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LTE RPESS Compact

Dubai June 13, 2013

Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE RPESS Day 2


Agenda

LTE 6 Sectors vs. 3 Sectors


How to improve the Link Budget
Measurement Criteria for Field Measurements
Link Level and System Level Simulations
LTE Planning General Principles
LTE Planning with Atoll
LTE Radio Planning Topics
Co-siting
LTE Parameters Overview
LTE KPIs and Counters Overview

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LTE 6 Sectors vs. 3 Sectors

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LTE 3-sector vs 6-sector


LTE 3-sector (1Mbps/64kbps)

LTE 6-sector (1Mbps/64kbps)

Enhanced Pedestrian A 5Hz (EPA05)


Equipment parameters:

Enhanced Pedestrian A 5Hz (EPA05)


Equipment parameters:

Other features:

Other features:

Additional margins:

Additional margins:

Tx Power:
eNB 40W
/ UE 24 dBm
Antenna Gain:
eNB 18 dBi / UE 0 dBi
Feeder Loss: DL 0.5 dB
/ UL 0.5 dB (feederless)
Noise Figure:
eNB 2.0 dB / UE 7 dB

eNB: 1 Tx antennas, 2 Rx antennas (MRC)


UE: 1 Tx antenna, 2 Rx antennas (MRC)
DL F-domain Scheduler: channel-aware
UL F-domain Scheduler: channel-unaware

Interference margin for 50% load (~12dB)


0 dB fast fading margin (due to scheduling gain)
0 dB soft HO gain (no SHO in LTE)
2.5 dB gain against shadowing

DL 165 dB*

LTE:

Tx Power:
eNB 40W
/ UE 24 dBm
Antenna Gain:
eNB 19.5 dBi / UE 0 dBi
Feeder Loss: DL 0.5 dB
/ UL 0.5 dB (feederless)
Noise Figure:
eNB 2.0 dB / UE 7 dB

eNB: 1 Tx antennas, 2 Rx antennas (MRC)


UE: 1 Tx antenna, 2 Rx antennas (MRC)
DL F-domain Scheduler: channel-aware
UL F-domain Scheduler: channel-unaware

Interference margin for 50% load (~2..3dB)


0 dB fast fading margin (due to scheduling gain)
0 dB soft HO gain (no SHO in LTE)
2.5 dB gain against shadowing

UL 160 dB*
DL 166 dB*
Propagation

Operating Band

COST 231 Hata 2-slope propagation model with

2600 MHz

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Antenna height NB: 30m


Antenna height MS: 1.5m

Clutter dependent figures

* Max allowable path loss (clutter not considered, only system gains/losses)

UL 161 dB*

Std. dev.:
Cell area prob.:

(Dense Urban / Urban / Suburban / Rural)

9 / 8 / 8 / 7 [dB]
93 / 93 / 93 / 90 [%]

LTE 3-sector vs 6-sector


Urban indoor (BPL 17dB BPL)

3-sector

Cell Range (R3) = 0.73 km


Cell Area = 0.35 km2
Site Area (S3) = 1.04 km2
Inter Site Distance (ISD3) = 1.1km

6-sector

Cell Range (R6) = 0.77 km


Cell Area = 0.26 km2
Site Area (S6) = 1.54 km2
Inter Site Distance (ISD6) = 1.3km

LTE 6-sector site solution reduces the number of coverage sites by ~35%

LTE 6-sector site solution gives a benefit of larger coverage (mainly due to higher gain

antennas) and different network layout


It can happen that average interference level is higher from the point of a single cell
nevertheless 6-sector solution requires 35% less sites compared to corresponding 3sector configuration

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LTE 3-sector vs 6-sector


Mean CELL throughput

Mean SITE throughput

Instantaneous USER throughput

LTE 6-sector site solution brings >70% site throughput gain compared to 3-sector

Single cell capacity decreases 6% mainly because of increased inter-cell interference (more
neighbours higher interference)
In total per site, capacity is increased more than 70% in DL compared to 3-sector site
User experience is also improved (for cell-center as well as cell-edge UEs)

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How to improve the Link Budget

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How to improve the Link Budget?


Potential changes for discussion
Release independent (1/2):
Lower the interference margin
LTE air interface is not impacted by own-cell interference (as in WCDMA).
Perfect intra-cell orthogonality can be assumed for LTE. Thus one can claim the
interference margin is lower compared to 3G (WCDMA/HSPA). Simple 3G
formula : -10xlog10(1-50%)=3dB where 50% stands for the cell load
Use values <3 dB. In particular, for the rural case (LTE800MHz) as the cells will
be coverage instead interference limited it can be safe to consider 1dB

Increase UE Tx Power
Use 24dBm (typical TX power assumed for 3G data dimensioning) instead the
default 23dBm (nominal output power for Class 3 terminals; see 3GPP TS
36.101)

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How to improve the Link Budget?


Potential changes for discussion
Release independent (2/2):
Change the deployment class from mature to basic
Basic scenario is characterised by 2 dB less than mature scenario in
indoor penetration looses. In some scenarios the penetration loss can be even
lower (e.g. at the window sill -3dB loss from non coated window to typical 20
dB concrete wall loss)
Requirement for cell area probability is lower (compared to Mature) however cell
area probability lower than 90% for DU/U/SU might be too aggressive. On the
other hand, even 85% cell area probability for open/rural areas is acceptable

Change UE antenna gain (depending on the device considered)


Default: 0dBi (no external antenna; e.g. handset, USB modem)
Aggressive: 14dBi (CPE with outdoor high gain antenna, e.g. 800EU), 2..6dBi
(external antenna for indoor CPE/router/PCMCI card)

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How to improve the Link Budget?


Potential changes for discussion
Release dependent:
They can be pointed out as future areas of improvement taken into account when the
release will be commercial

Consider UL channel aware (RL40)


It brings gains of 2.5dB
Backed up by simulations
Dim Tool: Use Additional Gains (dB) field to enter the gains
Change the antenna scheme:
UL 1Tx-4Rx (RL50) instead 1Tx -2Rx
It should be easy to deploy 4Rx (MRC) at eNB with dual cross-polar antennas.
4Rx MRC brings about 3..4.5 dB over 2Rx MRC
Dim Tool: Change the antenna scheme for uplink

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Coverage Criteria for Field


Measurements

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Field measurement parameters


Terminals are measuring from serving cell:
RSRP (Reference Signal Received Power)
RSRQ (Reference Signal Received Quality)
Scanners are measuring from all decoded cells:
RSRP
RSRQ
Wideband channel power, RSSI
P-SCH, S-SCH power
Reference signal SINR

System and link level simulations gives SINR thresholds for a certain
service level (MCS or throughput)
RSPR and RSRQ are more common measurements
Mapping from SINR thresholds to RSRP/RSRQ threshold needed
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RSRP and RSRQ


RSRP:
RSRP is the power of a single resource
element.
UE measures the power of multiple
resource elements used to transfer the
reference signal but then takes an
average of them rather than summing
them.
Reporting range -44-140 dBm
RSRQ:
RSRQ = RSRP / (RSSI/N)
N is the number of resource blocks
over which the RSSI is measured
RSSI is wide band power, including
intracell power, interference and noise.
Reporting range -3-19.5dB
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3GPP RSRP Definition:


Reference signal received power (RSRP), is
defined as the linear average over the power
contributions (in [W]) of the resource elements
that carry cell-specific reference signals within the
considered measurement frequency bandwidth.
3GPP RSRQ Definition:
Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ) is
defined as the ratio NRSRP/(E-UTRA carrier
RSSI), where N is the number of RBs of the EUTRA carrier RSSI measurement bandwidth. The
measurements in the numerator and denominator
shall be made over the same set of resource
blocks.
E-UTRA Carrier Received Signal Strength
Indicator (RSSI), comprises the linear average of
the total received power (in [W]) observed only in
OFDM symbols containing reference symbols for
antenna port 0, in the measurement bandwidth,
over N number of resource blocks by the UE from
all sources, including co-channel serving and nonserving cells, adjacent channel interference,
thermal noise etc.

