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HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

1.3

FMA 1967 (ACT 139)

* Reference: KMP3907 Industrial Health and Safety UPM

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

OBJECTIVES

1.

Control of factories operations with respect to safety, health


and welfare of persons

1.

Registration and inspection of machinery

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

APPLICATION
OSHA 1994 supersedes the FMA 1967 in the event of any
conflict
FMA 1967 applies to mainly factories and construction sites
FMA and OSHA enabling act (give power to minister to
gazette detail regulations)
Contains some general provision on safety, health and
welfare
FMA scope of the act limited to manufacturing industry,
mining and quarrying and construction
Acts do not contain detail provisions on specific matters
Detail provisions are stipulated under the regulations.

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

ARRANGEMENT

FMA 1967 divided into 6 parts:


Part 1

Preliminary

Part 2

Safety, health and welfare

Part 3

Persons-in-charge and certificates of competency

Part 4

Notification of accidents, dangerous occurrence and


dangerous diseases

Part 5

Notice of occupation of factory and registration and


use of machinery

Part 6

General

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

PART I PRELIMINARY
Definition of factory:
(a) There must be premises involved, the boundaries of which
can be defined;
(b) Within those premises, there is manual labor going on in
connection with one of the processes specified;
(c) The process must involve the making, altering, repairing,
ornamenting, finishing, cleaning, washing, breaking up
demolition or adapting for sale any article; and;
(d) The processes must be carried on by trade or for gain
Other definitions in Part I building operations, hoisting
machine, machinery, steam boiler

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

PART II SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE


Key points:
Premises must be structurally sound with safe access to work
areas, materials and goods must be safely stacked (Section 10)
Machinery must be of sound construction and dangerous parts
must be fenced (section 14, 15 and 16)
Employees must not misuse safety and health equipment
(Section 20)
Employees not allowed to act in a way that could endanger the
safety of himself or other person
Premises must be kept in clean, with adequate work space ,
ventilation, lighting and toilets (Section 22)
Persons must be supplied with adequate facilities for clothing,
storage, drinking, water, first aid and washing facilities (section
25)
Employees must be trained on the safety of machinery (section
26)

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

PART III PERSON IN CHARGE AND CERTIFICATES OF


COMPETENCY

Key points:
Machinery operators must be adequately trained or under the
supervision of a trained person (section 26)
Young persons (<16 years) must not operate machinery
(section 28)

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

PART IV NOTIFICATION OF ACCIDENT, DANGEROUS


OCCURRENCE AND DANGEROUS DISEASES

The occupier must notify the nearest inspector of accidents


and disease. Accidents include:
Loss of life
Injury to a person who loses more than 4 days work (loss time
injury LTI)
Serious damage to machinery or other property (Section 31)
Inspectors may investigate accidents and dangerous
occurrence and hold enquiries into more serious cases
(Section 33)

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

PART V NOTICE OF OCCUPTION OF FACTORY AND


REGISTRATION AND USE OF MACHINERY

Notify Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH)


within 3 months of the intended start date (section 34)
Building operations must be notified if last more than 6 weeks
(section 35)
Changes to the use of factory or machinery must be notified
to DOSH
Fills a standard form together with (a) layout plan of the
factory; (b) list of products to be manufactured; (c) list of
machines to be used; (d) list of chemicals, toxic or flammable
substances to be used and (e) detail flow chart of the
processes

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

PART VI GENERAL
General penalty RM2000.00
Certain sections is RM5000.00 (section 51)

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

SCHEDULE
Schedule 1 Defines dangerous occurrences to machinery
that need to be notified
Schedule 2 Describes the types of injury that may classified
as serious bodily injury
Schedule 3 Lists notifiable industrial diseases

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

The 15 regulations under the Act are as follow:


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Factories and Machinery (Certificates of Competency


Examinations) Regulations, 1970
Factories and Machinery (Electric Passenger and Goods Lift)
Regulations, 1970
Factories and Machinery (Fencing of Machinery and Safety)
Regulations, 1970
Factories and Machinery (Notification of Fitness and
Inspections) Regulations, 1970
Factories and Machinery (Persons-In-Charge) Regulations,
1970
Factories and Machinery (Safety, Health and Welfare)
Regulations, 1970
Factories and Machinery (Steam Boiler and Unfired Pressure
Vessel) Regulations, 1970
Factories and Machinery (Administration) Regulations, 1970

