Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 49

Identifying the Agents

Call Drop Analysis in Huawei 2G Networks

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

ideas to discuss
1. Call Drop Analysis : definition and Methods.
2. Meaning of Radio-DR, TCH-DR and Call-DR.

3. The most helpful Huawei STS and Logs in call drop


analysis.
4. Call Drop Investigation flow chart.

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

ideas to discuss
6. Using Huawei Tools in the analysis process.
7.Practicing call drop analysis on real cases.
8. How to automate the call drop analysis process.
9. One-month plan to optimize CDR% on Network level.

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

Call Drop Analysis : definition and Methods

Call drop analysis :


To Find out the direct reason(class) and then the indirect
reason (agent) of call drop.
Direct like Interference , coverage , Hardware OOS etc
In-Direct like wrong frequencies , excessive down-tilt
etc
Indirect Reason

Wrong parameter
planning mistakes
Band overlapping
Improper maintenance
Old equipment not
replaced

1/6/2015

direct Reason

Very bad quality


Faulty board
RF signal loss
Transmission outage

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

Call Drop Analysis : definition and Methods

What can we analyze ?


counters
Drive test logfiles
Tracing logfiles
Alarms Logs
OMU Logs

How can we analyze in the right way?


Choosing Decisive counters
Follow Investigation flow chart
Accumulated knowledge database
Using optimization tools (e.g. Nastar)
1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

Call Drop Analysis : definition and Methods

Visualize

Collect and study the detailed statistics of problematic cell

Classify

Determine the class or type of the drop and determine the size of
problem

Correlate

Narrow down possible indirect root causes that could lead to


such type of drop

Eliminate

Check and eliminate these possible causes one by one by taking


testing actions

Solve

Final decision and taking actions to solve the problem and add it
to knowledge base

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

Meaning of Radio CDR%, TCH-DR% and CDR%

What is the difference between :


1. Call Drop Rate (call drop rate excluding handover)
2. TCH Drop Rate (call drop rate including handover)

3. TCH RF loss rate (or radio call drop rate)


4. Erlang minute per drop

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

Meaning of Radio CDR%, TCH-DR% and CDR%

1. Call Drop Rate (call drop rate excluding handover)

No of call drops
Successful TCH
Seizures
(by call setup)

1/6/2015

Successful TCH
Seizures
(inc handover)

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

Successful TCH
Seizures
(out handover)

Meaning of Radio CDR%, TCH-DR% and CDR%

2. Call Drop Rate (call drop rate including handover)

No of call drops
Successful TCH
Seizures
(by call setup)

1/6/2015

Successful TCH
Seizures
(inc handover)

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

Successful TCH
Seizures
(out handover)

Meaning of Radio CDR%, TCH-DR% and CDR%

3. TCH RF loss rate (or radio call drop rate)


No of call drops
Caused
RFdrops
reasons
No ofbycall
Successful TCH
Seizures
(by call setup)

1/6/2015

Successful TCH
Seizures
(inc handover)

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

10

Meaning of Radio CDR%, TCH-DR% and CDR%

4. Erlang minutes per drop

Traffic Volume (Erlang)

60

No of call drops

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

11

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop


analysis

The counters should be selected carefully in order to get


the best result :
1. The STS should be decisive
2. Cover all the possible root causes
3. Guide us to causes not the effects
4. Easy to visualize and analyze

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

12

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Radio Link Failure Measurements (RLF)


Drop Causes distribution
Interference On Idle mode measurements (IOI)
Radio Quality Index Measurements (RQI)
Balance/Unbalance Measurements
Correlated level and quality measurements
E1 Bit errors measurements and TCH availability
Main and diversity signal measurements
Hardware Alarms

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

13

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis

1. Radio Link Failure Measurements (RLF)

Record the last 3 or 4 measurement


reports before the drop happen

MR

MR

MR

MR

BTS

MR

MS

Very important because it will give an idea about the


link condition when the drop happened

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

14

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis

Mean Rxlevel (value-110) dB =


(Rxlev in MR1+Rxlev in MR2+Rxlev in MR3 +.)/
Number of measurement reports
Same calculation for Rxquality and TA
More accumulated values means more accuracy

