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Internal Training Session

Topic Centrifugal Pump

Centrifugal Force ??

Working mechanism of a Centrifugal pump

Impeller- converts the driver energy into


the kinetic energy
Volute (diffuser)- converts kinetic energy
into pressure energy

Kinetic energy to Pressure energy

Head
Cavitation

NPSH
Characteristic Curve
Efficiency

What is Head?
P = g h
For water
= 1000 kg/m3
g = 9.81 m/s2
H= 10 m
P= 1000 x 9.81 x 10 = 98000 kg/ms2

Remember

=98 kPa

1 kg/cm2 = 0.9678 atm

=0.96 atm
= 0.98 bar

1 kg/cm2 = 0.980bar
1 kg/cm2 =98.066 kPa

What is vapor pressure

Cavitations

Net Positive Suction Head

NPSH = Static Head Vapor pressure

Remember
Head Increases, velocity decreases. Hence flowrate decreases.
(Flowrate = velocity x area)

Flowrate increases, more NPSH is required..

Flowrate increases, more power is required..

H-Q curve for 172


mm impeller dia.

Discharge
pressure 3.7
kg/cm2 (37 m)

NPSH
(required)=
2.5 m
Q= 49.5 m3/hr

Power (P) = 6.5


kw

Pump Efficiency

Hydraulic power calculation


Data :
Q = 49.5 m3/hr
Discharge pressure = 3.7 kg/cm2
Efficiency at duty point = 77 %

Hydraulic power (Kw)


Hydraulic power (Kw)

Flow rate (m3/hr) x Dischargepressure(kg/cm2)x g (m/sec2)x 10000


3600 x1000

49.5 x 3.7 x 9.81 x10000


3600 x1000

Hydraulic power (Kw) = 5 kw


Shaft power (Kw)

Hydraulic power (kw) x 100


Pump efficiency (%)

Shaft power (Kw)

5 x 100
77

Shaft power (kw) = 6.45 kw

It is 6.45 kw from
performance curve

Pump Overall Efficiency


Data :
I = 10.47 A
V = 406 V
Cos =0.86

Electrical Power

Overall efficiency

= 3 x V x I x Cos
= 3 x 406 x 10.47 x 0.86
= 6331 W
= 6.331 kW
Pump hydraulic power
Electrical power

Overall efficiency 100 x

5
6.33

Overall efficiency 78 .98

Types

End Suction Pump

Max Q= 1012 m3/h


Max head= 156 m

Series 1510

Centrifugal Pumps

Split case pump

Max Q= 55000 m3/h


Max head= 156 m

Close-Coupled Pump

Max Q= 598 m3/h


Max head= 156 m

Centrifugal Pumps

Large, Line Mounted Pump


Max Q= 598 m3/h
Max head= 123 m

Series 80
Centrifugal Pumps

Multi-stage pumps
Max Q= 138 m3/h
Max head= 360 m

Centrifugal Pumps

Multi-stage pump

Centrifugal Pumps

Double Suction Pump

Max Q= 1840 m3/h


Max head= 120 m

Centrifugal Pumps

Why Centrifugal pump?


Advantages
the pump discharge rate is steady and not pulsating

the pump is suitable for high flow rates


the pump can handle liquids containing solids, although excessively large particles can
damage the pump
to a certain extent, the pump can be used as a metering pump if the drive can be
controlled
Disadvantages
the pump is not self-priming; even when it is in operation, it is important
that no vapour or air should be allowed to accumulate in the pump;

the pump is not suitable for high discharge pressures;


the pump is less suited to low flow rates and accurate metering.

Practical training

Typical single suction impeller

Centrifugal Pumps

Single suction impeller

Centrifugal Pumps

Impeller Types
Open
Semi-open
Closed
- Single suction
- Double suction
Non-clogging
Axial flow
Mixed flow
Centrifugal Pumps

Seals
Environment

Vessel
Wall

Shaft
Process
Fluid

Leakage

Centrifugal Pumps

Standard construction, any impeller


Mechanical seal
Internally flushed, seal cavity
Variety of seal materials

Centrifugal Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps

Coupling

Bearings