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WELDED

CONNECTION I

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Introduction
Efficient and direct way of connecting is by welding
Metallurgical bond by heat or pressure or both
Advantages of welding
Direct transfer of stress - minimum weight ,
efficiency
Less fabrication
Economy - 15% saving in weight in bridges,less
labor
Neat appearance
More rigid

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COMPARISON OF APPEARANCE OF RIVETED


AND WELDED PLATE GIRDERS

(a) Bolted girder section

(a) Welded girder section

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FUNDAMENTALS OF WELDING

Tendency of atoms to bond and form metallic bonds


Inter diffusion between the materials
Diffusion in liquid , solid or mixed state
Real surfaces are not smooth and clean
Welding process needs some form of energy-Heat or
pressure or both
Heat alone applied - eg.Gas Tungsten Arc welding,
Shielded metal arc welding,
Submerged arc welding
Pressure alone
- eg. Cold welding, Roll welding
Both pressure and heat - eg. Resistance welding ,
Friction welding
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TWO IDEAL SURFACES BROUGHT TOGETHER


TO FORM A WELD

Metal A

(a) Before
weld

Metal B

(b) After weld

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TWO IRREGULAR SURFACES FORMING A WELD


Oxide
layer
Metal B

Metal B
Absorbed
layer
Metal A

Metal A

Surface contaminants

Addition of filler material


Metal B
Metal A

Near perfect weld

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BASIC WELDING PROCESSES

Gas welding - Oxyacetelene welding , simple , slow,


repair and maintenance work
Arc welding - All structural welding
Electric arc by use of electric energy

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Shielded Metal Arc Welding


Coated electrode from gaseous shield to exclude
oxygen.
Also deposits slag in molten metal.Because of less
density
floats and shields and slows cooling.
Coating shields the arc ,coats the molten pool against
oxidation, stabilising the arc and provides alloying
element weld metal.
Type of welding electrode decides strength,ductility
and corrosion resistance.
Lightly coated and heavily coated
Automatic or Semi automatic
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SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) PROCESS -1

Arc stream
Slag
Weld

Electrode
Coating on electrode
Gaseous shield
Molten pool
Penetration depth
Base
metal

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Submerged arc welding


Arc is covered by powdered flux
High quality, ductility , impact resistance , corrosion
resistance
More heat impart; hence deeper penetration.

Electrode
Slag

Flux tube
Molten
pool
Penetration depth

Weld

Base metal

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Manual Metal Arc Welding


Manually operated; hence requires skill electrode
in a steel core wire(3.2 - 6.0 mm diameter)
Flux contains manganese and silicon
Low capital cost and freedom of movement
Advantageous for short welds
Metal Active Gas Welding
The arc and weld pool are protected by an inert
gas, often carbondioxide.
Flux is not necessary
Welding is easier
Highly suitable for fillet welded joints

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Electroslag welding process


Vertical automatic welding.
Electrode is immersed in molten slag and the
melt is heated to high temperature.
Weld pool forms at the bottom of the slag pool
and forms the weld joining the faces.Useful for
joining thick sections in vertical position.

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ELECTROSLAG WELDING PROCESS-1

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Stud Welding
Shear connectors in composite construction
Another form of arc welding
Stud main be plain bar with an upset head or
threaded
Stud is the electrode

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WELDING PROCEDURE

Environment
Welding position
Current : controls heat input
Shrinkage
Preheating

Weldability of steels
Economic welds, good , crack free

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Factors affecting Weld Cracking

Joint restraint
Bead shape
Carbon and alloy content of the base metal
Cooling rate
Hydrogen and nitrogen absorption

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TYPES OF JOINTS OR WELDS

Joints:Lap,Tee,Butt and Corner


Welds: Groove, fillet, plug and slot
Welded joint description - Type of joint and weld
Position of welding

(a) Butt joint

(b) Lap joint

(c) Tee joint

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(d) Corner joint

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COMMON TYPES OF WELDS

(b) Fillet welds

(a) Groove welds

Ends shall be semi


circular
A

Section A-A

(d) Plug weld

Section AA
(c) Slot weld

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Groove welds
Selection of a particular type of groove weld depends

Size of the plate to be joined


welding by hand or automatic
Type of welding equipment
Accessibility of both sides
Position of weld

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Size of butt weld


Thickness of connected plate for full penetration
Depth of penetration for partial penetration
Advantages
High strength,high resistance to impact and cyclic
stress
Disadvantages
High residual stress , edge preparation and proper
aligning