LiBu, RSSI and RSRP


LiBu provides the RSSI
RSSI = wideband power= noise + serving cell power + interference power
RSSI at the cell edge is the Rx Sensitivity
RSSI=12*N*RSRP
RSRP is the received power of 1 RE (3GPP definition) average of power levels received
across all Reference Signal symbols within the considered measurement frequency
bandwidth
RSSI per resource block is measured over 12 resource elements (in LiBU 100% of the
power is considered i.e. 43dBm)
N: number of RBs across the RSSI is measured and depends on the BW
Based on the above UNDER FULL LOAD AND HIGH SNR:
RSRP (dBm)= RSSI (dBm) -10*log (12*N)

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RSRP coverage thresholds


Example
Parameters:
Cell maximum TX power per antenna 43dBm
2Tx MIMO used
10MHz carrier bandwidth
18dBi BTS antenna gain
0.4dB jumper cable loss
Required cell edge throughput 4Mbps in DL
and 384kbps in UL
Coverage threshold (RSRP) without LNF margin, Gain Against Shadowing
and BPL:
= 43dBm + 18dB - 0.4dB -156.65dB - 27.78dB + (156.65-149.70)
= -116.88 dBm
Coverage threshold with LNF margin and Gain Against Shadowing:
= 43dBm+18dB-0.4dB-156.65 dB -27.78dB + (156.65-149.70)
+6.4dB = -110.48dBm
Coverage threshold with LNF margin, Gain Against Shadowing and BPL:
= 43dBm+18dB-0.4dB-156.65 dB -27.78dB + (156.65-149.70) +6.4dB +22dB =-88.50dBm
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RSRP Estimation Based on BCCH Measurements

A GSM operator may want to estimate what is the difference in coverage that
would have at the same location if it was to re-use the existing GSM network as
LTE (i.e. sites, antennas)
RSSI in GSM is a good measure as BCCH is on all the time with constant power.
Load independent measurement
RSRPlte, independent of the load, is the power of one RE that is why it needs to
be scaled down. E.g. BW=10MHz, 50PRBs; 12*50=600 subcarriers (RE);
12*log(600)
RSRPLTE= PmaxLTE- 10*log(12*N) PLLTE
RSSIGSM= BCCH_DLpower PLGSM

PL: Propagation loss


N: number of RBs

RSRPLTE (dBm)= RSSIGSM (dBm) (BCCH DL power PmaxLTE) -10*log (12*N)


(PLLTE-PLGSM)

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Term (PLLTE-PLGSM) accounts for the differences in propagation if different


frequencies are used. See next slide
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RSRP Estimation based on CPICH RSCP


Measurements

A WCDMA operator may want to estimate what is the difference in coverage that
would have at the same location if it was to re-use the existing WCDMA network as
LTE (i.e. sites, antennas)
RSRPLTE= PmaxLTE- 10*log(12*N) PLLTE
RSRPCPICH = PmaxUMTS-10*log(PmaxUMTS/PCPICH) PLUMTS
PL: Propagation loss
N: number of RBs depending on bandwidth

From both equations:

RSRPLTE (dBm) = RSRPCPICH - (PmaxLTE - PmaxUMTS) - (10*log(12*N) 10*log(PmaxUMTS/PCPICH)) -(PLLTE - PLUMTS)

The path loss difference (delta: PLUMTS - PLLTE) is meant for propagation differences
in different frequency bands. It can be estimated in different ways. E.g. from
Okumura Hata or from measurements
f
h
h
d
L A B log
13.82 log BS a MS s log
Lclutter
MHz
km
m
m

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Frequency

150-1500 MHz

69.55

26.16

1500-2000MHz

46.3

33.9

Link Level & System Level Simulations

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Overview
Link Simulations and Mapping are used to support System Level Simulator (and
planning tools)
Mapping Functions
One link is
analyzed in
detail

SINR->BER ( C/I, Fade ) BLER

de
Fa

ER
BL

I,
C/

R,
BE

A cluster of a
network, including
RRM measurements
and interference is
analyzed in details

Link simulator
Network simulator

The link simulator is run one time


to generate the mapping functions
SINR->BER and BER->BLER
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The network simulator uses


SINR->BER and BER->BLER
in subsequent simulations

Examples of Link Level Simulations

BLER vs. SNR curves

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SINR thresholds for

different MCS/RBs used


by the dimensioning tool

Examples of System Level Simulations


Throughputs based on
exact RRM and
interference
measurements

Uplink Interference Margin (as


function of the cell load)
Used by the dimensioning
tool

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Network Planning Tool: Simplified Static Simulator


Planning tool have to handle big scenarios on real terrain with acceptable
processing speed and stability

Simplification is needed to get it running


There is no exact RRM (no handovers, admission control, power control)
There is no time scale
Tool performs either:
A set of Monte Carlo simulations of static snapshot of the network
Consider certain constant load. Equilibrium between transmitted powers and
receiver SINR requirements is achieved via iterative process independent from
time. Mobiles are either dropped out or kept, but nothing in between

Tool uses link level simulation results as lookup (i.e. MCS thresholds)
Tool use system level simulation results as lookup to consider effect of some
RRM features (example throughput gain factor for introducing Adaptive Modulation
Switch in MIMO)
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System and Link Level Simulators in NSN


Link Level simulators and
emulators
4GMax (LTE)
Cannibal (LTE)
Matlab LTE
Linksim (LTE)

SL simulator platform
WISE (ex Nokia)
MoRSE (ex Siemens)
Special simulator developed for SON

System Level simulators and emulators


UPRISE (LTE - MoRSE)
FREAC (LTE - WISE)
MoRSE (LTE MoRSE)
AMoRE (LTE, HSPA - Linux)

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E.g. Dimensioning Tool uses


MoRSE for system level and
4GMax for link level

LTE Planning General Principles

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LTE Network Planning Items

There is a trade off between coverage and capacity


LTE planning is not feasible to do based on propagation only
Tight frequency re-use 1 impacts strongly on SINR distribution
Planning is similar to Mobile WiMAX and HSPA
Frequency reuse 1 same as HSDPA
OFDMA, subcarrier concept similar to WiMAX

Outage
probability
improvement
due to
interference
reduction

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LTE capacity depends on SINR


Low other to own cell interference can be

achieved by planning clear dominance areas


m

The cell coverage (and overlap) must be

<3

00

properly controlled

The cell should cover only what it is supposed

especially over the water or otherwise open


area

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km

Avoid sites "seeing" the buildings in horizon

>3

to cover
Low(er) antenna heights and down tilt of the
antennas
Use buildings and other environmental
structures to isolate cells coverage
Use indoor solutions to take advantage of
the building penetration loss

LTE Planning with Atoll

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Atoll Tool for LTE (1/2)


Atoll Planning Tool by FORSK - LTE module commercially available from
version 2.8.0. Current version 3.1 (March, 2nd)

Easy user interface and powerful features


Provides many preconfigured default values (not easily available in NetAct Planner)
Easy import of data (e.g. sites or bearers)
Weakness: complicate visualization of traffic maps

If Atoll older license version already available for 3G it is necessary to upgrade it


first to v3.1 and add the LTE module on top

How to order an Atoll license?


