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Theory of Structures_

ARCH 310
Lecture Topic: Structural Floor
Systems
Name: Lawrence Ogunsanya
Email :
lawrencesanya@yahoo.com

Introduction
Floor systems are the horizontal planes that must support both

live loads and dead loads.


A group of components fastened together make up this
horizontal frame and it require support at two sides opposite
each other.
Floor systems must transfer their loads horizontally across
space to either beams and columns or to load bearing walls
Floor systems may be composed of a series of linear beams
and joists overlaid with a plane of sheathing or decking or
consist of a homogenous slab of reinforced concrete.
The depth of the floor system is directly related to the size and
proportion of the grid network it must span and the strength of
the materials used.
Floor systems can be in 3 main forms: Concrete, Steel or
Timber.

Introduction
Concrete:
Concrete floor slabs are
supported by columns, beams
and loadbearing walls
Steel:
Steel beams support steel
decking or precast concrete
planks or slabs
These beams may be
supported by girders, columns or
load bearing walls
Beam framing is typically an
integral part a steel frame
system.
Timber/wood:
Wood beams are also
supported by girders, columns or
load bearing walls

What drives the choice of a


floor system?
Speed of construction
Services
Adaptability of space
Day lighting
Aesthetics
Acoustics
Fire Resistance

What drives the choice of a


floor system?
Speed of construction
For some projects the need to reduce to a minimum the
construction time (on site) may play a determining role. Indeed,
time is often one of the key drivers for choosing a structural steel
framework solution.

Building with steel frame

The Ark Hotel, China

What drives the choice of a


floor system?
Services
When a lot of service ducts are to be accommodated it may be
beneficial to adopt a floor solution that provides a flat soffit in order
to maximise the flexibility in routing these ducts beneath the
structural floor.
It will also be easy to remove and/or replace these ducts to meet
future needs.
Solutions that provide a flat soffit don't also allow long spans. So an
alternative in a building that is both highly serviced and requires
long-span floors is to integrate the services within the beam depth,
so that the total depth of structural floor plus service zone is
minimised
Another option is to use webbed or castellated beams

Services intergraded into the


floor system

What drives the choice of a


floor system?

Need for adaptable space

This is dependent on the spanning ability of the floor material


This spanning ability allows the number of internal load bearing

walls and columns to be minimised.


Open floor spaces can be created, or non load-bearing
partitions (that are easily moved) used to form (temporary)
individual areas.

Floor slab spans

Estimate span ranges for different floor slab systems

Floor slab spans

What drives the choice of a


floor system?
Day lighting requirements
'Deep' floor plans (floor plan widths that are more than15 metres)

may mean that, occupants of a building are not exposed to


natural lighting.
Long span solutions may not then be the most appropriate
solution for certain situations, rather a short span design (for
example using shallow floors ) with an internal atrium may
provide a more appropriate internal environment.
The shallowness of the floors is achieved by placing the slabs
and beams within the same zone. An added benefit is that a flat
soffit is achieved.

Shallow floors

What drives the choice of a


floor system?
Aesthetics
If false ceilings are used then the aesthetics of the soffit of a

given structural floor system are clearly irrelevant.


However, a number of clients have recently been looking for
exposed soffits, exposed primarily so that the thermal mass of
the floor is exposed.
The soffit must also then be visually appealing.

What drives the choice of a


floor system?
Acoustics
In terms of resisting airborne sound a massive floor is beneficial,

and when considering impact sound avoiding stiff structural


connections between components is helpful.
Good detailing and installation of sound proof membranes are
needed.

Acoustic floors

Under screed isolation materials

Floated wood and composite


floor systems

What drives the choice of a


floor system?

Fire resistance
The most common solution adopted to provide fire resistance
is to protect the steel members so that they remain at a
sufficiently low temperature).
Use a lot of concrete on the building.
Intumescent coatings, which are applied off-site and expand
with temperature to provide an insulation layer, are often used.
If the steel elements are embedded in concrete this can
provide the necessary insulation against fire.
Other options include board protection and the use of a
cementitious spray.

Fire protection
Application of thin film intumescent
coatings offsite

Board protection systems

Concrete floor slab systems


Flat slab
Flat plate
Beam and slab
Ribbed (waffle slab)
Hollow core slab (precast)
Solid slab (precast)

Concrete floor slab systems


FLAT SLAB
A flat slab is a one-way or two-way system with thickenings
in the slab at the columns and loadbearing walls called 'drop
panels.
Drop panels acts as T-beams over the supports. They
increase the shear capacity and the stiffness of the floor
system under vertical loads, thus increasing the economical
span range.

