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Design 842

Arch. NOEL DELA CRUZ

January 21,2015
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Sumbanon, Cheryl C.
Manipon, Mary Grace
Magturo, Don Miguel

AIRPORT
HISTORY :
IN THE
A feasibility study and airport master plan was drawn up in 1973 by Airways
PHILIPPINES
Engineering Corporation. The detailed engineering design of the new MIA
Development Project (MIADP) was undertaken by Renardet-Sauti/Transplan/F.F.
Cruz Consultants while the design of the International Passenger Terminal building
was prepared by Architect L.V. Locsin & Associates. A US$29.6 Million loan was
arranged with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to finance the project.
The final engineering design was adopted by the Philippine Government in 1974
and concurred by the ADB on September 18, 1975. Actual work on the project
started in the second quarter of 1978.
On March 4, 1982, the MIA Division under the Bureau of Air Transportation was
abolished by EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 778. In its place, the MANILA INTERNATIONAL
AIRPORT AUTHORITY (MIAA), was created and vested with the power to administer
and operate the Manila International Airport.
.
The last amendment to the MIAA Charter was made on July 26, 1987 through
Executive Order No. 298 which provided for a more realistic income sharing
arrangement between MIAA and the National Government. Instead of the 65% of
MIAAs gross operating income, only 20%, exclusive of income generated from the
passenger terminal fees and utility charges, shall revert to the general fund of the
National Treasury. EO 298 also reorganized the MIAA Board and raised the
capitalization to its original magnitude of PHP 10 billion.
On August 17, 1987, Republic Act No. 6639 was enacted and the MIA was renamed
the Ninoy Aquino International Airport. The MIA Authority however, retained its
corporate name since the law did not amend the original or revised charters of the

The Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 1 was completed in 1981


to accommodate the countrys growing international passenger traffic levels
during the 1970s.
Designed by Leandro Locsin, a National Artist of the Philippines for
Architecture, it breached its 4.5 million annual passenger capacity in 1991.
Improvements to the airport increased its capacity to 6 million passengers
yearly.
The 16-gate terminal currently services all international flights coming into
Manila, except for those operated by Cebu Pacific, Air Philippines, Philippine
Airlines and All Nippon Air. Its 84 check-in counters and 22 immigration

NINOY INTERNATIONAL
AIRPORT

NAIA 1

TRANSIT
LOUNGE

PRE-BOARDING
AREA

DEPARTURE
CONCOURSE

AARIVAL EXTENSION

In order to address the continuing increase in the number of air passengers, the Manila
International Airport Authority (MIAA) decided to construct a new terminal facility within the vicinity
of the present Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA).
This resulted in NAIA Terminal 2 which began operations in 1999. Originally envisioned as a
domestic hub, the terminal now houses both the international and domestic operations of the
countrys flag carrier, Philippine Airlines.
Designed by Aeroports de Paris to handle 9 million passengers annually, Terminal 2 features an
arrowhead design focused on a six-storey central building called the Rotunda. The building system
is built with white steel ossature, aluminum ceiling panels and marble floors. The dark tones of the
basement levels provide a volcanic rock accent to the structure.
The arrow wings are designated North and South. Each wing has two levels with the ground
levels featuring expansive lobbies to handle arrival traffic, while the second floor levels possess
equally airy departure areas, check-in halls and boarding areas. The Northwing is used for PALs
international flights while the Southwing services its domestic flights.

