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Community

Development
NSTP 101-SPUM

What is the relevance of community development


to NSTP?

NSTP

CWTS

General
Welfare of
the
COMMUNITY

Objectives of Community
Development
To contribute to the general welfare and
the betterment of life of the people in the
community.
To facilitate the promotion, sustainability,
support and maintenance of the
community action.

Community
- communities of place: defined by
distinct boundaries and bound by a common
political, economic and social system
- communities of interest: a group of
individuals that share common interests,
goals and rights under the same laws and
regulations.

Development
- refers to sustained efforts intended
to improve or maintain the social and
economic well-being of a community.
Community Development
- seeks to empower individuals and
groups of people by providing these
groups with the skills they need to effect
change in their own communities.

Community development
is the planned evolution of all aspects of
community well-being (economic, social,
environmental and cultural).
it is a process whereby community
members come together to take collective
action and generate solutions to common
problems. The scope of community
development can vary from small
initiatives within a small group, to large
initiatives that involve the whole
community.

Elements of Community Development

Focus on the goals and needs of the


communities / felt needs of the
community

The encouragement of self-help

Technical assistance from different line


agencies

Integration of various expertise or crosscutting issues

Protocols in Community Development


1.Community Selection
2. Conduct Community Needs/Resources
Assessment
3. Data Analysis
4. Community Presentation of
Needs/Resources Assessment Results

5. Community Action
6. Ongoing community support, linking
of communities, increasing leadership
7. Measuring success (Evaluation)
8. Documentation and Reporting

A way of gauging opinions, assumptions, needs, key


issues, and/or assets within a defined community.

Identify community needs, concerns and issues


Target outreach programs
Empower grass-roots action around needs
Determine if needs have changed?
Collect communities hopes/dreams/desires

Focus Group Interview


Public Issues Forum
Secondary Data Analysis
Community Survey Questionnaires
Interviews
Asset Mapping

The focus group is a way to gather the opinions/ ideas from


a small, targeted group of citizens. The intention of focus
groups is perhaps more to build a synergy of thoughts and
ideas than it is to make projections about the community.

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

easy to conduct

Ideas generated not


necessarily prevalent

provides detailed info


allows for issue probing
stimulates thinking and
discussion

small sample for effort


difficult to analyze
quiet folks suppressed
requires participation

Community forums are public meetings that involve


residents to express their concerns about community
issues, problems, and needs.
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Diverse members can


share ideas

Requires skill/time

Provides quick look at


community issues
Involves local citizens
inexpensive

Opinions obtained only from


those who attend
May generate more questions
or conflict

Secondary data is data that is collected about a particular


audience without having direct contact with that audience.
It can often provide insight about emerging trends or
issues in a particular community.
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Data already exists

Representative sample
may not be accurate

Fast & easy to access


Data available for
many geographic levels

Gaps in data
Requires inferences
Lack of data richness

Community surveys help one to gather info about local


attitudes regarding precisely defined issues, problems, or
opportunities. Surveys may be open ended or multiple
choice.
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Wide distribution

Expensive

Good for data


analysis

Requires skill/time

Strong sample of
the population

Information is hard to
summarize
Little quantitative value

Interviews
An interview is a conversation with a purpose, designed to
help you gather information about peoples
assumptions/perceptions of activities in your community.
They are useful when looking for in-depth information on a
particular topic.
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Detailed information

Time-consuming

Allows for
clarification/follow up on
questions

Requires skill/ time

Personal contact builds


rapport

Information is hard to
summarize
Little quantitative value

Asset mapping is a technique for cataloguing local community


assets/resources to meet community objectives. The goal is to
identify and utilize assets to better the community rather than to
focus on problems and needs.
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Focuses on what community


already has

Community assets may


not match key issues

Provides diverse look at


community assets

People tend to respond


to crises rather than
possibilities

Involves multiple
stakeholders

Purpose of assessment
Type of data needed
Time commitment
Cost
Skills needed
Target audience
Sources of bias

1. Form a Steering Committee.


2. What needs/issues are you addressing?
3. Determine the community you are assessing.
4. Determine assessment tool.
5. Develop a plan (who, what, when, how).
6. Implement the assessment tool.
7. Analyze the results.
8. Report the results.
9. Implement or instigate follow through.

Values in Community Development


1.Fairness / Social Justice
2.Equality
3.Accountability
4.Opportunity
5.Choice
6. Participation
7. Mutuality
8. Continuous learning
9. Self-determination
10. Sustainable communities
11. Reflective practice

Scope of Effective Community


Development
a long-term endeavor
well planned
inclusive and equitable
holistic and integrated into the bigger
picture
initiated and supported by community
members

Roles of Different Stakeholders


Develop working relationships with
communities and organizations
Encourage people to work with and learn
from each other
Work with communities to plan for change
and take collective action
Work with communities to develop and
use frameworks for evaluation
Develop community organizations and
Reflect on and develop ones own practice
and role