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Slide 10.

Marketing
Across
Cultures
Chapter 10
Product policy 2: Managing meaning

Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 10.2

What country is the parent?

Firestone Tire

Japan (Bridgestone)

Burger king

Great Britain (Diageo)

Rolls-Royce

Germany (Volkswagen)

RCA Electronics

France (Thomson SA)

Dr Pepper

Great Britain (Cadbury-S)

Gerber

Switzerland (Novartis)

Baskin-Robbins

Great Britain (Allied Domecq)

Holiday Inn

Great Britain (Bass PLC)

Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 10.3

Country-, company- and brandrelated product image

Image of imported versus national products or national versus


international products
Ethnic image of generic products

yoghurt =>Balkans,
perfume => France,
a pair of jeans => the United States, etc.

National image of the manufacturing company


The image diffused by the brand name
The image of the 'made in' label

manufacturing origin legally appended to the product


origin labelling is mostly mandatory in international trade

Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 10.4

Figure 10.1 Several layers of country-, company- and brand-related product


image
Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 10.5

Table 10.1 Some examples of the combined inuence of brand name and
country of origin on product image
Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 10.6

Failures and blunders in international


marketing: the role of key nothings

Size / servings

Inadequate brand name

unexpected negative associations

Local marketing teams want to show that headquarters


have taken a poor decision

Cue, Pajero,

Product shape or colour

locally irrelevant

and do everything needed to prove it !


NIH syndrome

The trap of ethnocentric approaches

Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 10.7

McDonalds in Isral:
An example of key nothing

Ad showed a slice of cheese that was in direct contact


with meat

contrary to Jewish religious prescriptions

milk-based products should be separated from meat-based food

Following massive consumer complaints, McDonalds


withdrew the ad and to change the campaign in 1996.

Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 10.8

Cultural content of products and marketing


strategies: marketing as local knowledge

Culture-free vs. culture bound products/services

Ingrained habits

Customs / traditions

Religion / taboos and social mores

Language

Almost culture-free products (e.g. a portable


computer) always have some culture-bound
elements (e.g. a keyboard)

Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 10.9

Global brands are never truly


global

Alphabet

Linguistics devices

some are global


(alliteration)
others (compounding and
clipping) are local

Sounds

Visual elements

Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

A federation of lexically
equivalent local
marketing assets

Local consumer
responses and images
invested in similar brands

Local advertising strategy


& execution has created
different images over time
Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 10.10

A truly global brand name?

A translinguistic device - sounds & writing

Consistent underlying core themes

Executed for at least fifteen years in a similar


manner across a very large number of countries

Consumer needs are consistent for the product


category worldwide (airlines vs. coffee)

Ad spending of at least $200 million per year


world-wide and more probably $.5 billion

Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 10.11

Linguistic elements of brands as


marketing assets
Brand Name:

Spelling (letters+numbers)

writing systems

Speaking the name

Visual associated with a brand


(logo/design)

The Whiskas example

Visual aspects in ideographic


writing systems

Global companies must play


on a large register of
languages and meanings to
develop global brands

pronunciation and phonology


Matsushita vs. Technics

Denotative meaning

Connotative meaning

Choco-BN
Kinder (semantics)

Rhetorical value

persuasive content (Tide)

Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 10.12

Linguistic characteristics of brands


I.

Phonetic devices

II.

Orthographic devices

Alliteration: Consonant repetition

Unusual or incorrect
spellings

Kal Kan, Vizir, Omo

Weight Watchers, Tic Tac

Onomatopoeia: Use of syllable

Decap'Four

Abbreviations
7-Up

Consonance: Consonant repetition


with intervening vowel changes

Kool-Aid,

Assonance: Vowel repetition

Coca Cola, Cocoon

for Seven-Up

Acronyms
Amoco,

DB, Cofinoga, Lu, BSN,


HP, P&G

phonetics to resemble the object

Clipping: Product names attenuated

Wisk, Cif, Wizzard


Chevy for Chevrolet, Deuche for
Citroen Deux Chevaux, Rabbit for
Volkswagen

Initial plosives: /b/, /c-hard/, /d/, /ghard/, /k/, /q/, /t/,

Bic, Dash, Pliz, Pim's

Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 10.13

Linguistic characteristics of brands


III.

Morphological devices
Affixation:

Semantic devices: rhetoric

Metaphor:

Jell-O, Tipp-Ex

Compounding:

IV.

Janitor-in-a-Drum, Vache-qui-rit

Aqua-Fresh, Longeurs et Pointes, Head


and Shoulders, Tendres Promesses

Metonymy: Application of an object or


quality

Midas, Ajax, Uncle Ben's, Bounty

Personification: Humanizing
nonhuman or ascribing human
emotions to the inanimate

Oxymoron: Conjunction opposites

Crme de peinture

Paranomasia: Pun and word plays

Clio, Kinder

Fdor - orange juice

Semantic appositeness: Fit of


name with object

Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

Nutella
Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 10.14

Complex management of global


brands

US: Single product


branding (single minded
approach)

Europe: corporate name


often used in conjunction
with product category
brand + product brand
(complex meanings)

Japan: corporate brand


(Kamei)

Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

Brands are targeted to


consumers and also to
the organization itself and
its distribution networks

Several brand levels are


difficult and costly to
manage

Brand histories are in


favour of Japanese and
American global brands
Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 10.15

Unilever ice-cream in Europe

Unilever is not a strong, ideological globalizer


compared to US companies

Local corporate / category brand names are not


unified, but the logo is and consumers recognize
the visual rather than the textual part of the
brand identity . . .

Key product names (Magnum, Vienneta) are


standardized Europe-wide
I

can ask for Magnum anywhere I see the logo!

Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 10.16

Recommendations for international


brand names

Simple spelling: 2 or 3 syllables

Avoid unintended meaning in target languages

no long sequence of either consonants or vowels


avoid phonemes which are not translinguistic
Chevy Nova / Laque Cabynet / Cue Tooth paste, etc.
Mere translation is dangerous: Tide => Mare (noire)
Transliteration: Gillettes Silkience (US+D); Soyance (F) =>
Sientel (I)
Transparence: Sony, National

The loss of a brand source meaning is not a major


problem since local consumers reinvest the brand name
with new meanings (which may fit with the intended local
positioning)

Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 10.17

Image Power Ranking


Firm
Coca-Cola/Coke
Sony
Mercedes-Benz
Kodak
Disney
Nestl
Toyota
McDonalds
IBM
Pepsi Cola
Rolls Royce
Honda
Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

Share of Mind
1
4
12
5
8
7
6
2
20
3
23
9

Esteem
6
1
2
9
5
14
23
85
4
92
3
22
Pearson Education Limited, 2005

Slide 10.18

Image Power Ranking (cont.)


Firm
Panasonic
Levis
Kleenex
Ford
Volkswagen
Kelloggs
Porsche
Polaroid
BMW
Colgate
Seiko
Nescaf
Canon
Usunier & Lee, Marketing Across Cultures, 4E

Share of Mind
17
16
13
10
11
14
27
15
32
21
33
19
35

Esteem
10
8
16
24
26
30
11
44
12
51
15
64
17
Pearson Education Limited, 2005

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