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# Digital Transmission

(TRANS101)

Objectives
At the end of this module, participants should be
able to:
Explain the telephone voice signal.
Calculate the DSO capacity.
Differentiate the T-Carrier from E-Carrier System.

## The telephone signal is a varying wave in a range from 300 hz to 3.4Khz.

To separate the voice channel from other channels, a separator called
guard band was allocated which increased the frequency to 4Khz which
become the voice band.
The 4Khz frequency range is the portion at which audio signal is
understandable to the human ear.
Anything below the lowest range (300 hz) is not acceptable to the listening
level.

## Sending the signal in an analog form for long transmission and

switching purposes is not efficient.
Expensive and huge equipments are needed to make this happen.
Due to these limitations, digital transmission was developed in 1853.
This was done by conveying multiple telegraphy sources into single
telegraph cable.
It was then patented by Western Electric in 1926.

## Analog to Digital Signal

You cannot use a thousand pairs of cable to connect a
town to a city.
This will not allow switching of lines as you need to
connect anybody to anybody.
The invention of digitalization made the transmission and
switching of telephone signals easier.
Digital transmission is a process of conversion,
transmission and back to conversion of signals and
pulses from one node to another.
A node is a location, Central Office, or an enclosure
along the streets which contains telecom equipments.

Sampling

## This is the process of stripping the voice signal which is 4 Khz by

8,000 samples per second of time.
Each sample of signal is digitized or coded into 8-bit of pulses.
Total bandwidth of an analog voice in digital form is 8 bits x 8,000
samples which is equivalent to 64,000 bits per second.

## Time Slot Multiplexing

Each 8-bit of information (octet) is sent to the main line by the time
allocation.
This process continues for all channels or lines (telephone lines)
which could be either 30 or 24 channels depending to what carrier
standard is used (T-Carrier or E-Carrier).

T-Carrier System

T1
T1C
T2
T3
T4

The United States Bell System activated the first commercial digital
carrier system in 1962
Electrical noise from high-tension lines and automotive ignitions
interfered with analog systems.
The system was designated T1, with the T standing for Terrestrial to
distinguish the land transmission from satellite transmission.

T-Carrier
Table T-1: North American Digital Hierarchy: T-carrier
Digital Signal (DS)
Level

Data Rate

64-Kbps
Channels (DS0s)

Equivalent T1s

DS-0

64 Kbps

1/24

DS-1 (T1)

1.544 Mbps

24

DS-1C (T1C)

3.152 Mbps

48

DS-2 (T2)

6.312 Mbps

96

DS-3 (T3)

44.736 Mbps

672

28

DS-4 (T4)

274.176 Mbps

4,032

168

DS-5 (T5)

400.352 Mbps

5,760

250

## T-carrier was designed for a four-wire twisted-pair circuit,

although the DSX-1 interface is medium-independent.

E-Carrier System
E-carrier
Level

Data Rate
(Mbps)

Number of 64
kbps
Channels
(DS-0s)

Number of E1s

E-1

2.048

30

E-2

8.448

120

E-3

34.368

480

16

E-4

139.268

1920

64

E-5

565.148

7680

256

## E-carrier is based on the original T-carrier digital carrier system.

E-carrier has improved certain electrical characteristics such as
signaling rates, framing conventions, line coding technique, and
PCM technique.
E-1 supports 30 DS-0 payload channels, compared with T1 at 24
channels, and the higher E-carrier levels build on that difference.

TDM Standards
M U L T I PL E X I N G H I E R A R C H Y
M U L T I PL E X I N G S T E P
CO U N T RY
1ST

U S A &
CA N A D A

x4

24

3RD

2N D

1 .5 4 4
M b it / s

96

x7

4T H

x6

672

4 4 .7 3 6
M b it / s

6 .3 1 2
M b it / s

4 ,0 3
2

2 7 4 M b it / s
1 ,6 8
0

x 14

EN GLA N D

5T H

12 0 M b it / s
1 ,4 4
0

x3
GERM A N Y
30

12 0

x4

10 8 M b it / s

FRA N CE
8 .4 4 8 M b i t /
s

3 4 .3 6 8
M b it / s

1 ,9 2
0

1 ,9 2
0

13 0 M b it / s
24

1 .5 4 4 M b i t /
s

x4

96

6 .3 1 2 M b i t /
s

x5

4 4 2 M b it / s

1 3 9 .2 6 4
M b it / s
x4

I T A LY

J A PA N

5 ,7 2
0

480

x4
2 .0 4 8 M b i t /
s

x4

480

3 2 .0 6 4
M b it / s

x3

1 ,4 4
0

9 7 M b it / s

x4

7 ,6 8
0

5 6 4 .9 9 2
M b it / s
x4

5 ,7 6
0

3 9 7 M b it / s

Test
What is the frequency range of the telephone signal?
300 hz to 3,400 hz

## The process of conversion, transmission of telephone signal from

analog to digital and vice versa?
Digital Transmission

8 Khz

30 ch

8 bits x 8,000

24 ch