NINOY INTERNATIONAL
AIRPORT
NAIA

2
NORTHWING ARRIVAL
IMMIGRATION AREA
NORTHWING CHECK-IN
HALL

NORTHWING
GREETERS AREA

NORTHWING ARRIVAL

In 1991, NAIAs Terminal 1 reached its design capacity of 4.5 million passengers. As
a result of annual passenger traffic growing at 9% per annum, the 1990 NAIA Master
Plan crafted by Aeroport de Paris included a provision for a larger and modernized
international passenger terminal. While improvements raised Terminal 1s design
capacity to 6 million, a peak level of 7.7 million passengers was reached in 1997,
causing overflow of passengers that year.
Terminal 3 was the answer to this growing traffic. Currently the largest airport in
Manila, it stands proud on a 65-hectare property adjacent to the NAIA runway facilities.
It is a two-tiered design with its ground floor handling arrivals and the second level
facilitating departures. Each level has 600 meters of curbside space, rendering drop offs
and pickups efficient.
Terminal 3 can handle 13 million passengers annually. The center of the building
contains the head house where passenger processing is centralized. A total of 24
boarding gates accommodate 4,000 peak hour one-way passengers.
Retail shops and food courts line the departure and arrival levels while parking for over

NINOY INTERNATIONAL
AIRPORT
NAIA

BOARDING GATES

NORTHWING ARRIVAL
IMMIGRATION AREA

BAGGAE CLAIM HALL

DEPARTURE LOBBY

Terminal 4 hosts the operations of local carriers such as SEA


Air and Zest Air. These airlines maintain ticketing offices around
the immediate vicinity of the terminal.
A one-level building, it is the oldest of all the terminals under
the MIA system. The pre-departure area can seat nine hundred
twenty-nine passengers, and several retail establishments within
the terminal provide conveniences to passengers taking local
flights.

NINOY INTERNATIONAL
AIRPORT
NAIA

DEPARTURE LOBBY
TERMINAL 4

TERMINAL 4

DEPARTURE DRIVEWAY

Terminal Space Requirements:


Space is needed for each of the following functions ...
- service functions
- ticket sales
- rest rooms
- waiting/resting
- baggage check/claim
- security
- flight info.
- boarding/deplaning
- mail/light cargo
- corridors, elevators, escalators, etc.
- passenger convenience
- newsstand/gift shops
- rest rooms
- restaurant
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FOREIGN
EXAMPLES OF
INTERNATIONA
L
AIRPORT
TERMINAL
BUILDING

Singapore Changi Airport,


located at the eastern edge
of Singapore, was officially
opened on 29 December
1981. It was built mainly on
reclaimed land near where
originally the World War II
Changi airbase had stood.
From the day it opened, the
airport
has
won
many
accolades including several
firsts. These include being
the world's largest airport
at the time of its opening
and having the world's

History
The Changi airbase was built
by World War II prisoners of
war from 1943 to 1944. The
north-south
and
east-west
strips located in the northeast
point
of
Singapore
were
merely
unpaved,
thinly
grassed runways when the
RAF took over the airbase in
1946. Japanese prisoners then
added perforated steel plates
on the east-west strip and
strengthened the north-south
runway, the latter serving as
the main runway for military
aircraft until 1949.

Description
Currently, Changi Airport has two
parallel runways, each 60-metre
wide with a 1.64 km gap separating
them. When the airport first
opened, only Terminal 1 was
operational. On 22 November 1990,
Terminal 2 was made operational
and opened officially on 1 June the
following year. Terminal 2 is much
larger than Terminal 1 but both
provide
similar
services
that
include passenger transactions and
transit,
and
restaurants
and
shopping areas.Following that,
Terminal 3 commenced operations
on 9 January 2008. Together, the
three terminals can handle a total
of 66 million passenger movements
annually. Terminal 4 is currently
being constructed and is targeted
for completion in 2017. The
Budget
Terminal,
which
had
opened on 26 March 2006 to serve

Opened in 2008, T3 is Changi Airport's 'green' terminal with


natural skylighting and gardens that feature over 200 species
of foliage.Besides being eco-friendly, this terminal has a fourstorey tall slide, the world's first butterfly garden in airport, a

The roof at T3 uses an intelligent


lighting system that allows
natural daylight to come in,
keeps the tropical heat out and
creates an overall soothing
ambience for visitors at all times
of the day.
The lush Green Wall brings an air
of serenity to T3, with more than
10,000 tropical plants covering
the five-storey high vertical
garden.
A S$121 million state-of-the-art
baggage system enables bags to
be transferred from T3 to the
other terminals in just three
minutes.