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

9. Factories and Machinery (Compounding of Offences) Rules,


1978
10. Factories and Machinery (Compounding of Offences)
Regulations, 1978
11. Factories and Machineries (Lead) Regulations, 1984
12. Factories and Machineries (Asbestos Process) Regulations,
1986
13. Factories and Machinery (Building Operations and Works of
Engineering Construction) (Safety) Regulations, 1986
14. Factories and Machinery (Noise Exposure) Regulations, 1989
15. Factories and Machinery (Mineral Dust) Regulations, 1989

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

FACTORIES AND MACHINERY (CERTIFICATES OF


COMPETENCY EXAMINATIONS) REGULATIONS 1970
Set up the framework for the certificated of competency
required under Factories and Machinery (Persons-In-Charge)
Regulations
Laid down pre-requisite for the application for a certificate of
competency and the examination procedure
All certificates of competency have requirements for
experience and an examination pass before they can be
granted
Certificates of competency can be suspended or cancelled if
the holder is medically unfit or in case of serious misconduct
or if judger unfit after an enquiry ir a court

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

FACTORIES AND MACHINERY (ELECTRIC PASSENGER


AND GOODS LIFT) REGULATIONS 1970
All new lifting machines (cranes, cab, winch) and lifting
appliances (pulley and chain blocks) have a manufacturers
certificate specifying safe working load with design drawing
and load calculations
Apply to lifts that are use to carry persons including goods lift
Owner to provide detail design to obtain approval from DOSH
(Regulation 6)
Capacity of a lift is based on lift car floor area and displayed
clearly on each lift car (Regulation 7)
Specifications for the following components of a lift system :
Machines room (Regulation 9)
Lift well (Regulation 10)
Landing doors (Regulations 12 and 13)
Lift car (Regulation 14 to 19)
Suspension system (Regulation 20-29)

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Duties of lift owner to maintain lift (3 monthly inspections and


monthly service by competent person)
Enter details of all inspections and maintenance activities in
the register for each lift (Regulation 31)
Owner must display certificate of registration in the lift car or
at the bottom of the landing (Regulation 32)

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

FACTORIES AND MACHINERY (NOTIFICATION OF


FITNESS AND INSPECTIONS) REGULATIONS 1970
Details of notification, certificate of fitness and inspections
carried out by DOSH
Part 1
Specify the forms that must be used to notify the DOSH
officer of a new occupancy of a factory, the start of building
work, the installation of certain machinery and the notification
of accidents and diseases.
Part 2
Describes the certificate of fitness that must be held for steam
boilers, UPV and hoisting machines
Certificate of fitness is valid for 15 months from the date of
inspection (Regulation 10)

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Part 3
Governs the inspection of factory or machinery by DOSH
Factory and machinery inspected at regular intervals (15
months but up to 36 months at the discretion of DOSH 0
Regulation 14)
DOSH give advance notice of the inspection to the occupier
Occupier prepare machinery for the inspection
Factory or machinery not complying with regulations may
result in DOSH issuing a direction to improve the situation
(Regulation 27)
Stop work notice may be issued for machinery without a
current certificate of fitness (Regulation 28)

Part 4
Inspection fees charged by DOSH

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

FACTORIES AND MACHINERY (FENCING OF MACHINERY


AND SAFETY) REGULATIONS 1970

Safeguarding of machinery
All dangerous parts of machine including the power
source and transmission must be guarded
Describe methods for guarding various parts of machine:
- Part 2 : Prime mover (power source)
- Part 3 : Transmission machinery
- Part 4 : Driven machinery

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Part 4 specifies the methods for guarding different types of


machinery:
- Abrasive and grinding machinery
- Machinery using rolls
- Saws
- Planers
- Spindle moulders
- Grooving and tenoning machine
- Chain-mortice machine
- Mixers
- Centrifuges
- Presses
- Guillotines
- Conveyors

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Other machines must also be securely fenced


Other form of guarding switches and interlocks
Workers trained in the operation of certain dangerous
machines and aware of the danger of such machines
Six schedules gives further specification for the materials and
dimensions of machine guards

