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UEME 3213 Heat


and Mass Transfer
Lecture 1
Jan 2015
Dr. Mah Shee Keat

Teaching staffs
Dr. Mah Shee Keat (mahsk@utar.edu.my)
Assistant Professor
Department of Chemical Engineering
SA Level 4
Mr. Chong Kok Chung
(chongkc@utar.edu.my)
Lecturer
Department of Chemical Engineering

Laboratory demonstrators
Ms. Tan Lee Fan (tanlf@utar.edu.my)
Ms. Tan Yin Qing (tanyq@utar.edu.my)

Laboratory attendance is
compulsory
Please register your laboratory
sessions with lab officer.

Communication channel
You will be made aware of the date
of all TESTS, assignments, etc at the
start of the unit usually through the
WBLE system

Late submission of
assignment and etc
Your unit coordinator/lecturer may give you an
extension to submit your assignment/report
etc. Submission of your work after the due
date will attract a penalty of 10% per day for a
maximum of 5 days after which the work will
no longer be considered and you will attract a
zero mark for that submission.

Unit learning outcomes


Determine the rates of heat conduction
and mass transfer by diffusion, convection
and radiation in simple geometries
Calculate the heat and mass transfer
coefficients in flowing systems
Analyze the performance of heat
exchangers, air-conditioning and other
heat-transfer equipment.
Conduct experiment, analyze and interpret
data of fluid mechanics

Topics
Topic 1: Heat transfer by conduction
Topic 2: Heat transfer by convection
Topic 3: Heat transfer by radiation
Topic 4: Specific heat flow problems in
selected materials system
Topic 5: Mass transfer

Synopsis:
This unit covers heat transfer by
conduction, convection and radiation and
their application in the design of heat
transfer equipment.
Mass transfer as a transport process in the
determination of diffusion coefficients. The
relationship between heat and mass
transfer is also highlighted.

Main reference:
Incropera & Dewitt, 2013. Principles of
heat and mass transfer (7th ed.). John
Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte Ltd.
Incropera & Dewitt, 2013. Fundamentals
of heat and mass transfer. (7th ed.).
Massachusetts: John Wiley & Sons.
The content of these two books is the same.

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Assessment Summary
Assignment (15%)
Test (10%)
Laboratory (5%)
Final Examination (70%)

Total assessment:
100%

11

Evolution of Process
Engineering Disciplines
Other
disciplines?

Material process
engineering

Food process
engineering
Biochemical
engineering

Biological
science
Fluid motion
Flow patterns
Solid mechanics

Material
science

Food
science
Chemical
engineering
Chemical
kinetics

Transfer processes
(Heat & Mass Transfer)

Mechanical
engineering

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Introduction

What is Heat
Transfer?
Heat
transfer
is
the
transition
of
thermal
energy or simply heat from
a hotter object to a cooler
object ..
so
that
the
body
and
the
surroundings reach thermal equilibrium.

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What is thermal energy?


Thermal energy: associated with the
translation, rotation, vibration and
electronic states of the atoms and
molecules that comprise matter.

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Modes of heat transfer

Examples of Heat Transfer


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Thermal design problems


Insulation of buildings in extreme
climates
Thermal shielding on the space shuttle

Examples of Heat Transfer


16

Thermal control
Maintaining the optimum
temperature in processes
Development of faster computer
processors limited by the inability to
dissipate heat

Examples of Heat Transfer


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Design of heat exchangers


Automobile radiator
Boilers and condensers in chemical
plants

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Application of Heat and Mass


Transfer in Food Engineering
Design of heat exchanger
Boilers and condensers
in food processing
plants

Source: www.tetrapak.com

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Application of Heat and Mass


Transfer in Environmental
Engineering
Design of fermenter
Biomass power plant

Source: (left) http://www.tohoku-epco.co.jp (right)


http://siemens.com

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Example of Heat and Mass Transfer


in Renewable Engineering

Design of solar energy plant


Solar superheater and steam generator

Source: (left) http://green-la.com (right)


http://www.nexteraenergyresources.com

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Application of Heat and Mass


Transfer in Biochemical
Engineering
Thermal design
problems
Thermal and mass
circulation in
bioreactor for large
scale monoclonal
antibodies production

Source: (left) www.leinco.com, (right)


http://sachemdisplacementchromatography.typepad.com

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Why is heat and mass transfer important?