Location
Incheon-si Jung-gu Unseo-dong
Description
Incheon International Airport, which
opened in May 2011, is the biggest
airport in Korea and serves as the main
entrance gate for travelers visiting
Korea. Incheon International Airport
offers only three domestic routes:
Daegu, Busan, and Jeju. It offers flights
to Daegu and Busan two and seven
times a day, respectively, and flights to
Jeju twice a day except for Wednesdays
and Thursdays (one flight each day).
Most of the flights will operate under
this schedule until October 2011, but
direct inquiry to the airlines is
recommended since the flight schedule
is subject to change. To travel to
Busan, Jeju, or Daegu, Gimpo Airport is
a better option. Incheon International
Airport is expected to have more

Incheon International
Airport Terminal 2, Seoul,
South Korea

Construction of the new passenger Terminal 2 atIncheon


International Airport(IIA) located in Seoul, South Korea,
started in September 2013 as part of the airport's phase three
expansion.
The first stage of the terminal construction is expected to be
completed by the end of 2016, to be ready to serve
international passengers arriving for 2018 PyeongChang Winter
Olympic Games.
The second stage, which is an expansion phase to be
completed by 2025, will further increase the terminal size and
passenger capacity.

Incheon International
Airport Terminal 2, Seoul,
Incheon airport Terminal 2 details
South Korea

"The terminal project is expected


create about 93,000 jobs and
KRW17trn ($15.8bn) worth of
economic benefits."
The total size of the terminal will be
7.4 million square foot. The design
for the terminal was finalised in June
2012.
The terminal will be built across an
area of 378,000m, and will feature
37 contact stands and 32 remote
stands in phase one.
It will be able to handle 18 million
passengers annually by 2016.
The extension phase will increase the
terminal area to 663,000m. It will
also increase the number of contact
and remote stands at the terminal to
72 and 42 respectively.

Incheon International
Airport Terminal 2, Seoul,
South Korea
Design and sustainability of Incheon
airport's T2
The terminal design will be based on
the concept of Bonghwang (Korean
Phoenix), a Korean mythological
beast symbolising authority,
longevity, strength and balance.
The terminal will be constructed
based on Korean design patterns
representing Korean culture and
traditions.
Locally quarried granite and
traditional Korean wood will be used
for the flooring of the terminal.
The roof will be fitted with solar
photovoltaic panels, to reduce energy
consumption.
The terminal will have sculpture and

Incheon International
Airport Terminal 2, Seoul,
South
AmenitiesKorea
at
Incheon
International Airport's passenger
terminal
The T2 will feature VIP lounges,
concession and retail outlets, a
transfer
hotel,
an
aircraft
observation deck, a ticketing hall
and a number of other facilities.
The terminal will be equipped
with automatic boarding systems
to facilitate passengers.
It will also feature 222 check-in
counters, 20 screening machines,
48
immigration
departure
machines, 62 immigration arrival
machines and ten baggageclaim
areas.

Munich Airport (IATA: MUC, ICAO: EDDM), the second largest in


Germany, has become one of the leading European aviation hubs.
Munich Airport Societys decision to centralise Terminal 2s
activities, in contrast to the decentralised Terminal 1, creates an
opportunity and a responsibility to provide a major civic space
shared by 25 million passengers per year.

TERMINALS AND FACILITIES


Munich
Airport
covers
15.6
square
kilometres (3,900 acres) of land area.
Most of the airport's facilities are located
in the area between the two runways. The
approach road and railway divide the west
part into a southern half, which contains
cargo and maintenance facilities, and a
northern half, which contains mostly
administrative buildings, a holiday longterm parking lot and the visitors' centre. It
is followed by the west apron and terminal
1, then the Munich Airport Center (MAC),
Terminal 2 and the east apron.