15
Rx level: 10 10
14
13
15 42
45 30
Rx Qual: 5 7
1 1
45
15
1
30 13 14
6 1
25
2 4
TA: 62 5
56
2
1
12
4
15 1
1 1
1 21
1 21
25
12 56

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

15

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis


RLF Counters (Full rate)
S4307D:Uplink Level during Radio Link Failure
S4317D:Uplink Quality during Radio Link Failure
S4327D:Downlink Level during Radio Link Failure
S4337D:Downlink Quality during Radio Link Failure
S4347D:TA during Radio Link Failure
S4357D:Radio Link Failures

RLF Counters (Half rate)


S4308D:Uplink Level during Radio Link Failure (TCHH)
S4318D:Uplink Quality during Radio Link Failure (TCHH)
S4328D:Downlink Level during Radio Link Failure (TCHH)
S4338D:Downlink Quality during Radio Link Failure (TCHH)
S4348D:TA during Radio Link Failure (TCHH)
S4358D:Radio Link Failures (TCHH)

Since these counters are on TRX Level it will be affected by


Base band hopping
1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

16

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis


1. How to use RLF measurements in analysis :
HIGH

RX Level

FAR

Time
Advance

RX Quality

LOW

1/6/2015

GOOD

BAD

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

NEAR

17

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis

Examples:
In case of interference :

HIGH

RX Level

FAR

Time
Advance

RX Quality

LOW

1/6/2015

GOOD

BAD

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

NEAR

18

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis

Examples:
In case of coverage problem:

HIGH

RX Level

FAR

Time
Advance

RX Quality

LOW

1/6/2015

GOOD

BAD

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

NEAR

19

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis

Examples:
In case of sudden drop due to faulty hardware:

HIGH

RX Level

FAR

Time
Advance

RX Quality

LOW

1/6/2015

GOOD

BAD

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

NEAR

20

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis

2. Drop Causes distribution

1/6/2015

Counters will be begged according to the messages


or events between BTS-BSC-MSC that caused the
release of TCH resources.

There are 18 different causes in Huawei but 4 of


them are important and the rest rarely triggered.

By using the drop causes STS we can classify if the


drop is due to Hardware or RF and if the drop
happened during stable or handover state

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

21

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop


analysis
Drop Causes Counters
M3100A:Call Drops due to ERR IND Received (T200 Expired)
M3100B:Call Drops due to ERR IND Received (Unsolicited DM Response)
M3100C:Call Drops due to ERR IND Received (Sequence Error)
M3101A:Call Drops due to CONN FAIL Received (Radio Link Failure)
M3101B:Call Drops due to CONN FAIL Received (HO Access Failure)
M3101C:Call Drops due to CONN FAIL Received (OM Intervention)
M3101D:Call Drops due to CONN FAIL Received (Radio Resource Unavail)
M3101E:Call Drops due to CONN FAIL Received (Other Causes)
M3102:Call Drops due to REL IND Received
M312:Call Drops due to No MRs from MS for a Long Time
M313:Call Drops due to Abis Terrestrial Link Failure
M314:Call Drops due to Equipment Failure
M315:Call Drops due to Forced Handover
M316:Call Drops due to Resource Check
M319B:Clear Requests Sent on the A Interface in Handover State
RM3173:Call Drops Due to Loopback Start Failure
RM3174:Call Drops Due to Failures to Return to Normal Call from Loopback
CM339C:Clear Requests Sent on the A interface (TA Limit)

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

Most of
drops in
these 4
reasons

22

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis


Bad Rx-Qual on UL/DL
Signal decreased sharply
Cell OOS
Layer 2 messages
unacknowledged

SACCH Messages not


decoded from MS or BTS

T200 expired
N200+1 times
Lapd layer 2 Failure

RLT expired
Layer 3 Failure

Err. Indication sent from


BTS to BSC

Connection Failure sent


from BTS to BSC

Clear request sent from


BSC to MSC and

Clear request sent from


BSC to MSC and

CALL DROP T200


reason triggered is error
indication (T200 expired)