Almost all the industries involve heat and mass
transfer operations.
Heat (and mass) transfer can sometimes be
coupled within one unit operation.
Understanding these processes can save energy,
resources and $$$.

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DO NOT confuse or interchange the meanings of


Thermal
Quantity
Meaning
Energy, Temperature
and Heat Symbol
Transfer Units
Thermal Energy+

Energy associated with microscopic


behavior of matter

U or u

Temperature

A means of indirectly assessing the


amount of thermal energy stored in matter

Heat Transfer

Thermal energy transport due to


temperature gradients

J or J/kg

Heat

Amount of thermal energy transferred


over a time interval t 0

Heat Rate

Thermal energy transfer per unit time

Heat Flux

Thermal energy transfer per unit time and


surface area

W/m 2

+
U Thermal energy of system
u Thermal energy per unit mass of system

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Announcement
Tutorial group 5 and 6. Timetable issue that
affected normal intake students.
Students are required to follow odd and even
week tutorial group.

2
5

Announcement
Low number of student in
Tutorial group 1 and 2. Tutorial
group 1 and 2 will be cancelled.

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2
7

Announcement
Low number of student also
observed in Tutorial group 3
and 4. The numbers of student
are 16 and 14 respectively.

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Modes of Heat Transfer

Requires material medium


Driven by temperature
difference

Transport does not


require material
medium

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Conduction:
Transfer of energy from molecule
molecule due to vibration of molecules.

to

Conduction is the transfer of heat by direct


contact of particles of matter.
Conduction is particularly important with
metals.

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What is a fluid?
A substance which undergoes
continuous deformation when
subjected to a shear stress /
shearing force.
Deformation? = Change in the relative positions of
parts of a body

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Convection:
Transfer of energy due to bulk movement
of fluid.
Convection is the transfer of heat by
movement of the heated fluid.
The faster the fluid motion, the greater
the convection heat transfer.
Convection
because .

does

not

occur

in

solid

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molecules keep their


relative
position
to
such an extent that
bulk movement or flow
is prohibited

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2 types of
Convection:
Natural convection:
due to bulk motion
of fluid from high to
lower
temperature
region.
Forced
convection:
fluid bulk motion due
to mechanical means
such as a fan, pump

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Radiation:
Energy is radiated from all
materials in the form of waves;
when this radiation is absorbed
by matter it appears as heat.
No medium is necessary for
radiation to occur; radiation
works even in and through a
perfect vacuum.

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Conduction
1D heat transfer across planar slab
Fouriers Law

qx
T

A
x

A
q|x

q|x+x

lim x 0

qx
dT
qx "
k
A
dx

x
T
T1
T

Heat flux (W/m2)

T2
x
x1

x2 x

Thermal conductivity
(W/mK)

Negative as T decrease
with increase of x

Implies
directional
quantity: heat
flux normal to
plane of
constant
temperature

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qx
dT
qx "
k
A
dx
If the temperature distribution is linear,

qx
T2 T1
qx "
k
A
L

T1 T2
qx " k
L
T
qx " k
L

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Conduction

Although k is a
function of
temperature, it is
normally assumed
to be constant in
narrow temperature
range.

