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DataBase (DB)
A place where the collection of records will be maintained in a structured format so that It
can be easily retrieved when ever required is known as a database.

One of the most popularly used database model is


the relational model. It was developed by Edgar
Codd in 1969.
Example :
How do you think the Organizations store their
employee and customer information? they store it in
a database.
where do you think the website maintains the login
information about their users?
they store it in a database.

ERP
ERP, which is an abbreviation for Enterprise
Resource Planning, is principally an integration
of business management practices and modern
technology.
ERP is a business tool that management uses to
operate the business day-in and day-out.

OLTP
OLTP, which is an abbreviation for Online Transaction
processing, handle real time transactions which inherently
have some special requirements. If your running a Bank, for
instance, you need to ensure that as people withdrawing
money from ATMS they are properly and efficiently updating
the database also those transactions are properly effecting to
their Accounts.

Data, Data everywhere yet ...


I cant find the data I need
data is scattered over the network

I cant get the data I need


need an expert to get the data

I cant understand the data I found


available data poorly documented

I cant use the data I found


results are unexpected
data needs to be transformed from
one form to other
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What are the users saying...


Data should be integrated across
the enterprise
Summary data has a real value to
the organization
Historical data holds the key to
understanding data over time
What-if capabilities are required

In What way I can Answer the above question with


my OLTP system...
Is Data Warehousing is the Solution ?? YES

Can I Improve my
business using Data
warehousing ??
YES.. How ??

Data warehouse helps any Business in Many


Ways
Lets say A producer wants to know.
Which are our
lowest/highest margin
customers ?
Who are my customers
and what products
are they buying?

What is the most


effective distribution
channel?

What product prom-otions have the biggest


impact on revenue?

Which customers
are most likely to go
to the competition ?
What impact will
new products/services
have on revenue
and margins?
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DWH (Data Warehousing)


It usually contains historical data derived from transaction data, but it can include data
from other sources. It separates analysis workload from transaction workload and
enables an organization to consolidate data from several sources.

Raugh kimball
In simplest terms Data Warehouse can be
defined as collection of Data marts.
-Data marts : Subjective collection of Data.

Bill Inmon
A data warehouse is a subject-oriented,
integrated, time variant and nonvolatile collection
of data in support of managements decision-making
process.

OLAP (Online Analytical Processing)


The ability to analyze metrics in different dimensions such as time, geography, gender,
product, etc. For example, sales for the company is up. What region is most responsible for
this increase? Which store in this region is most responsible for the increase? What
particular product category or categories contributed the most to the increase? Answering
these types of questions in order means that you are performing an OLAP analysis.
OLAP servers provides better performance for
accessing multidimensional data. The most important
mechanism in OLAP which allows it to achieve such
performance is the use of aggregations.
Aggregations are built from the fact table by
changing the granularity on specific dimensions and
aggregating up data along these dimensions.
OLAP systems gives analytical capabilities that are
not in SQL or are more difficult to obtain.

1. OLTP (on-line transaction processing)

1. OLAP (on-line analytical processing)

2. Day-to-day operations: purchasing,


inventory, banking, manufacturing, payroll,
registration, accounting, etc.

2. Data analysis and decision making

3. The tables are in the Normalized form.

3. The tables are in the De-Normalized


form.

4. We Called the Storage objects as


Tables. i.e., All the masters and the
Transactions are stored in the tables.

4. We Called the Storage objects as


Dimension and Facts. i.e., All the masters
Are dimension and the Transactions are
Facts.

5. For Designing OLTP we used data


modeling.