Contact Forsk directly: Samuel Desmaison, sdesmaison@forsk.com

Internal technical tests for Atoll + additional material (including pricing!):


https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Open/384957144

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Atoll Tool for LTE (2/2)


Forsk training materials and user documentation in IMS
https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Open/383538042
Atoll usage material created by NPO
https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Open/416916922
RF Planning for LTE using Atoll.ppt
Capacity Simulations
How to transfer the traffic data into Atoll

More information in Atoll web page:


http://www.forsk.com/web/EN/72-atoll-lte-module.php

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Atoll ACP Module


ACP (Automatic Cell Planning) module is part of Atoll
It enables network reconfiguration through two mechanisms:
Parameter reconfiguration (to improve network quality): antenna azimuths, tilts, Tx
powers, RRM parameters
Performing site and sectors selections based on:
Selecting which sites and/or sectors to suppress among existing sites
Selecting which sites to use among many candidates of sites

Separate license required to run it.


By minimizing the global cost function, the ACP tries to optimize the network
An study of LTE planning (reusing existing 3G network) in Atoll and how ACP can
optimise the network:
https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Overview/D409093376

Some conclusions from the study:


Tool poses very good performance as to manipulation with data (input/output) and
reasonable processing time.
Good to do network clustering and apply ACP tool to optimize cluster by cluster rather
then try to run big networks in one run

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Alternative solutions to Atoll


Mentum Planet 5.0:
Alternative planning tool for LTE
Evaluation notes and comparison between Mentum Planet and Atoll:
https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Open/417095435

Mentum information in IMS:


https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Open/414037457

ASSET 7.0:
Former MultiRadio Planner and part of Aircoms Enterprise Suite is already
available
Timetable for Enterprise licenses for commercial projects still open

LTE Parameter Documentation ready during 1H2011 (Tools Group)


Evaluation of ASSET7.0 available in IMS:
https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Overview/D424510747

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Atoll GUI

Map Window

Atoll GUI

Explorer
Window

Legend
Window
Panoramic
View
Point
Analysis
Window

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Network Design Workflow


Project creation, importing geographic
data i.e. DTM, clutter maps
Setup of network parameters and
elements (base stations, other equipment)
Initial eNodeBs location can be studied with
coverage predictions
Monte Carlo
simulations for
realistic network
traffic scenarios
(Atoll calculates
network loads)

Networks behaviour study


under different load conditions

Can be based on
geographic data such
as population maps
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Manually
introduction of
the load from
statistics

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Study different
frequency
planning
scenarios

Lists can be generated


by Atoll, imported or
graphically & manually
created

LTE Radio Planning Topics

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LTE Radio Planning Topics


E-UTRAN Cell Identifier (eutraCelId)
The E-UTRAN Cell Global Identifier (ECGI) is used to identify cells

globally
The ECGI is constructed from the MCC, MNC and E-UTRAN Cell
Identifier (ECI)
The ECI is used to identify cells within a PLMN
It has a length of 28 bits and contains the eNode B Identifier
The ECI, MCC and MNC are broadcast within SIB 1

LNCE: eutraCelId Range:

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0..268435455
Parameter is compiled by the system
from following two individual
parameters on binary string level:
LNBTS: lnBtsId Range: 01048575
LNCEL: lcrId Range: 0.255
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20 bit LNBTSId 8 bit LCRId

eutraCelId

LTE Radio Planning Topics


E-UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number
(EARFCN)
http://niviuk.free.fr/lte_band.php

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LTE Radio Planning Topics


Physical Cell Identity (PCI) What is a PCI?

Physical Layer Cell Identity (PCI) identifies a cell within a network


There are 504 Physical Layer Cell Identities -> PCI is not unique!
Physical Layer Cell Identity = (3 NID1) + NID2
NID1: Physical Layer Cell Identity group. Defines SSS sequence. Range 0 to 167
NID2: Identity within the group. Defines PSS sequence. Range 0 to 2

PCI is not the E-UTRAN Cell Identifier (ECI)


ECI is unique within a network
ECI does not need to be planned. ECI value is set by the system

Physical Cell Identity is defined by the parameter phyCellID:

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Parameter

Object

Range

Default

phyCellID

LNCEL

0 to 503

Not Applicable

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LTE Radio Planning Topics


PCI Planning Overview

PCI planning is analogous to scrambling code planning in UMTS:


A UE should never receive simultaneously the same identity from more than a cell
Maximum isolation required between cells with the same PCI
Neighbour cells should not have the same PCI (collision free planning)
Neighbours of neighbours cell should not have the same PCI (confusion free planning)

Additionally, PCI planning needs to follow the PCI modulo rules: modulo3,
modulo6 and modulo30
If mod3(PCI) rule is true then mod6(PCI) and mod30(PCI) are true
If mod6(PCI) is true then mod30(PCI) is true
If mod6(PCI) is not true then mod3(PCI) is not true
If mod30(PCI) is not true then mode6(PCI) is not true

There should be some level of co-ordination across international borders when


allocating PCIs
To avoid operators allocating the same identity to cells on the same RF carrier and in

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neighbouring geographic areas

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LTE Radio Planning Topics


PCI modulo 3 (PCI) Rule

Rule:
Avoid assigning to the cells of one eNB PCIs with the same modulo 3
Reason:
PSS defines NID2. There are 3 NID2 in a group so PSS is generated using 1 of 3
different sequences

If two cells of the same eNB have the same mod3(PCI) it means they have the
same NID2 (i.e. 0, 1 or 2) and the same PSS sequence
PSS is used in cell search and synchronization procedures: Different PSS
sequences facilitate cell search and synch procedures
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LTE Radio Planning Topics


PCI mod 3 Overlap between eNBs Example

Test between 2 sites with one


cell each
Original PCIs (left) where
changed to PCIs (right) so both
sites have same mod3 (PCI)=1

Effects:
SINR reduction: 17 to -2dB
Throughput is only reduced
from 17Mbps to ~14Mbps
Original scenario: PCI 45 and
PCI 47
Modified scenario: PCI 400 and
PCI 403
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LTE Radio Planning Topics