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CLASSIFICATION BASED ON POSITION

Backup plate
Shaping of surface and backup plate

(a) Flat

(b) Horizontal

(c)
Vertical

(d) Overhead

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TYPICAL EDGE PREPARATION FOR BUTT WELD


R
Root opening R
(a) Bevel with feathered
edge

(b) Bevel with backup plate

R
Land (root face)
R
(c) Bevel with a land

(d) Double bevel with a


spacer

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GROOVE WELD DETAILS

Arc

Included angle

Electrod
e Depth of
penetration

Root face
Root gap
(b) Root gap

(a) Depth of penetration

Filling run

Capping run

Root run
(c) Root run

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TYPICAL CONNECTIONS WITH GROOVE WELD


Single
weld

a) Corner joint

bevel

groove

Square groove
Double V groove weld
weld (b) Butt joint

Square groove
weld
(c) Edge Joint

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Fillet welds

Ease of fabrication and adaptability


Less precision
No special edge preparation
Throat of a weld
Concave and convex surfaces
Weld and leg size
Face of weld
Theoretical throat
s
(t=0.707s)
t
Root of weld Te

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TYPICAL FILLET WELD CONNECTIONS

Size = s*t
Throat

s
Root

Size = s

(1) Unequal legs

Throat =0.707s

s
s

Root
(I1) Equal legs

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CROSS SECTION OF A FILLET WELD

st
(a) Concave

s
(b) Convex

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st
(c) Under cutting

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QUALITY OF WELDED CONNECTIONS


Proper electrodes , welding apparatus and
procedures
Welding sequence
Doubling up method
Planned wandering method
Step back method

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SEQUENCE OF WELDING OF FILLET WELDS


Doubling - up method for vertical member

13

12 7

17

18

11

10

14

15

16

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Planned Wandering Method for Welding


Long Butt Joint with Two Operators
3

Step Back Method for Welding Long


Joint With Two Operators
Operator (2)

Operator (1)
2 3 4 5

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RESIDUAL STRESSES
Residual stresses - due to rapid heating and
cooling
Yield strength of material is upper limit for residual
stresses
LONGITUDINAL RESIDUAL STRESS DUE TO WELD

Tension
Co
mp
res
sio
n

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WELD DISTORTION
Three basic dimensional changes
Transverse shrinkage
Longitudinal shrinkage
Angular distortion
Methods to overcome distortion
Minimize distortion by controlled welding
procedures
Acceptable limits
Techniques to remove distortion

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WELD DISTORTION

a)Transverse shrinkage(b) Angular change (c) Rotational


distortion

(e) Longitudinal bending


distortion
(d) Longitudinal shrinkage

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(f) Buckling distortion

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WELD SYMBOLS
Symbolic representation of welds
(Ref. IS:813 - 1986 Scheme of symbols for welding )

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DEFECTS IN WELDS

Incomplete fusion
Porosity
Inadequate preparation
Undercutting - Excessive current or long arc
Slag inclusion - Failure to remove slag between
runs
Cracks - Breaks in the weld metal
Lamellar tearing - Occurs in the base metal
beneath the weld

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LACK OF FUSION (OR) INCOMPLETE FUSION

Lack of sidewall fusion

Lack of interpass fusion

Lack of root fusion

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LACK OF PENETRATION

Incorrect
sequence
Omission of backgouging or
inadequate backgouging with
too small a root gap

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TYPICAL EXAMPLES OF UNDERCUT DEFECT.


(a) WIDE AND CURVED, (b) NARROW AND CRACK LIKE

Undercuts

Undercuts

(a)

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Undercuts

(b)

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SLAG INCLUSION
Not cleaned or
incorrect electrode

Slag trapped in
undercut
Narrow
root gap

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LAMELLAR TEAR

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WELD DEFECT TOLERANCE


For joints welded from both sides
Incomplete penetration - 5% of parent metal
thickness < 2mm
Length of flaw < 200 mm / meter length
Welded on one side
Incomplete penetration - 15% of thickness < 3mm
Slag inclusion < 200 mm / meter weld length
Total gas pores < 5 per square centimeter of weld
Thickness upto 10mm , undercut < 0.5mm
For thickness > 10mm undercut < 1mm

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WELD INSPECTION
Visual inspection
Liquid penetrants
Magnetic particles
Ultrasonic testing
Radiography
CONNECTION DESIGN
Static strength of welded joint
Type and size of the weld
Manner of welding
Type of electrode used

