Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18

CHAPTER 2:

BONDING AND PROPERTIES


ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
What promotes bonding?
What types of bonds are there?
What properties are inferred from bonding?

Chapter 2- 1

BOHR ATOM
orbital electrons:
n = principal
quantum number
1
2
n=3

Adapted from Fig. 2.1,


Callister 6e.

Nucleus: Z = # protons
= 1 for hydrogen to 94 for plutonium
N = # neutrons
Atomic mass A Z + N
Chapter 2- 2

ELECTRON ENERGY STATES


Electrons...
have discrete energy states
tend to occupy lowest available energy state.

Adapted from Fig. 2.5,


Callister 6e.

Chapter 2- 3

STABLE ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS


Stable electron configurations...
have complete s and p subshells
tend to be unreactive.

Adapted from Table 2.2,


Callister 6e.

Chapter 2- 4

SURVEY OF ELEMENTS
Most elements: Electron configuration not stable.
Electron configuration
1s 1
1s 2
(stable)
1s 22s 1
1s 22s 2
Adapted from Table 2.2,
1s 22s 22p 1
Callister 6e.
1s 22s 22p 2
...
1s 22s 22p 6
(stable)
1s 22s 22p 63s 1
1s 22s 22p 63s 2
1s 22s 22p 63s 23p 1
...
1s 22s 22p 63s 23p 6
(stable)
...
1s 22s 22p 63s 23p 63d 10 4s 24 6
(stable)

Why? Valence (outer) shell usually not filled completely.


Chapter 2- 5

THE PERIODIC TABLE


Columns: Similar Valence Structure

Adapted from
Fig. 2.6,
Callister 6e.

Electropositive elements:
Readily give up electrons
to become + ions.

Electronegative elements:
Readily acquire electrons
to become - ions.
Chapter 2- 6

ELECTRONEGATIVITY
Ranges from 0.7 to 4.0,
Large values: tendency to acquire electrons.

Smaller electronegativity

Larger electronegativity

Adapted from Fig. 2.7, Callister 6e. (Fig. 2.7 is adapted from Linus Pauling, The Nature of the Chemical
Bond, 3rd edition, Copyright 1939 and 1940, 3rd edition. Copyright 1960 by Cornell
University.
Chapter 2- 7

IONIC BONDING

Occurs between + and - ions.


Requires electron transfer.
Large difference in electronegativity required.
Example: NaCl

Chapter 2- 8

EXAMPLES: IONIC BONDING


Predominant bonding in Ceramics

H
2.1
Li
1.0
Na
0.9
K
0.8
Rb
0.8
Cs
0.7
Fr
0.7

NaCl
MgO
CaF 2
CsCl

Be
1.5

O
3.5

Mg
1.2
Ca
1.0
Sr
1.0

Ti
1.5

Cr
1.6

Ba
0.9

Fe
1.8

Ni
1.8

Zn
1.8

As
2.0

F
4.0
Cl
3.0
Br
2.8
I
2.5
At
2.2

He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
Rn
-

Ra
0.9

Give up electrons

Acquire electrons

Adapted from Fig. 2.7, Callister 6e. (Fig. 2.7 is adapted from Linus Pauling, The Nature of the Chemical
Bond, 3rd edition, Copyright 1939 and 1940, 3rd edition. Copyright 1960 by Cornell
University.
Chapter 2- 9

COVALENT BONDING
Requires shared electrons
Example: CH4
C: has 4 valence e,
needs 4 more

H: has 1 valence e,
needs 1 more
Electronegativities
are comparable.
Adapted from Fig. 2.10, Callister 6e.

Chapter 2- 10

EXAMPLES: COVALENT BONDING


H2

column IVA

H2O
C(diamond)

H
2.1
Li
1.0
Na
0.9
K
0.8

Be
1.5
Mg
1.2
Ca
1.0

Rb
0.8
Cs
0.7

Sr
1.0

Fr
0.7

Ra
0.9

SiC

Ba
0.9

Ti
1.5

Cr
1.6

Fe
1.8

F2
He
-

O
2.0

C
2.5
Si
1.8
Ni
1.8

Zn
1.8

Ga
1.6

Ge
1.8

As
2.0

Sn
1.8
Pb
1.8

F
4.0
Cl
3.0

Ne
-

Br
2.8
I
2.5

Kr
-

At
2.2

Rn
-

Cl2

Ar
-

Xe
-

GaAs

Adapted from Fig. 2.7, Callister 6e. (Fig. 2.7 is


adapted from Linus Pauling, The Nature of the Chemical Bond, 3rd edition, Copyright 1939 and
1940, 3rd edition. Copyright 1960 by Cornell University.

Molecules with nonmetals


Molecules with metals and nonmetals
Elemental solids (RHS of Periodic Table)
Compound solids (about column IVA)

Chapter 2- 11

METALLIC BONDING
Arises from a sea of donated valence electrons
(1, 2, or 3 from each atom).

Adapted from Fig. 2.11, Callister 6e.

Primary bond for metals and their alloys


Chapter 2- 12

SECONDARY BONDING
Arises from interaction between dipoles
Fluctuating dipoles

Adapted from Fig. 2.13, Callister 6e.

Permanent dipoles-molecule induced


-general case:

Adapted from Fig. 2.14,


Callister 6e.

-ex: liquid HCl

Adapted from Fig. 2.14,


Callister 6e.

-ex: polymer
Chapter 2- 13

SUMMARY: BONDING
Type

Bond Energy

Comments

Ionic

Large!

Nondirectional (ceramics)

Covalent

Variable
large-Diamond
small-Bismuth

Directional
semiconductors, ceramics
polymer chains)

Metallic

Variable
large-Tungsten
small-Mercury

Nondirectional (metals)

smallest

Directional
inter-chain (polymer)
inter-molecular

Secondary

Chapter 2- 14

PROPERTIES FROM BONDING: TM


Bond length, r
F

Melting Temperature, Tm
F

Bond energy, Eo

Tm is larger if Eo is larger.

Chapter 2- 15

PROPERTIES FROM BONDING: E


Elastic modulus, E
Elastic modulus
F
L
=E
Ao
Lo

E ~ curvature at ro
Energy
unstretched length
ro

E is larger if Eo is larger.

smaller Elastic Modulus


larger Elastic Modulus

Chapter 2- 16

PROPERTIES FROM BONDING: a


Coefficient of thermal expansion, a

coeff. thermal expansion


L
= a(T2-T1)
Lo
a ~ symmetry at ro

a is larger if Eo is smaller.

Chapter 2- 17

SUMMARY: PRIMARY BONDS


Ceramics
(Ionic & covalent bonding):

Metals
(Metallic bonding):

Polymers
(Covalent & Secondary):

Large bond energy


large Tm
large E
small a

Variable bond energy


moderate Tm
moderate E
moderate a

Directional Properties
Secondary bonding dominates
small T
small E
large a

Chapter 2- 18