PCI Impact of PCI mod 3 Collision on Throughput

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Case: UE at the border of two cells who have the same PCImod3, RSRP
from both cells = -67dBm in both measurement cases (only PCI changed)
NSN 7210 TD dongle, 2.6GHz, 10MHz bandwidth

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LTE Radio Planning Topics


PCI Wrap Up
Id = 0
Id = 2

In priority order, number 1 most important (all


four should be fulfilled, ideally)

Id = 3

1. Avoid assigning the same PCI to


neighbour cells
2. Avoid assigning the same mod3 (PCI)
to neighbour cells
3. Avoid assigning the same mod6(PCI) to
neighbour cells

4. Avoid assigning the same mod30 (PCI) to


neighbour cells
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Id = 5

Id = 6
Id = 8

Id = 1

Id = 9

Id =
11
Id = 4

Id =
10

Id = 7

LTE Radio Planning Topics


PCI Planning Methods

Manual
Valid for small amount of sites (e.g. trials)
No need for additional tools, just follow the rules considering the site distance
and cell azimuths

Atoll or other planning tools (e.g. Asset)


PCI planning supported
NetAct Optimizer
PCI planning supported
NSN Internal tools
Alpha
MUSA
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LTE Radio Planning Topics


PRACH Principle
PRACH configuration two cells must be different within the PRACH re-use distance to
increase the RACH decoding success rate

PRACH transmission can be separated by:


Time (prachConfIndex)
PRACH-PUSCH interference: If PRACH resources are separated in time within eNB
PRACH-PRACH interference: If same PRACH resources are used for the cells of an
eNodeB.
PRACH-PRACH interference is preferred to PRACH-PUSCH interference so
prachConfIndex of the cells on one site should be the same

Frequency (prachFreqOff)
Allocation of PRACH area should be next to PUCCH area either at upper or lower border
of frequency band, however should not overlap with PUCCH area
Avoid separation of PUSCH in two areas by PRACH (scheduler can only handle one
PUSCH area)
For simplicity use same configuration for all cells

44 Sequence
(PRACH CS and RootSeqIndex)
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LTE Radio Planning Topics


PRACH Preamble Formats

9.38 10 6 3 108
1.4km
2

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LTE Radio Planning Topics


PRACH PRACH Configuration Index (prachConfIndex)
The parameter defines the Allowed

System Frame for random access


attempts, the Sub-frame numbers for
random access attempts and the
Preamble format

Supported values in RL10 up to RL30:


For Preamble Format 0: 3 to 8
For Preamble Format 1: 19 to 24
RACH Density indicates how many

RACH resources are per 10ms frame.


Only RACH density values of 1 and 2
are supported up to RL30.E.g.
RACH density=1 Only one random
access attempt per frame
RACH density=2 Two random
access attempts per frame
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LTE Radio Planning Topics


PRACH PRACH Cyclic Shift (prachCS)
PrachCS defines the configuration used for the preamble generation. i.e. how
many cyclic shifts are needed to generate the preamble
PrachCS depends on the cell size
Different cell ranges correspond to different PrachCS
Simplification: To assume all cells have same size (limited by the prachConfIndex)

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LTE Radio Planning Topics


PRACH PrachCs and rootSeqIndex
PrachCS defines the number of cyclic
shifts (in terms of number of samples) used
to generate multiple preamble
sequences from a single root sequence
Example based on PrachCS=12 -> number
of cyclic shifts: 119
Root sequence length is 839 so a cyclic shift
of 119 samples allows ROUNDDOWN
(839/119)= 7 cyclic shifts before making a
complete rotation (signatures per root
sequence)

64 preambles are transmitted in the PRACH


frame. If one root is not enough to generate
all 64 preambles then more root sequences
are necessary
To ensure having 64 preamble sequences
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within the cell it is necessary to have


ROUNDUP (64/7)= 10 root sequences per cell

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LTE Radio Planning Topics


PRACH Wrap Up
Steps:
- Define the prachConfIndex
Depends on preamble format (cell range)
It should be the same for each cell of the network
- Define the prachFreqOff
Depends on the PUCCH region
It can be assumed to be the same for all cells of a network (simplification)
- Define the prachCS
Depends on the cell range
If for simplicity same cell range is assumed for all network then prachCS is the
same for all cells
- Define the rootSeqIndex
It points to the first root sequence (838 sequences for FDD and 138 possible
for TDD)
It needs to be different for neighbour cells across the network
rootSeqIndex separation between cells depends on how many are necessary
per cell (depends on PrachCS)
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LTE Radio Planning Topics


Tracking Area Code (TAC) Introduction (1/2)
When the UE is in idle mode its location is known by the MME with the accuracy
of a tracking area
Each eNodeB can contain cells belonging to different tracking areas
One cell only belongs to one tracking area code (TAC)

A tracking area can be shared by multiple MME


Tracking Area Identity (TAI) = PLMN ID (mcc, mnc) + TAC all broadcasted in SIB1
Reserved TAC values: 0000 and FFFE( in hex) i.e. 0 and 65534

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Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE Radio Planning Topics


Tracking Area Code (TAC) Introduction (2/2)
The normal tracking area updating procedure is used when a UE moves into a
tracking area within which it is not registered

The periodic tracking area updating procedure is used to periodically notify the
availability of the UE to the network (based upon T3412)

Tracking area updates are also used for


registration during inter-system changes
MME load balancing
Large tracking areas result in
Increased paging load
Reduced requirement for tracking area updates resulting from mobility

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Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE Radio Planning Topics


Tracking Area Code (TAC) Planning Guidelines
Tracking areas should be planned to be relatively large (100 eNodeB, 3
cells/eNodeB) rather than relatively small

Their size should be reduced subsequently if the paging load becomes high
Tracking areas should not run close to and parallel to major roads nor railways.
Likewise, boundaries should not traverse dense subscriber areas

Cells which are located at a tracking area boundary and which experience large
numbers of updates should be monitored to evaluate the impact of the update
procedures

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Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE Deployment Scenarios

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Introduction
Macrocells
provide coverage and capacity across wide areas
Standard deployment solution
Indoor solutions
improve coverage when indoor macrocell coverage is weak
provide high capacity solutions
Microcells
serve traffic hotspots
provide coverage when macrocell sites are not available

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Flexi Multiradio
Flexi Platform is selected as common

55

HW platform to be used for different


access technologies: GSM/EDGE,
WCDMA, LTE
Radio access functionality is shifted
from dedicated HW to SW
Same Flexi BTS modules can operate
simultaneously in one (dedicated mode)
or more radio modes/technologies
(concurrent mode)
System Module (SM) supports
multiband operation
i.e. radio modules of different frequencies
RF Modules support a single
frequency band but multicarrier
operation

Nokia Siemens Networks

Flexi Multiradio BTS:


LTE or WCDMA/HSPA and
GSM/EDGE
Flexi BTS operates
simultaneously in 2 radio
modes
Single or Concurrent mode of
operation is supported

3 sector RF module
GSM/EDGE SM
WCDMA/LTE SM

RL10

Flexi BTS Multimode System Module FSME


High Capacity System Module (SM) for HSPA and LTE

FSME provides capacity for up to


1+1+1 (3 cells) LTE site with 20
MHz bandwidth with 2TX MIMO
6 sectors deployment with one
system module and 2Tx MIMO is
possible from RL30 for 5 and
10MHz bandwidths