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

FACTORIES AND MACHINERY (PERSON IN CHARGE)


REGULATIONS 1970
Specify persons-in-charge of certain machinery require
certificate of competency including:
- Steam boiler
- Steam engine
- Internal combustion engine
- Dredge
Steam boiler include UPV with steam connected to it
Steam boiler and steam engine require steam boiler drivers
certificate of competency for smaller boilers (<2000 sq ft
heating surface)
Larger boiler need an engineers certificate of competency for
steam boiler and steam engine (Regulation 5)
IC engines < 100 hp need a holder of IC engine drivers
certificate

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Requirement to provide instruction and training to operators of


certain machinery
Each operator must have a course of instruction and 10 days
of supervision by an experienced operator (Regulation 20)
Schedule 1 lists machineries that require a trained operator:
Presses
Saws
Metal working machines
Hoisting machines

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

FACTORIES AND MACHINERY (SAFETY, HEALTH AND


WELFARE) REGULATIONS 1970
Deal with factory premises and various safety, health and
welfare requirements
Key points:
Safe means of access and safe place of employment,
provision of edge protection on floor openings and stairs
(Regulation 7,8)
All stairways and floors must be of good construction and
properly maintained; ladders must be of adequate
construction and maintained in a sound condition
(Regulations 9 to 11)
Persons must be protected from falls of more than 10 feet by
the use of safety belts or ropes (Regulation 12)
Adequate protection are necessary before working inside a
confined space (Regulation 13)

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Flammable and dangerous liquids must be


securely stores and precautions taken against
fire and explosion (Regulations 14 to 17, 21,22)
Materials and finished goods must be securely
stored and precautions taken against fire and
explosion (Regulations 19, 20)
Specifications are laid down for cleaning of
surfaces inside factory (Regulation 23)
Lighting, ventilation and climate requirements
are all detailed (Regulations 24-29)
Working clothes and protective equipment (Regulation
32)
Welfare facilities such as toilets, drinking water,
washing facilities and first aid (Regulation 33 to 38)

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Four schedules of the regulations:


1. First Schedule specify classes of factories that do not
need internal surfaces white washed every 12 months;
2. Second schedule describes the level of lighting required
in different parts of the factory
3. Third schedule lists work activities that need eye
protection or protective screens
4. Fourth schedule contents of first aid box

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

FACTORIES AND MACHINERY (STEAM BOILER AND


UNFIRED PRESSURE VESSEL) REGULATIONS 1970
Part I General Conditions
Describes condition for obtaining permission from DOSH
before a steam boiler or unfired pressure vessel (UPV) is
manufactured or imported
DOSH may accept the design and operation details of the
item an issue an authorized safe working pressure (SWP)
Steam boilers and UPV (autoclaves, compressors,
pressurized storage tanks and gas cylinders) must comply to
codes listed schedules
Part II Steam Boilers
Details on safety fittings required on a steam boiler
Burner system of steam boiler

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Part III Unfired Pressure Vessel


Air receiver, steam receiver and other UPV
Essential safety fittings and further specifications
Part IV Miscellaneous Provision
Piping associated with steam boiler
Procedure for hydrostatic test before put into service and at 7
year intervals
Registration plate that display registration number

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

FACTORIES AND MACHINERY (ADMINISTRATION)


REGULATIONS 1970
Set out the administration by DOSH officer of FMA and
regulations
List of fees of charged for an officers service
Describe the records that must be kept by OSH personnel
DOSH must provide a report on the administration of the Act
and regulations to the minister every year

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

FACTORIES AND MACHINERY (COMPOUNDING OF


OFFENCES) RULES 1978 & FACTORIES AND MACHINERY
(COMPOUNDING OF OFFENCES) REGULATIONS 1978

Some offences can be compounded


Compounding is an agreement to receive of money from an
offender instead of prosecuting him
Describes offences that can be compounded
Rules gives procedures to be followed by DOSH for
compounding an offence