TERMINAL 1
Terminal 1 is the older terminal and
commenced
operation
when
the
airport was opened on 17 May 1992.
It has a total capacity of 25 million
passengers
per
year
and
is
subdivided
into
fivemodulesdesignatedA,B,C,Dan
dE. Modules A through D provide all
facilities
necessary
to
handle
departures and arrivals, including
individual landside driveways and

TERMINAL 2

Terminal 2 commenced operation on


29 June 2003. It has a design capacity
of 25 million passengers per year.
However, having been designed as a
hub terminal for Lufthansa and Star
Alliance members, it is not divided
into
modules.
Instead,
all facilities
Terminal
2 has two
main departure
level,
are
arranged
around
a central
04 and
05 and
additional
busPlaza.
gates on
the lower level 03. Gates on level 05 (H)
are designated non-Schengen gates.
Until the new level 06 opened the
northernmost gates were behind an
additional
security
checkpoint
for
departures to the USA most of the day.

LOCAL
EXAMPLES OF
INTERNATIONA
L
AIRPORT
TERMINAL
BUILDING

The Ninoy Aquino International also


known
as
Manila
International
Airport (IATA: MNL, ICAO: RPLL), is
the airport serving Manila and its
surrounding
metropolitan
area.
Located along the border between
the cities of Pasay and Paraaque,
about 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) south of
Manila proper and southwest of
Makati,
NAIA
is
the
main
international gateway for travelers
to the Philippines and serves as a
hub for AirAsia Zest, Cebu Pacific,
PAL Express, Philippine Airlines,
Tigerair Philippines, and Philippines
AirAsia. It is managed by the Manila

Terminal 1 or NAIA-1, has an area


of 67,000 square metres (720,000
sq ft) and having been completed
in 1981 is the second oldest
terminal at NAIA (after the Old
Domestic Terminal, now called
Terminal
4)
with
a
design
capacity
of
4.5
million
passengers per year
but was
further
expanded
to
accommodate
6
million
passengers. It currently serves
most of the international airlines
except Philippine Airlines, PAL
Express, Cebu Pacific, AirAsia
Zest, Tigerair Philippines, All
Nippon Airways, Cathay Pacific,
Delta Air Lines, KLM, Emirates,
and
Singapore
Airlines.
The
detailed designs were adopted by
the Philippine Government on
1974
and
was
subsequently
approved
by
the
Asian
Development Bank on September

Terminal
1
started
renovation in January 23,
2014 to upgrade and
modernize the 32-yearold passenger terminal
building
and
to
be
finalized and operational
by May 2015. Divided
into six phases with 40%
completion
as
of
December
16,
2014,
Renovations include the
installation of buckling
restrained
braces
to
strengthen
the
structural integrity of
the
building,
and
a
much-needed facelift in
the interior design of the
terminal.5 international

Clark
International
Airport formerly named
as Diosdado Macapagal
International
Airport
(IATA:
CRK,
ICAO:
RPLC), an airport that
serves as an alternate
international
gateway
to
the
Philippines
located within the Clark
Freeport Zone serving
the general area of
Angeles City in the
Philippines, was about
43.2 NM (80.0 km; 49.7
mi)
northwest
of
Manila. The airport is
surrounded
by
the
cities of Angeles and

The $3 million (PH130 million)


current expanded Terminal 1,
designed to accommodate at
least one million to two million
passengers
annually,
was
inaugurated by President Arroyo
on April 2008 to serve the
growing passenger volume due to
the entry of foreign and local
budget carriers at the airport.
Completed in April 2010, the $12
million
(PH550
million)
expansion added a second storey,
arrival and departure lounges,
and two aerobridges to the
terminal building. The expansion
will boost Clark's capacity to five
million from two million. Once
Terminal 2 is completed, Terminal
1 will take over all domestic
routes.