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BASIC BIOLOGY

BIO 101/4

CELL DIVISION I

MITOSIS

INTRODUCTION

Eukaryotic chromosomes
Major carriers of genetic information in
eukaryotes are the chromosomes.
Chromosomes are made up of chromatin.
Chromatin is a material consisting of DNA
and associated proteins. Chromatin
consists of long and in a thread form.

How does a eukaryotic cell packs its


DNA into the chromosomes??
Chromosomes packaging is facilitated by
protein known as histones.
Histones have a positive charge because
they have a high proportion of amino
acids with basic side chain.
The positive charged of histones
associated with DNA, which has negative
charge because of its phosphate group to
from structures called nucleosomes.

Nucleosomes

Each chromosome has a


primary constriction
called a centromere. The
centromere can be found
almost anywhere along
the chromosome near
the top, near the middle,
or in between. The
centromere divides the
chromosome into two
arms short arm, p and
long arm, q.

Cell division

Most cells of human body undergo cell


division, the process by which cells reproduce
themselves.
2 types - somatic cell division
- reproductive cell division
Somatic cell is any cell of the body other than
a gamete (sperm/oocyte).
Reproductive cell is a gamete cell.

SOMATIC CELL

REPRODUCTIVE CELL

MEIOSI
S

MITOSI
S
NUCLEAR DIVISION

CYTOKINESIS

DAUGHTER CELL

Somatic cell division [Animal cell]

Human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes,


for a total 46; diploid, (2n).
Inherited from each parent.
Cell cycle
Interphase, when a cell is not dividing.
Mitotic (M) phase, when a cell is dividing.

Interphase

Consists of 3 phases: G1, S and G2.

G1 phase
Interval between the mitotic phase and the S
phase.
Replicates most of its organelles and cytosolic
components.
Replicates the centrosomes.

S phase
Interval between G1 and G2.
Replication of DNA.
G2 phase
Interval between S phase and the mitotic
phase.
Cell growth continues, enzymes and other
proteins are synthesized in preparation for
cell division and replication of centrosomes
completed.

Mitotic (M) phase

Consists of a mitosis & cytokinesis.


Mitosis: Distribution of two sets of
chromosomes into two separate nuclei.
Divided into 4 stages; prophase, metaphase,
anaphase and telophase.

Prophase

Early prophase; chromatin fibers condense


and shorten into chromosomes.
The mitotic spindle begins to form. It is
composed of the centrosomes and the
microtubules that extend from them.
As the microtubules lengthen, they push the
centrosomes to the pole of the cell.
Nucleolus dissapears and the nuclear
envelope breaks down.

Metaphase

The microtubules align the centromeres of


the chromatid pairs at the equator, so
chromosomes align at equator.
One chromatid of each chromosome attaches
by its kinetochore to microtubules from the
opposite pole.
Only single row of chromosomes at the
equator.

Anaphase

The centromeres split, separating the two


members of each chromatid pair, which move
toward opposite poles the cell.
Once separated, the chromatids are termed
chromosomes.

Telophase

Final stage of mitosis.


Begins after chromosomal movement stops.
The identical sets of chromosomes, now at
opposite poles of the cell, uncoil and revert to
the threadlike chromatin form.
Nuclear envelope forms.
Nucleolus reappears in the identical nuclei.
Mitotic spindle breaks up.

Cytokinesis

Division of a cells cytoplasm and organelles into


two identical cells.
Begins in late anaphase with the formation of a
cleavage furrow, a slight in indentation of the
plasma membrane and is completed after
telophase.
The cleavage furrow usually appears midway
between the centrosomes and extends around
the periphery of the cell.
Actin microfilaments that lie just inside the
plasma membrane form a contractile ring that
pulls the plasma membrane progressively inward.
The rings constrict the center of the cell and
pinches it in two.
When this process complete, interphase begins.

MITOSIS

Important of mitosis

Ensure that each daughter cell receives


exactly the same number and kinds of
chromosomes that the parent had.
Responsible for the growth and tissue repair
of multicellular organisms.
Occurs in the process of asexual reproduction
in lower animals, which produce individuals
identical to the parent.