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TRAINING

&
DEVELOPMENT

What Is Training?
The act of increasing the knowledge and skill of
an employee for doing a particular job.

The systematic acquisition of attitudes, concepts,


knowledge, roles, or skills that result in
improved performance at work.

Training, Education &


Development
Assumed to have similar meanings but this is not true.
TRAINING
Narrow in scope
Increase in knowledge, skill and abilities for doing a particular job.
EDUCATION
Broader in scope.
Concerned with the growth and development of the individual
Prepares for the multiple roles in the society.
DEVELOPMENT
Learning opportunities designed to help employees grow.
Does not aim for immediate gains but at achieving long term
needs of the organization.

Training & Development


defined
Training

Current Jobs

Development

Future Jobs

Education
Development

Overall

Why Training?
Benefits of Training and Development

Training Needs: Whom To


Give Training?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Job training of new employees.


Upgrading current jobs
Management development
Personal development
Technological and Scientific
Information

THE PRETRAINING ENVIRONMENT


The effectiveness of training is strongly
influenced by events that take place before the
training program begins.
Some of the pre-training factors that affect
training are:
1. Supportive Supervisors
2. Post-training Assessment
3. Job Limitations
4. Choice of Training

THE TRAINING PROCESS

Identify training needs

Determining training needs

Designing the training program

Implementation of the training program

Evaluation of the training program

IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS

Who should be trained and what they should be


taught.

Training needs are assessed through:


Organizational Analysis
Task Analysis
Person Analysis

1.
2.
3.

Organizational Analysis
(a) Organizational goals and objectives
(b) Manpower requirements
(c) Skills availability

Task Analysis

Focus on the job/task.


Concerned with determining the human
capabilities needed to perform tasks.

1.
2.
3.

Focus on three capabilities:


Knowledge
Skills
Ability

Person Analysis
Focuses on who in the organization needs to be
trained and what kind of training should be
provided.

Commonly based on performance appraisal


reports.

Determining Training Objectives


Desired outcomes of training.

Objectives help to design and evaluate a


training program.

Determining Training Objectives


What Specific skills, knowledge, attitude are to be
imparted /cultivated.
Who are to be trained.
Number of people to be trained.
Time period of training
Desired outcome on completion of training.
Training budget.

Designing the training program


A plan of the activities to be carried during the course of
the training.
Training design covers :
(1) The contents of the training course.
(2) The training methods and techniques to be used.
(3) The place where training will be given
(4) The learning principles on which the training program
will be based.
(5) The selection of the trainers.

Implementation of the Training


Program
Program implementation involves:
(1) Organizing training and other facilities.
(2) Scheduling the training program.
(3) Conducting the program
(4) Monitoring the progress of the trainees.

Evaluation Of The Training


Program
Key reasons for evaluation are:
(1) Whether training program objectives have been
met.
(2) Identify strengths and weaknesses of training
program.
(3) Calculate the cost/benefit ratio of the training
program.

Training Methods
Every training method has its strong and minus points.
Choice of training method depends on its ability to meet
training objectives.

INDUCTION TRAINING
Induction is the process of receiving and
welcoming employees when they first join the
company and giving them the basic information
they need to settle down quickly and happily
and start work.
Commonly referred to as orientation programs.

OBJECTIVES OF
INDUCTION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Quick adjustment
Favorable attitude
Reduce employee turnover
Increasing commitment
Understand organizational norms
Develop relationships
Other information

CONTENTS OF AN INDUCTION PROGRAM


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Information about the organization


Learning arrangements and opportunities
Performance management processes
Health and safety
Conditions of service
Pay and benefits
Policies, procedures and working arrangements

8.

Trade unions and employee involvement

Methods Of Employee Training


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

On-the-job Training
Vestibule Training
Apprentice Training
Programmed Instruction (PI)
Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
Team Training

On-The-Job Training Method


Oldest and most widely used training method.
Takes place on the job.
Learn under the guidance of an experienced operator or
supervisor or trained instructor.
Key features :
(a) No special equipment or space is required.
(b) Hands-on-experience
(d) Few problems of transfer of training

On-The-Job Training Method

Advantages
(1) Easily organized.
(2) Realistic.
(3) Economical
(4) Increases worker motivation
(5) Speeds up adjustment.
Drawbacks
(1) The supervisor - a very good employee but a bad teacher.
(2) Additional responsibility for supervisor
(3) Anxiety to master the job quickly might lead to learning wrong
short cuts.
(4) Breakages and wastages cost is very high.
(5) Mistakes may lead to serious injuries.
(6) Slows down production.

Vestibule Training / Simulation

Trainee uses equipment and procedures similar to


those that would be used in on-the-job training,
Advantages
(1) No pressure on the trainee.
(2) No worry about making costly or embarrassing
errors.
Disadvantage
(1) Costly

Programmed Instruction (PI)

Information is presented in a sequence to the trainees.


Begins at a simple and low level and gradually
becomes more complex and difficult.

Programmed Instruction (PI)


Advantages :
(1) Active participation, immediate and continuous feedback.
(2) Trainees are allowed to learn at their own pace..
Drawbacks :
(a)
Developing a PI program is a very time-consuming task.
(b) Not possible for all types/kinds of work.

Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)


A sophisticated extension of programmed instruction.
Trainees interact with the learning material on the computer
terminal.
Advantage of a computers storage capacity and memory.

Advantages
(1) Trainee convenience.
(2) Learning at individuals own pace.
(3) No problem of impatience as with human teachers.

The drawback of CAI


(1) Costly
(2) Depends too much on individual motivation.