Property Tables (Incropera &


DeWitt):
Solids: Tables A.1 A.3
Gases: Table A.4
Liquids: Tables A.5 A.7

Convection
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Develop when there is fluid flow over a surface


Develop if the fluid free stream
and surface temperatures differ

T=temperature of the fluid sufficiently far from the surface

Hydrodynamic boundary layer


Thermal boundary layer
T

Ts

Newtons Law of Cooling

q" h Ts T or q" h T Ts
if TS > T

Convection heat transfer


coefficient (W/m2K)

if TS < T

Dependent on boundary
layer properties

Ts > T: Heat transfer from surface to bulk


T > Ts: Heat transfer from bulk to surface

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Convection
Typical values of
convection heat transfer coefficient
Free convection (air)

5 60 W/m2K

Forced convection (air)

25 300 W/m2K

Forced convection (water)

200 10,000 W/m2K

Boiling water

2,000 25,000 W/m2K

Condensing steam

4,000 110,000 W/m2K

Extra notes about convection


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1. Convection involves the combined effects of conduction


and bulk fluid motion.
2. Thus, in the absence of any bulk fluid motion, heat
transfer between a solid surface and the adjacent fluid is
by pure conduction.
3. Consider the cooling of a hot block by blowing cool air
over its top surface. Energy is transferred to the air layer
adjacent to the block by conduction.
4. This energy is then carried away from the surface by
convection, either by forced convection or natural
convection.

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Extra notes about convection


5. Fluid is forced to flow over the surface forced convection
Fluid motion is caused by buoyancy forces natural
convection
6. However, if NO external means (to force the flow)
AND
the temperature difference between the 2 bodies is not large
enough to overcome the resistance of air to movement
heat transfer between the bodies will be carried out by
conduction.

Radiation
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Tsur

q
Ts

Net exchange between


blackbody and its surroundings
(infinite enclosure)

Stefan-Boltzmann Law

q AT

4
s

Stefan-Boltzmann constant
(5.67 x 10-8 W/m2K4)
Assumes body absorbs
all radiation and reflects
none i.e. a blackbody

4
q A Ts4 Tsur

Assumes all radiation


leaving one surface will
reach the other surface
For a blackbody, = 1 :

qemit " Ts

For a gray surface:

qemit " Ts

= emissivity

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Special case of surface exposed to large surroundings of


uniform temperature, Tsur

If , the net radiation heat flux from the


surface due to exchange with the surroundings is:
4
Eb Ts G Ts4 Tsur
qrad

qemit, s

qabsorb = qemit, sur

qrad " (Ts Tsurr )


4

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For combined convection and radiation,

qtotal" qconv " qrad "


qtotal" h(Ts T ) (Ts Tsurr )
4

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Conservation of Energy

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The principal of conservation of energy


states that:
Although energy assumes many forms,
the total quantity of energy is constant,
and when energy disappears in one form,
it appears simultaneously in other forms.
(The First Law of Thermodynamics)

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Conservation of Energy for a Control Volume


At an instant (t), the rate of increase of energy
stored in the control volume must equal the rate at
which energy enter the control volume, minus the
rate at which energy leave the control volume, plus
the rate at which energy is generated within the
control volume.

Ein Eout E g Est


dEst .
E in E out E g
E st
dt
.

Each term has units of J/s or W.

The Surface Energy Balance


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dEst .
E in E out E g
E st
dt
.

reduced to
.

E in E out 0
qconv
qrad
0
qcond
k

T1 T2
4
h T2 T 2 T24 Tsur
0
L

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Method for Solving Heat Transfer


State concisely what is known
Problems

State what is to be solved


Draw a schematic:
Identify control surface/volume
Identify relevant heat transfer processes
List appropriate assumptions
Analysis:
Apply relevant conservation laws
Write down rate equations
Develop analysis and solution technique
Substitute numerical values
Discussion of results:
Summarise key conclusions
Critique original assumptions
Infer trends by carrying out a sensitivity analysis on the parameters

Summary
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Conduction

Due to random motion Fouriers Law


of constituent
T
qx " k
T as driving force
L

Convection

Associated with bulk


motion, forced / free
T as driving force

Radiation

Newtons Law

q" h Ts T

Emitted due to shift of For gray surface


electronic state of
constituents
4
qemit " Ts
transmitted by
electromagnetic
wave / photon
4
4
qrad " (Ts Tsurr )
propagation (no
medium)
50

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Reference

Incropera & DeWitt, Chapter 1


Reading materials
Incropera & DeWitt, Chapter 1 and Chapter 2
The book is available in the library.