5. For Designing OLAP we used


Dimension modeling.
OLAP is classified into two i.e.,
MOLAP & ROLAP

De-Normalized Tables

Normalized Tables

Product_Dim
Product
Prod_Id

Prod_Id

Prod_Name

Prod_Name
Base_Rate

Base_Rate
Cat_Id

Category
Cat_Id
Cat_Name

Group

Cat_Desc

Group_Id

Group_Id

Cat_Name
Cat_Desc

Group_Name
Group_Desc

Group_Name

Topics Later We will Cover

Group_Desc

1. Types of Dimensions
2. Slowly changing Dimensions
3. Hierarchies

SalesOrderDetails
Cust_Id
SalesPerson
Prod_Id
Order_Date
Booked_Date
Delivery_Date
Unit_Price
Qty
Tax
Created_By

SalesOrder_Fact
Cust_Id

Prod_Id
Order_Date

Reference
keys of
Dimensions

Delivery_Date
Unit_Price
Qty
Total_Amount
Tax

Numeric
fields
called as
Fact or
measure

Qty*Unit_Price+Tax=Total Amount
Usually calculate all the calculations
before storing into OLAP

Org_Dim

Prod_Dim

Org_Id
Prod_Id

SalesOrder_F
act

Cust_Id
Prod_Id
Order_Date

Delivery_Date
Org_Id
Cust_Dim

Time_Dim

Unit_Price

Qty

Date

Cust_Id

Total_Amount

Year

Tax

Month

STAR Schema

Product_Di
m

SalesOrder_Fact

Prod_Id

Prod_Id

Prod_Name

Order_Date

Base_Rate

Delivery_Date

Cat_Name

Unit_Price

Cat_Desc

Qty

Group_Nam
e

Total_Amount

Group_Des
c

Cust_Id

Tax

1. Dimensions will have only


relation with the Fact.
(Normalized model)
2. One to many or One to
One relation will Occur.
3. Performance is fast but
required huge storage space.

1. Dimension will have a


relation other than Fact. (DeNormalized model)
2. Used for many to many
relation.
3. Performance is Low but
required Less storage space.

A single, complete and


consistent store of data
obtained from a variety of
different sources made
available to end users in a
what they can understand
and use in a business
context.
[Barry Devlin]
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Data Warehousing -It is a process


Technique for assembling and
managing data from various
sources for the purpose of
answering business questions.
Thus making decisions that were
not previous possible
A decision support database
maintained separately from the
organizations operational
database
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Also Data Mining works with


Warehouse Data
Data Warehousing provides the
Enterprise with a memory

Data Mining provides the


Enterprise with intelligence
20

Oracle 10g

Base Product

$ 25K

$ 40K

IBM DB2

$ 25K

Tuning
$3K
Diagnostics
$3K
Partitioning
$10K

Performance
Expert
$10K

$ 56K
40K

$ 35K
25K

(included)

Manageability
Base Product

$ 25K

OLAP
$20k
Mining
$20k
BI Bundle
$20k

DB2 OLAP
$35K
DB2
Warehouse
$75K
Cube Views
$9.5K

Business
Intelligence
(included)

Manageability
Base Product

$ 25K

$$ 116K
56K

$ $154.5K
35K

Data Guard
$116K

Recovery
Expert
$10k

High Availability
Business
Intelligence
(included)

Manageability
Base Product

$ 25K

$ 232K
116K

$ 164.5K
154.5K

$116K $232K

$164.5K

$$348k
232K
$464k

$$164.5K
329K

Multi-core
High Availability

Business
Intelligence
(included)

Manageability
Base Product

$ 25K

Data
Analysis

Reporting, OLAP,
Data Mining

Data
Storage

Repository
Data-Migration

Operational
Data Sources

Middleware (Populations-Tools)

What
happened?

Why did
it happen?

What happened
why and how?

What will
happen?
Number of Users

Additional Benefit

OLTP
O

ROLAP

Stage DB
Optional

MOLAP
CUBE

SSAS
SSIS

Data Marts

SSRS
Integration Services

Analysis
Services

Reporting
Services

OLTP Online Transaction Processing


OLAP Online Analytical Processing
MOLAP Multidimensional OLAP
ROLAP Relational OLAP
HOLAP Hybrid OALP
Dimensions De-normalized master tables
Attributes Columns of Dimensions
Hierarchies sequential order of attributes
Facts (Measure group) Transactions tables in DWH
Fact (Measures)
Cubes Multidimensional storage of Data
KPIs Key performance indicator
Dashboards combination of reports,kpis,charts
Data Marts Subjective Collection of Data
SCDs Slowly changing Dimensions
Perspectives Child Cube