Bandwidth

Max
MCS

5 MHz

10
MHz

15
MHz

20
MHz

Peak L1 DL
Throughput
per cell

28

37
Mbit/s

75
Mbit/s

110
Mbit/s

150
Mbit/s

Peak L1 UL
Throughput
per cell

20

10,6
Mbit/s

21,3
Mbit/s

32,8
Mbit/s

43,8
Mbit/s

FSME
For other releases and different bandwidths 6 sectors deployment implies 2 SM
Bandwidth

56

5MHz

10MHz

15MHz

20MHz

Max number of active users per cell (FSME) RL10

200

400

800

Max number of active users per cell (FSME) RL20

480

600

720

840

Max number of active users per cell (FSME) RL30 (3 sectors/site)

480

600

720

840

Max number of active users per cell (FSME) RL30 ( 6 sectors/site)

420

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Feature ID(s): LTE82

Flexi BTS Multimode System Module FSMD

RL30

Cost efficient System Module


Hardware capacities with 2Tx MIMO and 2Rx
5 (or less)

10

Capacity with FSMD

3 cells

3 cells

Peak L1 DL Throughput per cell

37 Mbit/s

75 Mbit/s

110
Mbit/s

150 Mbit/s

Peak L1 UL Throughput per cell

10,6 Mbit/s

21,3 Mbit/s

32,8 Mbit/s

43,8 Mbit/s

Bandwidth

57

15MHz

Bandwidth MHz

20

3 cells

2 cells

5MHz

10MHz

15MHz

20MHz

Max number of active users per cell (FSMD)


RL20 ( 3 sectors/site)

420

420

Max number of active users per cell (FSMD)


RL20 (2 sectors/site)

480

600

720

840

Nokia Siemens Networks

Feature ID(s): LTE74

FSMD

Flexi Multiradio 3-Sector RF Module


DC Power supply input RX Antenna
connector

Sector 3
Div Rx

Ant6

Tx/Rx

Ant5

Sector 2
Div Rx

Ant4

Ant3

Tx/Rx

Sector 1
Div Rx

Ant2

TX/RX Antenna
connector

Tx/Rx

Ant1

RF sector activation license activates 1 sector in 20 W mode


Optical
connections to
System Module
Multiple RF modules are required to support MIMO
1+1+1 LTE with one RF Module
Provides support for up to 20 MHz bandwidth
Basic software activation provides support for 1.4 MHz
Includes 3 x 70 W Power Amplifiers providing 60 W output power at the
antenna connector
Support for Distributed site up to 20 km from System Module

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Remote Radio Heads (RRH)

Part of our product since RL10 (only 800EUversion)


1RRH supports 1 sector
Supports MIMO (2Tx/2Rx): optional software license
Typical NF: 2 dB, guaranteed < 3dB.
40W + 40 W at antenna connector:
20W basic license
8 W and 40 W optional license

Sector 1
Rx/Tx40W
Div Rx/Tx40W

Full Flexi Multiradio


Roadmap:
https://sharenet-ims.insi
de.nokiasiemensnetworks.c
om/Overview/D400082720

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Flexi Multiradio BTS


2Tx MIMO support

MIMO is an optional feature


System Module
add 2nd 3-sector RF Module for MIMO
1+1+1 @ 360 W with 2TX MIMO
Optional TMAs/MHAs

Optional
TMA/MHA

1
2
r3
o
tor
tor
t
c
c
c
Se
Se
Se

Rx3
Tx2/Rx2
Div Rx2
Rx4
Tx1/Rx1

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2nd 3-sector RF Module


System Module
1st 3-sector RF Module

Feederless:
RF Module located close to
the antenna
NSNs preferred solution:
No feeder looses
No need for TMAs/MHAs

4-port Antenna
Sector 1

Flexi Feederless and 2TX MIMO with 4RX


Feederless and MIMO:
System Module
one 3-sector RF
Module per sector
60 + 60 W with 2TX
MIMO
Optional 4 way UL
diversity

System
Module

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Introducing LTE with WCDMA


3 general approaches to introducing LTE BTS
New Flexi can be added
to existing Node B
Does not depend upon
release version of
existing hardware

2 x 40W
1 x 40W

3G BTS

Existing Flexi RF modules


can be shared between
3G/2G and LTE
Requires release 2 RF
module hardware

3 x 60W
3 x 60W

LTE BTS
(2x2 MIMO)

2 x 40W
1 x 40W

3G BTS

3 x 60W
LTE System Module

3 x 60W

3G BTS

3 x 60W

3G/LTE RF Module
3G System Module

Existing Flexi RF and

system modules can be


upgraded to LTE
Requires release 2 RF
module hardware

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Nokia Siemens Networks

3 x 60W

3G BTS

3 x 60W
3 x 60W

LTE BTS
(2x2 MIMO)

Introducing LTE with GSM


Antennas and feeders can be shared with LTE
Combiner required when sharing feeders
Multiradio when using the same operating band
Multiband when using different operating bands
Single Band
Antenna

Single Band
Antenna

Multiband
Antenna (I)

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Nokia Siemens Networks

GSM

LTE

Multiband
Antenna (II)

Multi-Band
Combiner

Flexi
MultiRadio
Combiner

GSM

Further details within


the co-siting section

GSM

LTE

GSM

LTE

RL20

RF Sharing GSM-LTE
GSM and LTE share the same Radio Module
RRH and 3-sector RF modules support LTE and GSM in concurrent mode

operation
Initial support for 900MHz and 1800MHz. Later support extension to 850 MHz
and 1900MHz
Common Multi Carrier Power Amplifier (MCPA) is used to transmit GSM and
LTE
- RF output power is flexibly shared between GSM and LTE
- No external combining needed, reduced complexity for the antenna system

For example 3 GSM TRX and


1 LTE carrier per shared MCPA
f2

f1

Flexi Multiradio BTS

GSM-LTE concurrent mode


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Nokia Siemens Networks

Feature ID: LTE447

f3

Multimode
System Module
LTE SW

GSM/
LTE RF
Module

10
MHz
LTE

GSM/EDGE
System Module

Co-siting

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Introduction (I)
Interference

Co-Siting means that 2 BTS are in close proximity to

one another
One BTS transmitter can interfere with the other BTS
receiver
Duplex spacing and additional filtering usually protects
multiple RF carriers belonging to the same system
Feeders

FDD Example

System X
BTS Rx

LTE BTS Interfering


with another BTS

LTE
BTS Rx

System X
BTS Tx

Another BTS Interfering


with LTE BTS
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Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE
BTS Tx

Feeders

Introduction (II)
Studying the potential for interference between 2 BTS should always start with
identifying the spectrum allocations

There is increased potential for interference if the transmit band of one system is
close to the receive band of the other system
Interference is generated by both the non-ideal transmitter of one system and the
non-ideal receiver of the other system
In the case of FDD, the duplex spacing provides isolation in the frequency
domain, i.e. the BTS transmit band is relatively distant from the BTS receive band
Receive Band
of BTS 1
Transmit Band
of BTS 2