CALL DROP RLT


reason triggered is conn.
failure (radio link failure)

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

23

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis

1/6/2015

Abis Transmission Problems


Synchronization ,high BER

Hardware Problems
TRX , Combiner , GTMU

Site out of service

TRX , Cell or Site


out of service

CALL DROP ABIS


reason triggered Abis
terrestrial failure

CALL DROP EQUIP


reason triggered is
Equipment failure

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

24

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis

Most of the drops in the network


are caused by RF problems, it
means that we can bring
further Improvement
on the call drop rate

Percentage of drop
Due to T200 compared
to RLT depend on Timer
settings

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

25

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis


3.

Interference On Idle mode measurements (IOI)

1/6/2015

Very helpful in distinguishing between internal and


external Interference
The existence of high values in Band 3,4 and 5 confirm
Interference but the opposite is not true.
Might give wrong averaged values in case if BB hopping is
active since they are on TRX level.
It only shows the uplink interference
Thresholds between bands can be changed to test special
range of level.
Sometimes it will not express the real strength of
interference since the measuring point is not the same
place as the interfered area.
Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

26

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis


3.

Interference On Idle mode measurements (IOI):

IOI Measurements

IOI Measurements (TCHH)

AS4207A:TCHFs in Interference Band 1


AS4207B:TCHFs in Interference Band 2
AS4207C:TCHFs in Interference Band 3
AS4207D:TCHFs in Interference Band 4
AS4207E:TCHFs in Interference Band 5

AS4208A:TCHHs in Interference Band 1


AS4208B:TCHHs in Interference Band 2
AS4208C:TCHHs in Interference Band 3
AS4208D:TCHHs in Interference Band 4
AS4208E:TCHHs in Interference Band 5

Number of highly interfered TSs


With level > -90 dBm

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

27

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis


Internal Interference effect on IOI measure (strong)

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

28

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis


Internal Interference effect on IOI measure (weak)

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

29

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis


External Interference effect on IOI measure (strong):

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

30

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis


External Interference effect on IOI measure (weak effect):

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

31

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis


4. Radio Quality Index (RQI):
We can use it only if AMR is activated.
Radio quality index is the dB value of C/I multiplied by 2
RQI = 2 * C/I ( dBm) .
RQI represent the C/I values in the uplink only.
We can get RQI of all Mobiles per TA and by comparing it to
RLF per TA we can tell the RQI values in areas which suffer
from high radio link failures.
RQI range of values[055+] = 2 * C/I range of values [030].
RQI values less than 18 (C/I = 9) indicate very bad quality and
strong interference.
Since RQI values given on TRX level we might get wrong
averaged values in case of BB hopping is activated.
1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

32

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis


4. Radio Quality Index (RQI):
RQI Measurements
S4400E:Number of Measurement Reports (RQI = 0 to 1)
S4401E:Number of Measurement Reports (RQI = 1 to 2)
S4402E:Number of Measurement Reports (RQI = 2 to 3)
. . . .
. . . .
S4418E:Number of Measurement Reports (RQI = 45 to 55)
S4419E:Number of Measurement Reports (RQI greater than 55)
S4440E:Number of Measurement Reports with RQI
RQI Measurements

RQI Measurements

S4400C:MRs with RQI (TA = 0)


S4401C:MRs with RQI (TA = 1)
S4402C:MRs with RQI (TA = 2)
.
.
.
S4455C:MRs with RQI (TA = 55 to 63)
S4463C:MRs with RQI (TA greater than 63)

S4400D:RQI (TA = 0)
S4401D:RQI (TA = 1)
S4402D:RQI (TA = 2)
.
.
.
S4455D:RQI (TA = 55 to 63)
S4463D:RQI (TA greater than 63)

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

33

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis


4. Radio Quality Index (RQI):

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

34

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis


4. Radio Quality Index (RQI):

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

35

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis


4. Balance/Un-Balance Measurements:
Used usually to detect Problems in RF Path (RF Path
include antenna , feeders , Jumpers , CDU, DDPU , DCOM
and Carrier receivers).
Having unbalanced measurements on uplink or downlink
indicate that we have path problem but the opposite is not
necessarily true.
We can determine if the problem on uplink or downlink
but getting deeper may require the help of regional team
to visit the site.
In case of BB hopping we should disable it to know the
problematic TRX , this will help the regional team a lot in
solving the problem.

