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Journeyman Welding &

Piping Services
A PRESENTATION ON
WELDING TECHNIQUE
Research and Created by:
V. Menchavez
JWPS Journeyman Welding &
Piping Services

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Welding Technique Used For


Chilled Water Piping is

SMAW
[ Shielded Metal Arc Welding]

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SMAW
Shielded Metal Arc Welding : - This method is the most familiar
and common type and is known in the trade as stick welding. A
metal wire rod coated with a welding flux is clamped in an electrode
holder connected to the power supply with a heavy electrical cable.
The metal to be welded is also attached to the power supply. The
electric power is supplied to the work at a low voltage and high
current and may be either AC or DC, depending upon the type of
welding being done. An arc is struck between the rod and the work
and produces heat in excess of 10,000deg F, Which melts both the
material and the rod. As the flux melts, it releases an inert gas which
shields the molten puddle from oxygen in the air and prevents
oxidization. The molten flux covers the weld and hardens to an
airtight slag cover that protects the weld bead as it cools. This slag
must be chipped off to examine the weld.
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Why use welding?


Welding is used because it is:
One of the most cost-effective
methods of joining metal
components.
Suitable for thicknesses ranging
from fractions of a millimeter to a
third of a meter.
Versatile, being applicable to a
wide range of component
shapes and sizes.

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Welding Positions

1G
2G
5G
6G

1F
2F
2FR
4F
5F

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1G Position
PIPE TO PIPE
WELDING

Pipe rotated, Electrode is always at the top


Either a split bead or weave technique may be used

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2G Position
PIPE TO PIPE
WELDING

Pipe Axis Vertical, Weld is


Horizontal, Pipe is considered in a
fixed position.
Always use a split bead technique
Always work from the bottom up.

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5G Position
PIPE TO PIPE
WELDING

Axis of the Pipe is Horizontal, The weld in vertical.

Progression may be up or down.


A weave bead is best used.
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6G Position
PIPE TO PIPE
WELDING

Pipe axis is fixed in position


at a 45 degree incline. The
position includes flat,
horizontal, vertical, and
overhead welds.
A split bead technique is best
used.

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1F Position
PIPE TO PLATE
WELDING

Pipe is rotated. The pipe


axis is at a 45 degree
incline. Welding is to
occur at the top of the
pipe.
Split bead or weave
technique may be used.
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2F Position
PIPE TO PLATE
WELDING

Fixed Position
Best to use a split
bead technique

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2FR Position
PIPE TO PLATE
WELDING

A split bead
technique is best
used.

Rotated
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4F Position

PIPE TO PLATE
WELDING

A split bead technique is best used

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5F Position
PIPE TO PLATE
WELDING

Not Rotated. Progression


may be up or down.
Split beads or weaves can
be used on 5F-up welds,
split beads are best used
on 5F-down welds.
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Butt Joint Preperation


(Joints without backing)

75-800 Face angle


1-2 mm Root gap

1.0 mm land

1.0 mm

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Fill Pass

Cover Pass

Root Pass

Hot Pass

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Always work from the bottom up


when using the split bead technique

Always be careful not to create a tight


area where slag may get trapped under
the next weld.
It is better to weave slightly than to
leave a tight area.

Plan your sequence of beads!

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Always work toward the smaller side


of the fillet. (It will be easier to get to)
Always be careful not to create a tight
area where slag may get trapped under
the next weld.
It is better to weave slightly than to
leave a tight area.

Plan your sequence of beads!

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Techniques
Stringer (push, drag, or whip), or Weave

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Progression (vertical)
Up (Electrode is moved from Down to top)
deeper penetration
Higher deposit rate (lb/hr)
Use near 90 degree travel angle or slightly up
Down (Electrode is moved from Top to Down)
faster (point to point)
less penetration for thin metal
less dilution
Use steep drag angle
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TYPES OF DEFECTS OBSERVED IN WELDING

Porosity
Pin hole
Cracks
Undercut
Lack of Fusion
Lack of Penetration
Slag Inclusion
Excess Penetration
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TYPES OF TESTING DONE ON WELD JOINT

D.P.T (Dye Penetrant Testing)


M.P.T (Magnetic Particle Testing)
U.T (Ultrasonic Testing)
R.T (Radiography Testing)

NOTE: THESE TESTING ARE KNOWN AS NON - DESTRUCTIVE


TESTING.

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CARE TO BE TAKEN BEFORE WELDING


1. Check the joint for proper V groove .
2. Remove The Mill Scale Or Rust By Buffing Or Wire Brushing The
Surface.
3. Ensure the joint is dry, there should be no moisture content on or
near the joint surface.
4. Ensure the electrode used for welding is fully dry.

CARE TO BE TAKEN AFTER WELDING


1. Proper cleaning should be done after welding to remove slag &
spatters.

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Final Pass after Root Pass

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Machine settings. You will need to make adjustments depending on how thick the metal
is, electrode diameter, and type of electrode.
Note: Machine settings of Amps & Voltage will be given on welding electrode cover.

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FOLLOWING ARE SOME OF


THE SNAPS OF GOOD &
DEFECTIVE WELDING

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Snap taken at the root side of the weld joint. (Inside the pipe)

Excess penetration is observed

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Snap taken at the root side of the weld joint. (Inside the pipe)

Lack of penetration is observed.


This occurs due to less root gap
provided in the weld joint.
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Porosity observed
This occurs due to moisture
content in the electrode or
near the weld joint or due to
welder lack of performance

Under cut observed


This is due to High current
used during welding
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IMPROPER BEADING OBSERVED


(THIS IS DUE TO WELDER LACK OF
PERFORMANCE)

SPATTERS
OBSERVED

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SPATTERS
OBSERVED

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Snap taken at the root side of the weld joint. (Inside the pipe)

Excess penetration is observed


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Snap taken at the root side of the weld joint. (Inside the pipe)

Lack of penetration is observed.


This occurs due to less root gap provided at the joint
During fitup.

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Porosity observed
This occurs due to moisture content in the
electrode or near the weld joint, or due to
welder lack of performance
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Under cut observed


Porosity Observed

This is due to High current


used during welding

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SPATTERS OBSERVED
IMPROPER BEEDING OBSERVED
(THIS IS DUE TO WELDER LACK OF PERFORMANCE)

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SPATTERS OBSERVED

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IMPROPER BEEDING IS OBSERVED

SLAG INCLUSION IS
OBSERVED
BOTH THE DEFECT WILL OCCUR DUE TO LACK OF
WELDER PERFORMANCE.
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GOOD
WELDING

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GOOD WELDING, But surface


cleaning to be done.

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GOOD
WELDING

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GOOD
WELDING

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GOOD WELDING, But surface cleaning


& Spatters to be removed.

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GOOD
WELDING

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GOOD
WELDING

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GOOD
WELDING

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