectives and the
Freedom to achieve them
Offer Recognition

Overcoming Resistance to Change

Education and Communication


Participation
Negotiation
Facilitation and Support
Manipulation and Co-operation
Coercion

Operations Management
The management activity that includes
planning,
production,
organizing
resources, directing operations and
personnel and monitoring system
performance.

Operations Management System


Feedback

Inputs
Raw materials,
human resources,
capital (land,
buildings,
equipment),
technology
information.

Outputs
Product/
Service
Design &
Facilities

Transformation
Process

Control
Processes

Products,
services, &
other (pollution)

Types of Operation Function


Manufacturing Operations
Non-manufacturing
Operations

or

Service

Types of Manufacturing
Operations
Make to Stock Producers
Make to Order Producers

Assemble to Order Producers

Production Management
Methods
Job Shops
Repetitive or Process Manufacturing

Batch Manufacturing

Productivity
It is the measure of how well an
operations system functions and
indicator of the efficiency and
competitiveness of a single firm or
department.

Customers Competitive
Priorities
Pricing
Quality Level

Reliability
Flexibility

Designing Operations Systems


What to Produce
How much to Produce

How to Produce
Whom to Produce

Who and What will Produce

Inventory Management
The process of maintaining and
controlling supply of raw materials,
work in process and finished goods in
an
organization
to
meet
its
operational need efficiently and
effectively

Inventory Management
Techniques
ABC Inventory System
Economic Order Quantity

Just in Time Inventory System

Just in Time Inventory System


The system in which production
quantities are ideally equal to delivery
quantities, with material purchased
and finished delivered just in time to
be used also known as Kanban.

Important Elements of JIT


A set Uniform Production Rate
A Pull Method of Coordinating Work
Centers

Purchasing and Producing in small lots


Quick, inexpensive setups

Multi-skilled
facilities

workers

and

flexible

Important Elements of JIT


High Quality Levels
Effective Preventive Maintenance

Continual Work Improvement

Economic Order Quantity


The ordering quantity at which
Ordering Cost is equal to Carrying
Cost and total cost is minimum

Total Quality Management


It integrates fundamental management
techniques, existing improvement efforts,
and technical tools under a disciplined
approach
focused
on
continuous
improvement

Key Issues in TQM


The Cost of Quality
A Cultural Change
Mechanism of Change
Implementation
Management Behavior

Benefits of TQM
Greater Customer Loyalty
Market Share Improvements
Higher Stock Prices
Reduced Service Cost
Greater Productivity
Higher Prices

Benchmarking
It is the continuous process of comparing
a companys strategy, products and
processes with those of world leaders and
best-in-class organizations in order to
learn how they achieved excellence and
then setting out to match and even
surpass it.