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Introduction to Dental

Materials

Introduction to D ental
M aterials
Science of Dental Materials is an

applied basic science dealing with


the physical, chemical, biological
properties and interaction with oral
tissues of the materials used in
clinical dentistry

This subject also deals with the

manipulative techniques, applications and


uses of dental materials
Subject is approached with the view of
determining:
Chemical nature of material
Physical & mechanical functions
Manipulative techniques
Applications
Biological considerations

AIM O F TH E SU BJECT
Since dentistry is considered both as an art and science subject
therefore, the aim of science of dental materials is to stress
upon the principles involved in the use of dental materials. The
main requirements for dental materials in general are as under Why materials react and behave as they do?
What manipulative techniques are used?
How variation in techniques effect their properties?
What is the effect of material on its environment?
What is the nature of the interface between the synthetic
material and oral tissues?
What is the effect of oral environment on the material?
What is the appearance of materials?
What other properties are important?
Is the material easy and convenient to use?

H ISTO RICAL BACKG RO U N D


Early History
Related to Phoenicians, Greeks & Romans
Gold is one of the oldest materials used (prosthetic dental
purposes for at least 2500 years)
Medieval & Early Modern Period
Dental historians doubt that beginning of Christian era to 1500
AD was a DARK AGE of inactivity
Shift of practice from prosthetic restoration to restoration of
carious teeth which were filled with alum, honey and other
substances during the period of 1050 1122 AD (Al Razi)
First book to treat dentistry independently was written in
German in 1548 AD by Walter Herman Ryff
Beginning of Dental Science
1600 1840 AD
Period of Mechanical Improvement
1840 1900 AD

H ISTO RICAL BACKG RO U N D


Advances Since 1900 AD
Establishment of Dental institutes
Establishment of standard
organizations
-American Dental Association
(ADA)
- National Bureau of Standards
Future Development in Biomaterials
-Specific Stress on bio-compatibility
of materials

D EN TAL M ATERIALS
Requirements of Materials
Selection of Materials
Handling of Materials
Evaluation of Materials
Application of Materials
Classification of Materials

SELECTIO N O F M ATERIALS
Since variety of materials are

available, so they require proper


selection
Good selection leads to success of

restoration
Selection is subjected to the need

and type of restoration

H AN D LIN G O F M ATERIALS
Direct materials (filling materials)

Indirect materials (impression

materials)

EVALU ATIO N O F M ATERIALS


Proper evaluation & testing of the

material is required before


application.
It is emphasized that most

manufacturers of dental materials


should operate appropriate quality
assurance programs so that the
materials are thoroughly tested and
evaluated before release into the

EVALU ATIO N O F M ATERIALS


Steps for evaluation:

-Standard specification
-Laboratory evaluation
-Clinical trials
Criteria for Selection

APPLICATIO N O F M ATERIALS
Varies from material to material

Also depends upon the requirement

and oral conditions

CLASSIFICATIO N O F
M ATERIALS
Ceramics
Metals
Polymers
Composites

CERAM ICS
They are simple or

complex combinations
of metallic or nonmetallic elements of
periodic table
Characteristically they
are hard & abrasive
Examples are
Alumina, Tungsten
Carbide & Silica

M ETALS
Metals are usually:
Hard
Lustrous
Dense
Good conductors of heat & electricity
Ductile & malleable
They are electropositive i.e., they give
positive ions in solutions
Of over 100 elements in the PERIODIC
table, some 68 are metals

M ETALS
Metals can occur either as pure elements, or in
compounds with other elements in ores. For
example:
Gold occurs as pure metal
Silver occurs as pure metal
Copper seldom occurs as pure metal
Metals can be produced by the following
methods
Thermal methods
Hydrometallurgical methods
Thermo-electrolytic methods

PO LYM ERS
Polymers are long-chain molecules consisting of many

repeating units. A monomer is the smallest repeating


unit in the polymer chain.
Polymers are prepared from monomers and the

process is known as polymerization.

They are classified as natural materials and synthetic

materials
Natural materials include proteins, polysaccharides

(agar, alginate & starch), polyisoprenes (gutta percha


and rubber), polynucleic acids (DNA & RNA)

Polym ers
Synthetic materials includes polythene, nylon and

bakelite.
Organic compounds found in fossil fuels, as gas, oil,

coal. Other natural polymers are wood pulp &


cotton (cellulose), nucleic acids & collagen
(structural building blocks of all living things).
Polymers have;

Low melting points


Fairly soft & not stiff
Can be synthetically produced

CO M PO SITES
Composite materials (also called

composition materials or shortened


to composites) are materials made
from two or more constituent
materials with significantly different
physical or chemical properties, that
when combined, produce a material
with characteristics different from
the individual components.

M ATERIALS U SED