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What is Memory?
Memory is our ability to encode, store, retain and
subsequently recall information and past experiences
in the human brain. Memory makes us. If we couldn't
recall the who's, what's, where's, and when's of our
everyday lives, we'd never be able to manage. We
mull over ideas in the present with our short-term (or
working) memory, while we store past events and
learned meanings in our long-term (episodic or
semantic) memory.

Meme and Memory

Experiences that stay in the unconscious mind are
called Mneme.
Experiences that are retained in the conscious world
may be termed as memory.
Memory consists retaining and remembering what has
previously been learnt.
Memory means conservation of experience so that
the past affects actions in the present.

Hemispheres Of Brain
Each hemisphere of the brain functions like two
different personalities with their own way of processing
information. The left brain thinks methodically and likes
to organize and categorize information from the
environment. It connects new information with old,
making sense of our world.
This contrasts with the right brain which "thinks"
holistically in pictures. The right learns kinesthetically
through the body and functions with the present. It's
the right brain that's responsible in counseling for
bringing in our awareness to the present.

Left and Right Brain Functions

Other Important Right

Brain Functions

Tone of voice
Facial expression
Intensity of response
Autobiographical Memory (remembering your
Birthday, significant events)
Map of the body (only on this side)
Stress Management

Difference Between Left

And Right Brain
The left brain connects our internal world to our external
world giving us that feeling of being separate from one
another. It's the left brain that gives us the sense of "I
The right brain is that part of our brain that connects us
to each other. In counseling, it's the right brain that gives
us the feeling that our therapist is attuned to us.
Note:- Whatever that part of the brain which sends this
type of information is the same part of the brain that
receives it. And, for our purposes it's also important to know
that the right hemisphere functioning is the first area of the
brain to develop. The left hemisphere develops later.

Factors Affecting Memory

The factors that influence learning process can be
categorized into two, which are internal and external
factor. Internal factors are such factors like the
environment, relationship, context
reward/purnishment and methods. However, internal
factors include perception, emotion, attitude, ability.
motivation and memory.
Memory ability does change with age. Aging
changes the brain and therefore memory ability. This is
normal (provided there are no underlying medical
conditions) and is referred to as "age-related" memory

Marks Of Good Memory

The rapidity with which the power of recalling
an experience is acquired;
The length of time during which the power of
remembering lasts without being refreshed;
The rapidity and accuracy of the actual revival.
Serviceableness, or in other words the readiness
with which it reproduces what is relevant to the
prevailing interest of the moment.

Memorizing Techniques
1. Organize - List facts in alphabetical or chronological
order. Get a general idea of the textbook material, note
the simple to complex and general to specific. Logical
facts are easier to remember.
2. Make It Meaningful - Look for connections in what you
are studying. For example, packing a parachute by itself
can be boring, however, the excitement of jumping out of
a plane gives a whole new meaning to this process.
Focusing on the "Big Picture" helps provide meaning to the
learning process and stimulates us to remember.
3. Create Associations - Associate something new with
something you already know. This creates a building
process in your memory bank. If you already know a Bill
Smith think of the Bill you know and associate him with the
new Bill Smith.

4. Learn It Actively - People remember 90 percent of what

they do, 75 percent of what they see and 20 percent of
what they hear. This saying is very accurate, as action is a
proven memory enhancer. Move your hands, pace back
and forth and use gestures as you recite a passage. If your
body is actively involved it will help you to remember.
5. Relax - Eating proper foods, avoiding caffeine before an
exam and getting proper exercise will help you relax and
feel more confident. Relaxing will enhance your ability to
recall facts faster, with more clarity, and you will feel better
6. Create Pictures - Draw diagrams, make up cartoons. Use
them to connect facts and illustrate relationships. When
abstract concepts can be "seen" they are much easier to
remember. You can be as creative as you want, as long as
you understand your scribble.

7. Recite and Repeat - When you repeat something out

loud you anchor the concept better by using two or more
of your senses. Repetition is the "Mother" of learning. If you
use more than one sense you create a "synergistic" effect
which is powerful memory technique. If you recite out loud
in your own words, memory is enhanced even more!
8. Write It Down - Writing notes to ourselves help us to
remember. If we write down an idea or a passage several
times, in different areas, we increase our chances to
9. Reduce Interference - Find an area free from distractions.
Studies show that most students study more effectively in a
quiet area in 1 hour than in a noisy area in 2 hours.
10. Over-learn - When you think you got it dont quit. Dont
miss a chance to review just one more time. Ever hear the
expression "I beat that subject to death!" Do It!