In-band
interference
for BTS 1

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Out-of-band
interference
for BTS 1

LTE Bandwidth Scalability


LTE provides a scalable bandwidth ranging from 1.4 to 20 MHz
Large bandwidths provide high data rates
Small bandwidths allow simpler spectrum re-farming
Bandwidth
1.4 MHz
3.0 MHz

Small bandwidth for easier spectrum re-farming


(provides coverage in smaller spectrum allocations)

5 MHz
10 MHz
15 MHz
20 MHz

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Large bandwidth for higher data rates


(provides capacity when more spectrum is available)

Operating Bands Specified by 3GPP


LTE operating bands are similar to those for UMTS
Implies there will be a requirement for LTE to share operating bands with UMTS,
i.e. to operate in adjacent spectrum

UMTS FDD Operating Bands


Extract from 3GPP TS 25.104

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Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE FDD Operating Bands


Extract from 3GPP TS 36.104

Spectrum Allocations Common with other Systems

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Example of Spectrum Re-Farming

A set of GSM channels can be replaced by a UMTS or LTE channel. In case of


LTE:

Planning
Guidelines for frequency band sharing:
Nokia Siemens Networks

71

Example Interference Scenarios


Example interference scenarios for LTE are:

GSM BTS interfering with an LTE BTS


LTE BTS interfering with a GSM BTS
WCDMA BTS interfering with an LTE BTS
LTE BTS interfering with a WCDMA BTS

MS Transmit /
BTS Receive

GSM BTS Interfering


with LTE BTS

BTS Transmit /
MS Receive
960 MHz

915 MHz

LTE
890 MHz

LTE
935 MHz
LTE BTS Interfering
with GSM BTS

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Guard Band Requirements


Re-farming
Guard band requirements between FDD systems sharing the same operating

bands are dependent upon the interference scenarios:


MS->BTS (in uplink band)
BTS->MS (in downlink band)
They are not dependent upon BTS->BTS interference scenarios
Co-siting tends to reduce the impact of MS->BTS and BTS->MS interference
scenarios by avoiding the Near-Far effect
Uncoordinated LTE with 5 MHz
(GSM uses different sites)
Coordinated LTE with 5 MHz
(GSM uses the same sites)

If uncoordinated it is
recommended to leave
an empty GSM channel
either side of the LTE
bandwidth
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Nokia Siemens Networks

Achieving Sufficient Isolation


Interference

Achieving the isolation requirements depends upon


the antenna sub-system design
dedicated feeders and antenna
dedicated feeders and shared antenna
shared feeders and antenna
If sites belong to different operators then it is likely
that dedicated feeders and antenna are used
Isolation is achieved by ensuring there is sufficient
isolation from:
antenna positioning
feeder loss
combiner isolation
antenna isolation

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Feeders

Feeders

Isolation from Antenna Positioning


Applicable when dedicated antenna are used
Vertical antenna spacing is more effective due to the narrower vertical beamwidth
Horizontal antenna spacing requirement depends upon the horizontal beamwidth
Compromise may be required if antenna cannot be mounted with adequate
spacing
Antenna system planning and selection guideline (for decoupling distances):

https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Overview/D424566741

Example for 90
horizontal
beamwidth

85

Minimum isolation (dB)

75
70
65
60
55
50
45

Distance (m )

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Nokia Siemens Networks

70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30

5.5

4.5

3.5

2.5

40
1.5

distance

Minimum isolation (dB)

80

distance

0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6

Distance (m)

Isolation from a Multi-Radio Combiner


Applicable when
systems use same operating band
shared feeders and antenna are used
For example, LTE & GSM both operating
within the 900 MHz band
Multi-Radio combiner typically provides
more than 50 dB of isolation

Single Band
Antenna

Flexi
MultiRadio
Combiner

NSN RL20 Hardware Capability


Flexi Multi-Radio Combiner 700 MHz
Flexi Multi-Radio Combiner 850 MHz
Flexi Multi-Radio Combiner 900 MHz
Flexi Multi-Radio Combiner 2100

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Nokia Siemens Networks

GSM BTS

LTE BTS

Isolation from Multi-Band Combiner


Applicable when
systems use different operating bands
shared feeders and antenna are used
For example, LTE 2100 MHz & GSM 900 MHz
Combiner typically provides more than 50 dB
of isolation

Multi-Band
Antenna

Multi-Band
Combiner

GSM BTS

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Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE BTS

Example combiner
provides more than
50 dB of isolation

Isolation from Antenna


Applicable when
systems use different operating bands
shared antenna is used
For example, LTE 2100 MHz & GSM 900 MHz
Antenna typically provides more than 45 dB
of isolation

Example antenna
provides more than
45 dB of isolation

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Multi-band
Antenna (with
separate feeder
connections)

GSM BTS

LTE BTS

Parameter Overview

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Nokia Siemens Networks

eNodeB Parameters
What are they?
Radio Resource Manager (RRM)
Manages the utilization of the radio resources
Consist of different functions: i.e. Power

Control, Radio Admission Control, Connection


Mobility Control
Functions consist on algorithms that define
HOW to handle the radio resources
Algorithms use parameters that define
specifically WHAT to do

Constants and threshold values that define


and configure the functions of the RRM
Example:
CMC- Handover: Better cell algorithm, A3 case
Do handover towards better cell if it is better than
a3Offset=5dB for at least a3TimeToTrigger=1280ms

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Nokia Siemens Networks

eNodeB Parameters
Where to find them?
Main sources:
Parameter Dictionary Database (PDDB):
http://esodts051.emea.nsn-net.net:8080/pddb/

Parameter Knowledge Database (NetEng):


https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Open/417780970

Additional material:
LTE PAR training:
https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Open/419966762

NSN Academy:
https://networks-academy.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/nsnintranet/

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Where to find them?


PDDB

http://esodts051.emea.nsn-net.net:8080/pddb/

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Selecting the appropriate Release

Select: Inc 22 for RL10ver 09 ( 22-09-2010)


From RL20 onwards increments are called feature builds (FB). RL20- LN2.0- is based on
FB10.08. Pick the latest FB available.
RL30: LN3.0 (FB11)
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Nokia Siemens Networks

Managed Objects Hierarchy

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Nokia Siemens Networks

RL20 Parameter Object Structure


LNMME
1..1

LNADJ

0..32

LNBTS

neighbour eNB

serving eNB

adjWinfList

LNADJW
neighbour
WCDMA cell

0..32

1..3

1..3

adjCelInfoL
0..98

LNCEL
serving eNB cell

LNADJL
neighbour eNB cell

LNHOW

REDRT

IAFIM

IRFIM

UFFIM

GFIM

0..1
6

0..
2

0..
1

0..
8

0..
1

0..
1

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Nokia Siemens Networks

CDFIM
0..
1

Parameter Object Structure


LNBTS

Root object QCI, AM RLC, PDCP configuration

LNCEL

Cell, Common channel, RRM,C- and U- Plane configuration

LNMME

S1 Interface configuration

LNADJ

Global eNB Id of neighbouring eNB

LNADJL

Neighbour cell information

LNADJW

Neighbouring WCDMA BTS cell

LNHOW

HO to WCDMA parameters per WCDMA frequency

REDRT

Redirection target Parameters

IAFIM

Intra Frequency Idle Mode Parameters

IRFIM

Inter Frequency Idle Mode Parameters

GFIM

GERAN Idle Mode Parameters

CDFIM

CDMA200 Idle Mode Parameters

UFFIM

UTRAN FDD Frequency Idle Mode Parameters

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Nokia Siemens Networks

How to Visualize them?