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BUTT WELDS
Critical form of loading - Tension in transverse direction
Yield stress of weld metal and parent metal in HAZ(Heat
affected Zone) is much higher
Failure always occurs away from the weld
Toughness and ductility properties are affected

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DIFFERENT TYPES OF BUTT JOINTS

(a) Square

(e)Double
Bevel

(b) Single V

(f) Single U

(c) Double V

(g) Single U

(d)Single Bevel

(h) Single J

(i)Double J

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LOAD APPLIED IN TRANSVERSE


DIRECTION OF BUTT WELD

Longitudinal direction
Transverse direction
(a)

(b)

Load applied in transverse direction

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Longitudinal shrinkage

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DESIGN
Direct tension or compression
Design strength same as parent metal strength
Effective area equals effective length times throat size
For full penetration,thickness of weld ,equals thickness of
thinner part of connection
Partial penetration welds are avoided
Throat thickness - 5/8 thickness of thinner part
Average stress concept
Permissible stresses - Parent metal values
Site welds - 80% of permissible value

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PARTIAL PENETRATION WELD

BUTT WELDING OF MEMBERS WITH


(A)&(B) UNEQUAL THICKNESS (C) UNEQUAL WIDTH
Taper not exceeding 1 in 5

Taper not exceeding 1 in 5

Weld
(b)

(a)
Not less than t/4 OR up to
the dimension of thicker
material
t
(c)

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FILLET WELDS
Behaviour
Lap joints splices
Shear is the main design consideration
Side fillets and end fillets
End fillet loaded in tension - high strength and
low ductility
Side fillet loaded - Limited to weld shear strength
(50% tensile strength) Improved ductility
Average stress in weld throat
Fillet weld shape is important for end fillets.

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Optimum weld shape - Shear leg < 3 times tension leg


Fillet welds are stronger in compression than in tension
FILLET (A) SIDE WELDS AND (B) END WELDS

(a)

(b)

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AVERAGE STRESS IN THE WELD THROAT

11
1
1
11

11

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(A) CONNECTIONS WITH SIMPLE WELD DESIGN,


(B) CONNECTIONS WITH DIRECTION- DEPENDENT WELD DESIGN

Tension
Shear

(a)

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(b)

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DESIGN
Simple approach - Uniform strength
Size of fillet weld 3mm or thickness of thinner part
Effective throat thickness 3 mm
< 0.7t and 1.0t
= k fillet size

Size
Size (Min. Leg size)

Size
Fillets of equal leg length

Fillets of unequal leg length

Penetration

Leg length
Size = leg length * 2.4 mm

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Table 1 Minimum size of first run or of a single run fillet weld


Thickness of thicker part
Over (mm)

Up to and including
(mm)

Minimum size
(mm)

10
20
32

10
20
32
50

3
5
6
8 First run
10 Minimum size of fillet

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1.5 mm
Specified size
(a)

(b)

(a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds


on round toe of rolled section
Table 2. Value of K for different angles between fusion faces
Angle between
fusion faces
Constant K

60 - 90

91-100

101-106

107-113

114-120

0.70

0.65

0.60

0.55

0.50

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END RETURNS

End returns
P

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SLOT AND PLUG WELDS


Provided along with fillet welds in lap joints
Strength of a plug or slot weld - allowable stress
and nominal area in the shearing plane
A

Ends shall be semi circular or


have corners rounded to a radius
not less than thickness of part
containing slot
A
A
Section AA

Section AA

(a) Slot weld


(b) Plug
weld

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ECCENTRIC JOINTS
Shear and torsion
Torsion , F = (T s ) / J
fh = (T v) / J
fv = (T h ) / J
=R/L
Shear and bending
Weld is designed to withstand maximum bending
stress and maximum shear stress separately.

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(a) WELDS SUBJECTED TO SHEAR AND TORSION,


(b) WELDS SUBJECTED TO SHEAR AND BENDING
y
M
e P
x

x
c.g of welds
(a)
e P

y
P
e
(b)

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VARIATION OF BENDING AND SHEAR STRESSES

3 V/ 2(weld area)

Vertical weld

Bending stress Shear stress

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WELD PROVISION FOR CARRYING SHEAR AND MOMENT

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SUMMARY
Fundamentals of welding , details of various
welding processes, types of welds, common weld
defects and weld inspection have been
presented.
Advantages of welding are mentioned.
Behaviour and design of butt - and fillet - welded
connections in steel structures are explained .
Truss connections and beam connections are
discussed.
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