Team Training

To develop proper understanding,


interaction among team members.

co-operation

and

In team training:
1. Team performs a task that requires interaction and
coordination.
2. Feedback is given.
3. Repetitive trials increase awareness.
4. Helps to sort out problems that hinder the efficient
functioning of the team.

TRAINING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES FOR


MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT
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2.
3.
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9.

The Lecture Method


The Case-study Method
Role-playing
Behavior role modeling
Business Games
Sensitivity training.
Wilderness training
Coaching
Job Rotation

The Lecture Method

A lecture is a prepared presentation of knowledge,


information, view points in order to make the learners accept
what the lecturer says.

Advantage
1. Possible to train a large number of trainees at the same time.
2. Economical in nature.
3. Very good method to introduce a new subject.
Disadvantages
1. No active participation.
2. Not very effective for skill acquisition.

Case-study Method
Trainees come face to face with business situations similar to
the ones they are likely to handle in the future.
Trainees learn to diagnose business problems, understand the
critical factors in business and to take decisions with regard to
its effects on the organization as a whole.

Role-playing
Trainees act out a particular role.
Primary objective is to teach empathy.
Understand other people appreciate their difficulties
and looking at problems from their view-point.
Useful for training in interviewing, counseling, selling
etc.

Behavior Role Modeling

An advanced form of role-playing.


In this method:
(1) Trainee watches a model (live or on a film)
(2) Trainee then acts out the role himself
(3) Feedback

Advantage
Active participation.

Business Games
Imitates the complex organizational situation.
Useful to develop problem-solving and decision-making
skills.
Drawback
(1) Participants know that it is a game and hence behave
differently.
(2) Take unnatural risks.

Sensitivity Training

T-group training or human relations laboratory training.


Creates greater self-awareness
Sensitivity to and understanding of others
Improve inter-personal relations.

Disadvantage
Can prove to be traumatic for some individuals.

Wilderness Training

Learning takes place in a wilderness area involving


such activities as river rafting, mountain climbing, or
scaling obstacles.
Group discussions and short lectures are also
included in such programs.
Foster individual growth and development, increase
self-confidence, risk taking, and building leadership
and teamwork skills.
A danger associated with such programs is the
possibility of serious accidents.

Coaching
A superior guides and instructs a junior manager.
Trains the junior in the knowledge and skills
required to do the job.
Superior serves as a coach who helps the trainee
grow and improve their performance on a day-today basis.
The coach sets challenging goals for the trainee,
informs him what is to be done and evaluates the
trainees progress toward the goal.

Coaching
Advantages
No problem of transfer from theory to practice.
Training of this form tends to be individualized.
This method involves close interaction between the
trainee and his boss.
Disadvantages
1. The superior may be a good manager but not a good
teacher.
2. The trainee learns the customary practices and
managerial styles followed in the organization.
3. The coach may not have sufficient time to guide the
trainee leading to neglect of the trainee.

1.
2.
3.

Job Rotations
Involves shifting (rotating) trainee from job to job
within the organization.
Exposes and acquaints the trainees to different
jobs and departments within the organization.
Frequently used with fresh college graduates.
Trainees gain knowledge about the overall
functioning of an organization.

Job Rotations

5.

Advantages
Specialist to generalist
Reduces boredom and monotony
Equality and respect
Helps the organization when others employees are on leave or absent or when
they quit.
Optimization

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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7.
8.

Disadvantages
Disruption of work
Higher costs
Insecurity
Half knowledge
Disrupts personal life
Demotivating
Assumes that all individuals are equally suited for all jobs.
Employees are often reluctant to rotate or move out of jobs.

1.
2.
3.
4.

NEW ISSUES IN MANAGEMENT


DEVELOPMENT
CULTURAL DIVERSITY TRAINING
SEXUAL HARASSMENT TRAINING
MENTORING

Cultural Diversity Training


An out come of Globalization
High rate of failures among managers.
Training programs include information about the foreign
countrys geography, political system, history, religion,
customs and habits.

Cultural Diversity Training


Four abilities that are critical for success on
foreign assignments are:

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Tolerance for ambiguity


Behavioral flexibility
Nonjudgmentalism
Cultural empathy

SEXUAL HARASSMENT
TRAINING
Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual
favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a
sexual nature when submission to or rejection of
this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an
individuals
employment,
unreasonably
interferes
with
an
individuals
work
performance, or creates an intimidating, hostile,
or offensive work environment.

Sexual Harassment Training


Sexual harassment is of two types:
1. Quid pro quo harassment
2. Hostile-environment harassment

1.
2.
3.
4.

Research on sexual harassment has revealed the


following
Power
Opinion differences
Women victims
Physical attractiveness

Sexual Harassment Training

1.
2.
3.

Focuses on:
Sensitivity to other peoples values and preferences.
Awareness of broad cultural differences in the degree
to which physical contact between people is regarded
as acceptable.
Informing employees that people differ in degree with
regard to verbal statements that are considered
offensive and inappropriate.

MENTORING

1.

Process by which a more experienced employee known


as a mentor advises, counsels and enhances the personal
development of a new employee, known as protg.
Four phases of mentor-protg relationship:
Initiation phase

2.

Protg phase

3.

Breakup phase

4.

Lasting-friendship phase

EVALUATION OF TRAINING

1.
2.
3.
4.

Determining the impact and the effects of training on


the performance and behavior of the trainee.
There are four criteria which can be used for the
evaluation of training programs:
Reaction criteria
Learning criteria
Behavior criteria.
Results criteria.

VALIDITY OF TRAINING
1.

Validity of a training program can be assessed along four


dimensions:
Training validity

2.

Transfer validity

3.

Intraorganizational validity

4.

Interorganizational validity

THANK YOU