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Environmental Factors

afecting crops.
Chapter 12: Climate,weather and crops

Concept Overview

Temperature can vary from place to place

1. It surrounds all living things
2. All living organisms need it
3. It gives Earth most of its energy

A. organism

B. energy

C. the ocean

D. environment

E. the sun

Living things depend on the


Ecology: the scientific study of how

organisms interact with their environment
and all the other organisms that live in
that environment
Ecosystem: describes a particular
environment and all the living things that
are supported by it

Ex: pond, desert

Important: how the living parts of the

ecosystem relate to the nonliving parts

Living things depend on the



Biotic factors: living parts

water, fish, plants in and around, animals feed on the plants,

fish feed on microorganisms in the water

Abiotic factors: nonliving parts

Air (carbon dioxide and oxygen), soil (nutrients), water,


Biotic factors interact with an


Living things depend upon an ecosystem, and also have an impact on the ecosystem
in which they live

Plants (biotic) affect biotic and abiotic parts of ecosystems



affect temperature by blocking sunlight

Roots hold soil in place
Photosynthesis - Carbon dioxide and oxygen

Animals (biotic) affect ecosystems

An important source of food help determine types of animals that can live there

Ex: beaver builds a dam which changes the flow of a river and affects the surrounding
Ex: herds of cattle can overgraze a grassland causing soil erosion, and climate impacts
Ex: corals form giant reefs that provide food and shelter for marine organisms

Other examples?

Many abiotic factors affect


Physical parts:

You can see or feel: temperature, rainfall, water level,

sunlight, etc.

Chemical parts:

Minerals and compounds in the soil and water

Fresh/salty water

Abiotic factors determine what organisms the

ecosystem will support

Abiotic Factor: Temperature

Affects types of plants that will do will in an ecosystem,

which determines the types of animals that can live

Ex: Rainforest: temperatures affect the plants that can

grow and support a variety of monkeys, birds, and others

Ex: musk oxen have at hick coat of fur for survival in very
cold environments (-40F), water buffalo has a light coat
better for warmer temperatures

Abiotic: Light

Sunlight and temperature are related

Sunlight is also used for energy: photosynthesis

The food from plants supports almost all other living things on Earth

Strength and amount of sunlight are important

Desert: cacti can survive where sunlight is strong

Forest: mosses and ferns do well with less light

Ocean Ecosystems: deeper water, less light

Photosynthesis only performed to the first hundred meters below the


Euphotic (or photic) zone

- the depth of the water in a lake or ocean, that is exposed to sufficient
sunlight for photosynthesis to occur.

Abiotic: Soil

Soil: mixture of small rock and


Organisms in the soil can break

down the remains of dead plants
and animals

Soil types vary and affect plant


This decay provides important raw

materials to living plants and

Lots of decaying, or organic,

matter: holds water well and allows
air to reach plant roots
Sandy soil holds water poorly
Clay soil: small packed particles,
does not aerate well


Abiotic: Water

All living things need water to carry out life

Plants need water for photosynthesis
Animals need water to digest food and release
energy stored in the food
Desert Oasis: forms when underground water
comes to the surface
Ecosystesm with lots of water can support a large
number of different types of plants, which in turn
support a variety of types of animals

Rainforest vs desert

* the types and number of living things in a land

ecosystem will always be related to the amount
of fresh water available for its inhabitants

Solar radiation

One of the most important factors that influences

plants development is the solar radiation
intercepted by the crop. The solar radiation brings
energy to the metabolic process of the plants. The
principal process is the photosynthetic
assimilation that makes synthesize vegetal
components from water, CO2 and the light energy
possible. A part of this, energy is used in the
evaporation process inside the different organs of
the plants, and also in the transpiration through
the stomas.

Solar radiation of the earth.



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