Three methods
A) Selecting the Manage object to list
ALL parameters under that
managed object

B) Doing a search for the parameter if


name is known

C) Creating a Report containing all


parameters

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Recommended as it provides an offline reference list

Creating a report

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Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE KPIs and Counters Overview

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Where to find LTE KPIs information


Operators can ask as part of their RFQ for SoC regarding certain KPIs
Two documents available, created by Network Engineering (NE)
LTE E2E Field Network Performance - KPI Definitions (Internal version):
https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Overview/D409745294
Describes the different categories of KPIs and the measurement conditions
KPI Targets:
https://sharenet-ims.inside.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/Overview/D413309216

Contains the target values that can be used in RFQs

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Nokia Siemens Networks

KPIs and Counters for LTE


Work to define network KPIs and counters for LTE is ongoing
Both KPIs and counters for LTE RL10/RL20 are available in RISE that can be
accessed from JUMP: http://nop-i.nokiasiemensnetworks.com/docs/jump.htm

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Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE Counters in RISE


LTE Counters are under:

Base Station (Product)

Product Software Release: LN1.0 for RL10, LN2.0 for RL20

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Set of Counters

Set of counter tables generated by the eNodeB

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Nokia Siemens Networks

M8000 S1 Application Protocol


M8001 Cell Load
M8005 Uplink Power and Quality
M8006 EPS Bearer
M8007 Radio Bearer
M8008 RRC
M8009 Intra eNode B Handover
M8010 Downlink Power and Quality
M8011 Cell Resource
M8012 Cell Throughput
M8013 UE State
M8014 Inter eNode B Handover
M8015 Neighbour cell related Handover
M8018 eNB Load
M8020 Cell Availability

LTE KPIs in RISE


LTE KPIs are available under: Nokia Siemens Networks Long Term Evolution
Domain Release: RL10, RL20

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Reporting Suite
NetAct

System Program
System Program for LNBTS level
System Program for LNCell level
2. Traffic
Cell Data Volume, Load and Throughput
Allocated Traffic Amounts
Utilization Shares
3. Transport
Detailed report on each interface
4. Signalling
Detailed analysis of signalling protocols
based on PM counters
Example of System Program Report (Cell
Level)
Example Sys tem
Level Report

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5. LTE overview
LTE overview (data, integrity)
Scheduling
CQI distribution
Power Distribution
UE Power HeadRoom
Code and Modulation Usage
Number of Users and UE capability
6. Mobility and Handover
Detailed analysis of HO and SCC and
HO reasons
7. Service Level
Service/Session Accessibility Analysis
Service/Session Retainability Analysis
Service Summary
8. Hardware
HW resources analysis
9. QoS

Exercise

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Exercise
Inputs
Parameter
Band
Channel BW

Value
1800 MHz
20 MHz
2x2 MIMO in DL

Antenna Configuration

1x2 in UL
3 sectors per site

Transmitted power per antenna


Power UL
Feederloss Loss

40 W
Class 3
15 dB

LTE Antenna
Antenna Gain: 3dBi
Propagation Model
Area Coverage Probability
User Throughput @ cell edge
Cell Load

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Nokia Siemens Networks

ITU-R P.1238
98% Office Environment
DL 4Mpbs, UL 512kbps
50%

Dimensioning should be
done for RL40.

Annex: Indoor Solutions

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Example Flexi Passive DAS (Moderate)


A Passive DAS with multiple antenna can be used to provide coverage and

capacity across moderate sized indoor areas


Depending upon the capacity requirements, it may be necessary to license more
than a single sector

Splitters (equal division of power) and couplers

(unequal division of power) can be used to


ensure that each antenna radiates similar power
Each antenna should radiate ~15 dBm of power
The requirement for attenuators within the DAS
depends upon the DAS losses. The total loss
must be sufficient to ensure that,
each antenna radiates ~15 dBm of power
the MCL requirements are achieved
If the DAS losses are large i.e. ~15 dBm cannot
be achieved at each antenna, then its necessary
to consider an Active DAS

Splitter or
Coupler
Sector 2

Sector 2

Sector 1

Sector 1
Flexi RF Module
licensed for 20 W
and 2 sectors

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Indoor Solutions DAS Components


RF cable loss dependant upon cable

diameter and operating frequency


Examples, 6 dB per 100 m @ 2 GHz,
4 dB per 100 m at 900 MHz

Jumpers used for inter-connection of DAS


elements
Typically 0.2 dB of loss

Splitters commonly 2-way, 3-way and 4-way


Splitter loss greater than theoretical figure,
e.g. 2-way splitter has loss of 3.25 dB
Loss appears in both uplink and downlink

Couplers commonly 2-way 6dB, 8 dB, 10 dB, 13 dB,


15dB and 20 dB
Used to balance power between antenna lines
Loss appears in both uplink and downlink
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Nokia Siemens Networks

Indoor Solutions - Antenna


Multi-band antenna can be used if LTE shares an indoor solution with a system

operating in a different frequency band


Single-band antenna can be used if LTE shares an indoor solution with a system
operating in the same frequency band
Example multi-band
antenna for indoor
solutions

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Antenna Placement
Indoor solution design includes making decisions regarding the location of each
remote antenna
Antenna placement should account for:
Service and Reference Signal link budget requirements
Leakage requirements
Distribution of interference from the macrocell layer
Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL) requirements
Distribution of UE and the associated traffic

Sectorization Strategy

Indoor solutions may be configured with single or multiple sectors


The level of sectorization should be defined by the capacity requirements
This requires a definition of the traffic expectation
Sectorization should be planned to achieve sufficient isolation between sectors
Sectorization in multi-storey buildings can take advantage of the inter-floor isolation
Overlap is required to allow time for inter-sector handover

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Verification of Existing Coverage


Indoor solution may be proposed for coverage or capacity reasons
Possible that macrocell layer already provides coverage while indoor solution
is required for capacity
Important that indoor solution dominates over macrocell to avoid loading the
macrocell layer
Macrocell measurements should be recorded prior to indoor solution design

Leakage Requirements
Requirement to minimise leakage from indoor solution to the outdoor environment
If leakage is not limited then UE in the outdoor environment could camp and

establish connections upon the indoor solution


An example approach is that the indoor solution Reference Signal Received Power
(RSRP) should not exceed 125 dBm at a distance of 20 m from the building
This absolute power threshold may be translated into a link loss based threshold

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Selection between Active and Passive DAS

Two general approaches can be adopted:


passive DAS should be able to maintain ~15 dBm of downlink transmit
power at each antenna. If not, then active DAS should be selected
rule-of-thumb based upon the number of antennas, e.g. if the antenna
requirement is above 5 then select an active DAS
In general, active DAS are easier to sectorize subsequent to initial deployment
because it is relatively easy to lay spare fibre optic during installation