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

FACTORIES AND MACHINERY (BUILDING OPERATIONS


AND WORK ENGINEERING)(SAFETY) REGULATIONS 1986
Cover instruction safety
Apply to building operation defined as:
the construction, structural alteration, repair and
maintenance of a building (including re-painting, re-decoration
and external cleaning of the structure), the demolition of a
building, and the preparation for and the laying of the
foundation of an intended building
Works of engineering construction
the construction of any railway line or siding and the
construction, structural, alteration or repair (including repointing and re-painting) or the demolition of any dock,
harbor, inland navigation, tunnel, bridge, viaduct, waterworks
or gas holder

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Regulation applies in addition to any other relevant FMA or


regulation requirements, e.g. certificate of fitness for hoisting
machine, guarding of dangerous parts of machinery
There are 17 parts in the regulation:
Part 2
Describes general precautions that should be taken
Use of PPE, electrical safety, lighting, access to workplaces,
storage of materials and disposal of debris.
Part 3
Precautions to be taken in the erection and dismantling of
formwork for concrete buildings

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Part 4
Safety requirements involved in the erection of structural steel
and pre0cast concrete structures
Temporary floorings needs to follow up the construction of a
steel frame building (Regulation 38)
Working in steep roofs (Regulations 39 to 42)
Crawling board or roofing brackets must be installed on roofs
with a slope greater than 1 in 4 (Regulation 40)
Part 6
Catch platform erected along the exterior faces for
demolition originally more than 12.2 meters in height
Protect public against falling objects

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Part 7
Chutes for rubbish removal totally enclosed if the angles
exceed 45 degrees from horizontal
Design and construction of chutes (Regulations 46-49)
Use and inspection of safety belts and safety nets
(Regulations 50 57)
Part 8
Runway and ramps for the use of vehicles, workers and
barrows (Regulation 58 to 61)
Part 9
Ladders and step ladders
Securely fixed so that they cannot slip
Ladder access is necessary for all work exceeding 1.5 meters
in height (Regulation 71)

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Part 10
Scaffold and their components must be well structured from suitable
and sound material and of adequate strength
Sufficient materials available to construct the scaffold
Scaffold material properly stored and when not in use kept away
from defective material
Every scaffold properly maintained and accidental displacement
must be prevented
Scaffold securely placed or fixed in position
Stability of scaffold independent, putlog or mobile units
(Regulations 76 and 77)
Provision of braces, ties, the structural integrity of the building
supporting the scaffold
Requirement concerning the construction, stability and firm base
requirements for mobile towers
Scaffolds inspect weekly or after exposure severe weather condition
Inspection result entered into register kept on site
Guard rails are required on scaffolds if persons may fall > 3 meters

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Part 11
Required precautions for demolition
Main provisions:
No part of the building or structure can be allowed to
become dangerously overloaded with debris
The following work must be done under close supervision
of a competent person with adequate experience of work
a) Demolition of all or part of a building structure
(except when there is no foreseeable risk of collapse)
b) Demolition of all or part of a building or structure where there
is a special risk of collapse of anything as a result of the
demolition
c) Cutting of an reinforced concrete steelwork or ironwork
forming part of the building or structure being demolished
and before the cutting precautions are to be taken to prevent
twisting, springing or collapse

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Part 12
Safety in excavation work
Excavation shored up or cut back to prevent collapse
Guardrails must be installed if excavations exceed 3 meters in
depth (Regulation 113)
Excavation provided with safe access if more than 1.2 meters
deep (Regulation 115)
Part 13
Storage and disposal of building materials
Safe method stacking bricks, masonry blocks and bags
(Regulation 122)

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Part 14
Safety in piling work
Inspect pile driving equipment daily by a competent person
Competent person to personally direct the work and give the
operating signals (Regulation 127)
Part 15
Explosives must not be handled or used except by or under
the immediate control of a competent person
When explosive are fired, employees must not be exposed to
risks of injury from the explosion or flying material
Take steps to prevent accidents
Part 16
Hand and power tools must be maintained in a safe condition
Use of hand tools, electric, pneumatic, hydraulic, fuel and
power driven equipment

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Safety Organization on site


Main contractor should appoint a part time safety supervisor
spend at least 15 hours per week on safety supervision
Contractor with more than 20 persons on the site appoint
contractors safety supervisor spend at least 5 hours per week
on safety supervision
Safety supervisor should be competent person with at least 2
years experience as a site foreman
When 50 or more persons are employed on construction site,
the main contractor should establish a safety committee
Committee consist of a senior member of the main contractors
staff, all appointed safety supervisors and any appointed site
workers