Concrete floor slab systems


FLAT SLAB
Advantages
Simple formwork
No beamssimplifying under-floor services outside the

drops
Minimum structural depth
Usually does not require shear reinforcement at the columns.
Disadvantages:
Medium spans
Generally not suitable for supporting brittle (masonry)
partitions
Drop panels may interfere with larger mechanical ducting
Vertical penetrations need to avoid area around columns
For reinforced flat slabs, deflection at the middle strip may be
critical.

Concrete floor slab systems


FLAT PLATE
A flat plate is a one- or two-way system usually supported
directly on columns or loadbearing walls
It is one of the most common forms of construction of floors
in buildings. The principal feature of the flat plate floor is a
uniform or near-uniform thickness with a flat soffit which
requires only simple formwork and it is easy to construct.
The floor allows great flexibility for locating horizontal
services above a suspended ceiling or in a bulkhead.

Concrete floor slab systems


FLAT PLATE
Advantages:
Simple formwork and suitable for direct fix or sprayed ceiling
No beamssimplifying under-floor services
Minimum structural depth and reduced floor-to floor height.
Disadvantages:
Medium spans
Limited lateral load capacity as part of a moment frame
May need shear heads or shear reinforcement at the
columns or larger columns for shear
Long-term deflection may be controlling factor
May not be suitable for supporting brittle (masonry) partitions
May not be suitable for heavy loads.

Concrete floor slab systems

BEAM AND SLAB


This system consists of beams framing into columns and
supporting slabs spanning between the beams.
It is a very traditional system. The relatively deep beams
provide a stiff floor capable of long spans, and able to resist
lateral loads.
However, the complications of beam formwork, co-ordination
of services, and overall depth of floor have led to a decrease in
the popularity of this type of floor.

Concrete floor slab systems


BEAM AND SLAB
Advantages:
Traditional effective solution
Long spans.
Disadvantages:
Penetrations through beams for large ducts
difficult to handle
Depth of floor
Greater floor-to-floor height

Concrete floor slab systems


RIBBED [WAFFLE] SLAB
The basic construction method begins by digging a trench
down to undisturbed mineral subsoil.
Ribbed floors consisting of equally spaced ribs are usually
supported directly by columns
They are either one-way spanning systems known as ribbed
slab or a two-way ribbed system known as a waffle slab.
This form of construction is not very common because of the
formwork costs and the low fire rating.
Ribbed slabs are suitable for medium to heavy loads, can
span reasonable distances, are very stiff and particularly
suitable where the soffit is exposed.

Concrete floor slab systems


RIBBED [WAFFLE] SLAB
Advantages:
Savings on weight and materials
Long spans
Attractive soffit appearance if
exposed
Economical when reusable
formwork pans used
Vertical penetrations between ribs
are easy.
Disadvantages:
Depth of slab between the ribs may
control the fire rating
Requires special or proprietary
formwork
Large vertical penetrations are
more difficult to handle.

Concrete floor slab systems


HOLLOWCORE
Hollow core floor planks are precast, pre-stressed units
produced on long-line casting beds using slide forming or
extrusion methods
During manufacture, cores are formed throughout the unit,
reducing its self-weight.
Planks are usually 1200-mm-wide, though some
manufacturers can produce 2400-mm-wide units.
These wider units may require increased crane capacity but
offer greater speed of placement, less joints, grouting and
sealing.

Concrete floor slab systems

SOLID SLABS
Solid precast pre-stressed floor slabs are typically wet-cast on
long-line beds in unit moulds or by hollowcore equipment using
slip form or extrusion methods.
Thickness is usually 150, 200 and 250 mm.
Solid slabs are chosen where the loading results in high shear
or there are heavy point loads;
the environment is aggressive, for example in splash zones or
where condensation may occur over water, dry arid areas.
High cover or special concrete is required;

Concrete floor slab systems


PRECAST CONCRETE SLABS
Advantages
Durability and low maintenance.
Corrosion and impact resistance,
Fire resistance
Able to control the quality of materials and workmanship

better than onsite


Manufactured to various sizes and thickness
Disadvantages:
Handling and transporting
Stresses induced during handling and erecting units may
cause significant structural design concerns

Questions