RF Carrier Assignment
RF carrier used for indoor solutions can be the same as that used for the outdoor

macrocell layer
Unlikely to be practical to dedicate and RF carrier to indoor solutions when wide
bandwidths are allocated to LTE
Important to ensure that indoor solution has dominance so the number of antennas
required may increase if macrocell signal is relatively strong indoors

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Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL) - Uplink


MCL represents the minimum allowed link loss between the UE and Node B cabinet
antenna connector
The MCL should be sufficient to ensure that the BTS does not become desensitised
when a UE is physically close to an antenna
It can be assumed that the UE
is transmitting at its minimum
power when it is physically
close to an antenna
3GPP TS 36.101 specifies the
minimum transmit power
requirement for the UE
Example for Passive DAS

The MCL requirement depends upon


the thermal noise floor of the Node
B receiver, i.e. dependant upon
receiver bandwidth and Noise Figure
Noise Figure depends upon choice
between Passive and Active DAS
Example illustrates an MCL of 75 dB
is necessary to limit the impact of a
UE transmitting at minimum power
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Assumed Node B
Noise Figure of 2.2 dB

Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL) - Downlink


The MCL should also be sufficient to ensure that the UE does not receive more

downlink power than it is capable of receiving when it is physically close to an


antenna
3GPP TS 36.101 specifies the maximum received power requirement for a UE

Assuming a 43 dBm transmit power from the LTE BTS means that an MCL of 68 dB
is required to ensure that UE do not receive more than -25 dBm

Comparing the uplink and downlink MCL requirements indicates that the
uplink requirement dominates: an MCL of between 70 and 75 dB is necessary

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Adjacent Channel Interference (I)


Adjacent channel interference scenarios include:
Operator 2 MS interfering with Operator 1 BTS
Operator 1 BTS interfering with Operator 2 MS
In contrast to co-siting interference which focuses upon BTS interfering with BTS
Indoor solution adjacent channel interference scenarios are made worse by the
relatively small minimum coupling loss between MS and BTS
Adjacent system could be LTE, or something different, e.g. UMTS, GSM
Frequency Domain Scenario

Geographic Scenario
Operator 1
Indoor
Solution

Operator 2
Macrocell
BTS

Interferenc
e

Operator 2 MS
Transmitting high
power
Receiving weak
signal
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BTS
Rx

MS
Tx

BTS
Tx

MS
Rx

Operator
1

Operator
2

Operator
1

Operator
2

MS to BTS
Interference

BTS to MS
Interference

Adjacent Channel Interference (II)


Adjacent channel interference mechanisms include Adjacent Channel Leakage
Ratio (ACLR) and Adjacent Channel Selectivity (ACS)
The effects of ACLR and ACS can be combined mathematically to generate an
Adjacent Channel Interference Ratio (ACIR)

Receive
filter

Interference
due to ACS

ACIR 10 LOG

10

ACS / 10

1
10

ACLR / 10

LTE UE performance requirements are


Interference
due to ACLR

Transmit
filter

F1

F2

specified within 3GPP TS 36.101


LTE BTS performance requirements
are specified within 3GPP TS 36.104
Requirements within the specifications
represent the worst case performance

Smaller filters within the MS tend to result in:


UE ACLR dominates the MS to BTS interference scenario
UE ACS dominates the BTS to MS interference scenario
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Adjacent Channel Interference - Example


Example: Operator 2 LTE MS interfering with Operator 1 LTE Indoor Solution BTS
The ACS figures need to be converted into an equivalent attenuation prior to

calculating the ACIR


-52 dBm of interference must be attenuated by 50 dB for it to equal the BTS
noise floor (example based upon a -102 dBm noise floor (10 MHz bandwidth))
Resultant ACIR is 30 dB, i.e. the MS ACLR performance dominates
The MS can generate 24 30 = -6 dBm of interference towards the indoor solution
Indoor solution MCL of 75 dB reduces this interference power to -81 dBm
Thus potential for uplink interference from UE belonging to adjacent operators
Note that this example is based upon worst case assumptions

Operator 1
LTE Indoor
Solution

Operator 2
LTE Macrocell
BTS

Interferenc
e

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LTE MS ACLR Requirements from 3GPP TS 36.101

LTE BTS ACS Requirements from 3GPP TS 36.104


Operator 2 LTE MS
Transmitting high
power
Receiving weak

Co-Siting (I)
LTE indoor solutions will need to co-exist with GSM, UMTS and WiMAX indoor
solutions
The principles are the same as those for macrocells
It is important to have sufficient isolation between the various BTS otherwise
interference will be experienced
Co-siting requirements are described in greater detail
within the Co-Siting section of LTE RPESS
Example: LTE BTS interfering with UMTS BTS
UMTS
BTS Rx

LTE
BTS Rx

UMTS
BTS Tx

LTE
BTS Tx

Indoor
Solution 1

Indoor
Solution 2

Indoor
Solution 1

Indoor
Solution 2

BTS to BTS
Interference

An isolation of 40 dB is sufficient to avoid


experiencing inter-system interference

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Co-Siting (II)
Achieving the isolation requirement depends upon the DAS design
The use of an active DAS can impact the isolation requirement because the BTS

noise figure is typically increased


DAS design based upon shared feeders can include:
A multi-radio combiner when systems operate in the same band
A multi-band combiner when systems operate in different bands
Combiners typically provide more than 50 dB of isolation
DAS design based upon dedicated feeders and a shared twin tail antenna achieves
isolation from the antenna (~25 dB) and from the feeders themselves
DAS design based upon dedicated feeder and dedicated antennas achieves isolation
from the physical separation of the antennas and from the feeders themselves
Passive
Combine DAS
r

GSM LTE
BTS BTS

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Passive
DAS

Single
tail
remote
antenna
GSM LTE
BTS BTS

Passive
DAS

Dual tail
remote
antenna

GSM LTE
BTS BTS

Separat
e
antenna
s

Mobility with Macrocell Layer


LTE handovers are based upon Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP) or

Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ)


Handover and cell re-selection boundaries between macrocell and indoor solution
will depend upon:
relative transmit powers of the indoor solution and macrocell
measurement offsets defined for each adjacency
If handover boundary is too close to the indoor solution then there is a danger
that the indoor solution experiences uplink interference from UE connected to
macrocells
Macrocell Reference
Signal EIRP
Indoor Solution
Reference Signal EIRP

Potential
interference
MS approaching
indoor solution

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Measurement offsets should be applied

with care because they can result in MS not


being connected to the best cell
Indoor solution handover areas are usually
located around the building entrances
Tall buildings may have stronger macrocell
coverage across the upper floors,
potentially allowing MS to handover onto
macrocells inside the building

Mobile Broadband Capacity


Demand is like a Wave..
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Thank you for your attention!

Network Planning & Optimization Solutions


LTE Radio Access

Amer Bzeih, M.E.


Solution
Solution Consultant
Consultant

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Nokia Siemens Networks

Phone: + 961 1 963 853


Mobile: + 961 3 988 254
amer.bzeih@nsn.com