11. Review Notes the Same Day - Studies prove that in

order for us to store information "long term" it must be
reviewed within 24 hrs. or less. By getting in the habit of
same day review, we increase the chances of
remembering by over 70 percent!
12. Use Daylight - This method is particularly effective for
weekend study and review. Study the most difficult subjects
during daylight hours. For many students the early morning
hours can be especially productive and will stimulate the
memory process.
13. Distribute Learning - Research suggest marathon study
sessions (3 hrs. or more) are not as effective as light study
sessions (1-2 hrs.) which are distributed at different times
during the week. Take frequent breaks. Some students can
study 50 minutes or more, others need to stop after 30
minutes. Try to distribute your length of study in the same
rhythm as your classes (50/10/50). Give yourself rewards,
youve earned it!

14. Keep a Positive Attitude - Studies prove that if you repeat to

yourself negative feelings about a subject you increase your
chances to fail! Since we all want to succeed, "Trash negative"
and replace with "Positive Thoughts." For example, replace "I
cant do it" with "Its not easy, but I am tough and I accept this
challenge." Prove you can and you will! This is a self-fulfilling
prophecy as attitude directly effects the memory!
15. Go On an "Information Diet" - Just as we avoid certain foods,
we can choose what not to retain. Extract core concepts, study
what you will be tested on, abbreviate large passages of
information into easy to digest phrases, this will help you
16. Combine Memory Techniques - All of the memory techniques
work better when combined. You can over learn a formula, sing
about a famous person, think positive thoughts about subjects,
use sight, sound, and other methods to sharpen your memory.

17. Remember Something Else - When you are stuck and cant
remember, think of something related to the information. For
example if you cannot remember a name, think about what the
person did, what period they lived or who they associated with.
Write down what you do know and soon it will trigger facts that you
are trying to recall. This technique really works!
18. Note When You Dont Remember - If you tried some memory
techniques that do not seem to work, its all-right. Try an experiment
with other techniques and use what is best for you and not what
works for a classmate. Be a reporter, get the facts, find out what
works and what doesnt. Congratulate and reward yourself when
you do remember.
19. Use It Before You Loose It - Information stored in the long-term
memory may become difficult to recall if you dont use it. Simply
read it, write it, speak about it and/or apply it. This is especially
effective when you have to recall formulas or facts from a previous
course. The 101 course information may be used in a 102 course.
Therefore, retain your notes, the old text, and keep the information
fresh with a review.

20. Affirmation of Your Good Memory Helps You to

Remember - When you are sharp and recall all the
facts, accept compliments! When you do not recall
the facts, think that you know it, you can remember,
and the facts will come to you. You may have to use
various techniques to help you remember but never
give up! You truly "never forget." Those facts will
eventually "come to you." Keep studying, try again
and they will!

Enhancement Of Memory
Learn/Do Something New
The brain can absorb new data, make new
connections, and acquire new skills, which helps to
enhance memory. To take on new things you need to
believe that you can deal with the specific activity or
problem and that you will have reasonable success.
Social Interaction and Support
Humans require positive meaningful interactions with
other humans. Lack of stimulation from these types of
interactions can lead to depression and cause
memory problems. Unfortunately not all human
interactions are of this nature. In addition to your
routine interactions seek out those with whom you can
have positive and meaningful interactions.

Eating a well balanced diet is essential for healthy
aging. Within a well balanced diet that includes fruits,
vegetables, bread and cereal, the vitamins that
support our memory (folic acid, B12, and thiamin) will
be available.
Breathing & Relaxation
Breathing is good, it is essential to life. We can use
breathing to calm ourselves. Focusing on your
breathing can help to reduce tension and
nervousness, which can inhibit our ability to pay
attention and can interfere with memory.

Water is an essential element for humans to exist, it
also helps to promote memory. Not enough water
can lead to dehydration, which can cause confusion
and problems with memory.
Physical Exercise
The mind-body connection is real. Physical exercise
can promote mental alertness and healthy aging.
Exercise comes in many different forms. Finding what is
best for you and fits with your lifestyle is critical to
making it part of routine activities. The keys to physical
exercise is that it must be safe for you, be something
that you enjoy doing, and you must do it regularly
several times a week. Before beginning any exercise
program you should consult your health care provider.

Rest /Sleep
Both rest and sleep are very important for the body as well
as the brain. During sleep the brain has a decrease in
sensory input which the brain to sort though experiences
and activities and store memory
Some Other Tips:
Take a look at you habits, see if there are any that do
not enhance your memory. If there are, make a plan to
change them. Consider developing new habits that can
support your memory, such as paying attention, making
lists, taking notes, organizing your environment, and/or
associating facts to images.
Identify and acknowledge for yourself why you want to
enhance your memory
Know what it is that is motivating you to do this, and how
this will sustain your motivation

Consider the circumstances around attempting any

new activity or behavior change, are the
circumstances conducive to success?
Be patient with yourself
Be diligent
Find things that excite you
Don't give up
Congratulate yourself along the way