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

REGULATIONS ON HEALTH

FMA 1967 contains regulations at preventing exposure and


minimizing the health effects of certain hazards
Specific regulations exist for lead, mineral dust, asbestos and
noise

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

FACTORIES AND MACHINERY (LEAD) REGULATIONS


1984
Specify a range of duties and controls
Health surveillance (blood test) and administrative control
Key features:
Permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 150 gm3 of air
averaged over an 8 hour period
Protection factor may be taken into account when
respiratory protection is worn
Employers are required to carry out atmospheric
monitoring
Personal samples to be taken from employees exposed to
lead

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Specific detail of monitoring program:


Initial determination made using representative sample or worst
case (highest exposure)
Monitoring for all employees exposed above action limit
Frequency of monitoring:
At least every 6 months for exposures below PEL and above
action level (75 gm3)
Every 3 months for exposure above PEL
Employees must be notified of results

Specify engineering control and work practice to be used to


control exposure to below PEL
Specify respiratory protection based on airborne concentration
of lead.
Employers provide other forms of protective equipment
(coveralls, gloves, goggles, shoes etc) and ensure employees
use them
Employer is to arrange for their cleaning and storage
Provide change room and shower facilities

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Provide medical surveillance program for all employees


exposed above the action level for > 30 days per year
Frequency of biological monitoring is specified as well as
the frequency of medical examination
Temporarily removed an employee from exposures above the
action level where blood levels are above
80g/100 gm for males and 40 g/100 gm for females of
child bearing capacity
Employee training
Procedure for record keeping
Penalty RM2000.00

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

FACTORIES AND MACHINERY (ASBESTOS)


REGULATIONS 1986
Establishes a PEL of 1 fiber/ml of air over 8 hour period
Requires exhaust equipment (LEV) to be provided in order to
keep exposures below PEL
Requires equipment to be examined and tested at specified
intervals by a competent person
Provide PPE in the prescribed area or where concentrations
exceed PEL
Obligation on employees to use PPE
Cleaning and housekeeping
Personal monitoring at least at 3 monthly interval to comply
with regulations
Medical examination of employees at least every 2 years
(lung function test)
Specify details of the test

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Provide employees with training on the process, controls ,


PPE and medical surveillance
Medical records kept for 20 years
Remove employees from work area if there is indications of
asbestos related diseases

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

FACTORIES AND MACHINERY (NOISE EXPOSURE)


REGULATIONS 1989
Permissible exposure level :
Equivalent continuous sound level 90dB (A)
Noise dose of unity
Not exceedingly limit in schedule
Maximum noise level of 115 dB (A)
Impulsive noise not to exceed 140 dB (A)
Method of compliance is by engineering and/or administrative
controls
PPE is used if these are not practicable
Initial and ongoing monitoring for employees exposed above
PEL
Hearing protection for employees exposed by the action level

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Hearing protection must attenuate noise level below the PEL


and limit for impulsive noise
Audiometric test program every year if exposure is above PEL
or there is a threshold shift
Train employees in aspects of regulations, effects of PPE and
audiometric testing

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

FACTORIES AND MACHINERY (MINERAL DUST)


REGULATIONS 1989
Employers provide and employees required to use protective
clothing, respiratory equipment and other protective
equipment
Report any defects in the equipment
Sand blasting is prohibited unless written approval from
DOSH is obtained
PEL for mineral dust (<1% silica) of mg/m3 total
PEL of 0.1 mg/m3 quartz and 0.5 mg/m3 for cristobalite and
trydimite

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

Carry out atmospheric monitoring:


Initial monitoring of all employees in processing area
Every 6 months for exposures between action level and PEL
Every 3 months for exposures above PEL
Employees must be notified of the results
Control equipment to remove dust (engineering control)
Inspect and maintain equipment
Employer required to provide PPE
Medical examination of employees exposed above action level
Medical records to be kept for 20 years
Provide training for employees on the regulations, nature of the
operation, control equipment and medical examination.