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

36

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis

Downlink
high loss

1/6/2015

Uplink
high loss

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

37

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis

Downlink
high loss
1/6/2015

Uplink
high loss
Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

38

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis


Correlated level and quality measurements
Strongest
levels

Interference

Hardware
issues

Coverage

Hardware +
Coverage

Weakest
levels
Worst
quality
1/6/2015

Best
quality
Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

39

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis


Correlated level and quality measurements

Give an idea about the situation of quality and level in all the cell not like RLF
measurements
Affected by BB hopping since the STS given on TRX level
Include 128 counters for FR and 128 for HR
Better to be analyzed by 3D chart since its three dimension Matrix

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

40

The most helpful Huawei STS in call drop analysis


E1 Bit errors and CRC check and TCH Availability
We have many STS that give the seconds of error during the
transmission ,CRC check and badly received or sent frames.
These counters can help in identifying the drops caused by
Abis interface Problems.
TCH availability check is necessary to make sure the call drop
is not caused by Hardware Problems

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

41

Call Drop Investigation flowchart

Its very important to choose the right procedure to analyze the


call drops.

The procedure should be adequate for Sudatel problems.


The procedure should be the initial schema for automating of call
drop optimization process.
Follow the rule : the larger problem should take priority.
Two methods ,either check every thing starting from the

important or follow the cause effect chain by using the correct


counters.
1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

42

Call Drop Investigation flow chart

Shown Flow chart usually


used In CDR analysis ,

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

43

Call Drop Investigation flow chart


General Flow
Chart

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

44

How to Automate Call Drop Analysis Process


Automating the call Drop Analysis depend on the following
point :

1. Reducing the time needed to Visualize the data


2. Time needed for analysis
3. The availability of knowledge database to directly
correlate or compare the new problems and determine
the reason

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

45

How to Automate Call Drop Analysis


1. Reducing the time needed to Visualize the data

One of the most Important actions that must be taken by


Optimizer is to prepare the adequate post processing tool or
Macro that will import the raw counters and convert them to
different charts and tables that is easy to analyze.

Target of the macro not analyze the data but to help in analyzing
by better visualizing

Calculation on the raw counters are needed to reduce the


number of data shown and to give more meaningful charts

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

46

How to Automate Call Drop Analysis


2. Time needed for analysis :

the Optimizer capability to analyze.


Using different methods of analysis.
Cannot be done by macro or Optimizer created tools but can
be done faster by using vendor Optimization tools like
NASTAR, and other tools.

3. The availability of knowledge database :


The good Optimizer should always record a history of
problems that he encountered during his work.
yet its better to develop the small macro suggested earlier to
save the history of STS to small knowledge database that can
be used later for correlation.
1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

47

How to Automate Call Drop Analysis

Accumulated
Knowledge
database

Prepare the raw


counters

Donebybythe
the
Done
Optimizer
Optimizer

VISUALIZING STS

Done by the
Macro

Analyze the
Problem

SAVE IN
KNOWLEDGE
DATABASE

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

Done by the
Optimizer

Done by the
Macro

48

Three Month Plan to Improve CDR on Network


Level
Since most of the drop in Sudatel is caused by RF reasons
Its Possible to bring good Improvements to the network by
putting an organized Optimization Plan .
Key factors to speed up the implementation of the plan :

Solve by Groups not one by one


Solve easiest problems first
Using the macro and analysis tools as much as possible
Activating all the features that could bring further
enhancement to Voice or Frequency plan
Follow the investigation flow chart

1/6/2015

Prepared by Muhieddine Alqousi

49