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# Measure of Central

Tendency
Mean
Mode
Median

## Mean of Ungrouped Data

Mean of ungrouped data is the sum of all data

x

xi
i 1

or

7, 6

## If the frequencies of the data are given, then

n

x
Example 2:

f i xi
i 1
n

fi

or

fx

x
f

i 1

Number of siblings, x

Number of students, f

10

11

## Mean of grouped data

The mid-point, x, of each class is used to represent the

class.
Example 3:

Number of durians
collected daily

Number of days

fx

x
f

120
124

125
129

130
134

135
139

140
144

144
149

26

13

## Mean of grouped data

A useful technique:

Find the difference, y, between each mid-point and k,
i.e
y = x - k.
Find fy.
Then

fy

xk
f

## If we wish to further reduce the magnitudes of the numbers involved,

we can use a scaling factor, h.
So,
y = (x k)/h
fy

## Median of ungrouped data

The median is the middle value of a set of n numbers

## arranged in order of magnitude.

For raw data, arrange the data in order of magnitude.
th
If n is odd, then the median is
n

value

n

2

th

value and

n
1
2

th

value

## Median of ungrouped data

Example:
Find the median of each of these set of data:

## (a) 1, 9, 6, 7, 12, 8, 3, 10, 11.

(b) 2, 5, 1, 6, 7, 11, 13, 8.
Arrange the data in order of magnitude:

## (a) 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13

median = 8
(b) 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13
median = (6 + 7)/2 = 6.5

## Median of ungrouped data

For ungrouped frequency distribution, determine the median from the

## cumulative frequency distribution.

For example: Number of cars
0 1 2
Number of families

3 5 11 10 4

## Cumulative frequency distribution:

Number of Cumulative
cars
frequency
0

19

20

33

35

As n = 35,
the median = [(35+1)/2]th value.
i.e. the 18th value.
Thus, the median = 2.

## Median of grouped data

Once the data has been grouped, we have

## lost the original information of the raw data.

So we can only estimate a value for the
median.
This can be done by one of the following
methods
(i) By interpolation
(ii) From a cumulative frequency curve
(iii) From a histogram

## Median of grouped data

(i) By interpolation

B
C
m LB 2
fm

## FB is cumulative frequency before median class,

fm is the frequency of the median class,
C is the width of the median class

## Median of grouped data

(ii) Draw the cumulative frequency curve and read off

median class,

## estimate the median from the point of

intersection of these two lines

## Mode of ungrouped data

The mode of a set of data is the observation

## which occurs most often.

For raw data, arrange in the order of
magnitude so that the mode can be identified.
Example: Find the mode for 4, 5, 5, 1, 2, 6, 7,
2, 5.

Rearranging: 1, 2, 2, 4, 5, 5, 5, 6, 7.

Mode = 5

## Mode of grouped data

(i) Drawing a histogram
(ii) By calculation

d1
c
d1 d 2

m0 a

## where d1 = difference between the frequency of

the modal class and the class before the modal class,

## d2 = difference between the frequency of

the modal class and the class after the modal class,

## Relative frequency distribution

To compare two or more sets of data, it is

## sometimes useful to calculate the relative

frequency for every class in a set of data.
Relative frequency can be expressed either

100%).