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Water Circulation

System
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Contents of Presentation

Theory of circulation
Types of circulation
Boiling fundamentals
Economizer
Boiler drum
Water wall
Hydro testing

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Circulation in Boiler
The steam generator has to produce steam at highest purity,
and at high pressure and temperature required for the
turbine. Water must flow through the heat absorption surface
of the boiler in order that it be evaporated into steam.
Natural circulation is the ability of water to circulate
continuously, with gravity and changes in temperature being
the only driving force known as "thermal head.
The ratio of the weight of water to the weight of steam in
the mixture leaving the heat absorption surfaces is called
Circulation Ratio.
Cold feed water is introduced into the steam drum where, because the density of
the cold water is greater, it descends in the 'downcomer' towards the lower bottom
ring header, displacing the warmer water up into the front tubes.
Continued heating creates steam bubbles in the front tubes, which are naturally
separated from the hot water in the steam drum, and are taken off.
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Criticality of Drum Level control


Boiler drum level control is critical for both plant
protection and equipment safety and applies equally to
high and low levels of water within the boiler drum.The
purpose of the drum level controller is to bring the drum
up to level at boiler start-up and maintain the level at
constant steam load.A dramatic decrease in this level
may uncover boiler tubes, allowing them to become
overheated and damaged. An increase in this level may
interfere with the process of separating moisture from
steam within the drum,

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Types of Drum level control


The Three main options available for drum
level control are Single element drum
level control
Two element drum level control
Three-element drum level control

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Forced Circulation
However, when the pressure in the
water-tube boiler is increased, the
difference between the densities of the
water and saturated steam falls,
consequently less circulation occurs.
To keep the same level of steam
output at higher design pressures, the
distance between the Bottom ring
header and the steam drum must be
increased, or some means of forced
circulation must be introduced.
Therefore natural circulation is limited
to boiler with drum operating pressure
around 175 Kg/cm2.
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Natural Circulation & Forced


Circulation
Natural Circulation
The downcomer contain relatively
cold water, whereas the riser tube
contain steam water mixture
,whose density is comparitively
less .this density difference is the
driving force ,for the mixture.
(thermo-siphon principle)
Circulation takes place at such a
high rate that the driving force and
frictional resisitance in water wall
are balanced.

Natural Circulation

Forced Circulation

Forced Circulation
Beyond 180 Kg/cm2 of pressure, circulation is to be assisted with
mechanical pumps, to overcome frictional losses. To regulate the flow
through various tubes, orifice plates are used. This system is applicable in
the high sub-critical regions (say 200 Kg/cm2).
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Why controlled circulation is


required?

AS THE PRESSURE
INCREASES,THE DIFFERENCE
IN DENSITY BETWEEN WATER
AND STEAM REDUCES .
THUS THE HYDROSTATIC HEAD
AVAILABLE WILL NOT BE ABLE
TO OVERCOME THE
FRICTIONAL RESISITANCE FOR
A FLOW CORRESPONDING TO
THE MINIMUM REQUIREMENT
OF COOLING OF WATER WALL
TUBES.
NATURAL CIRCULATION IS
LIMITED TO 175KSC

Diff in Density
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Controlled circulation system:


use of controlled circulation pump
used for pressure up to 194kg/cm2 (sub critical pr.)

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Combined circulation system:


No use of drum
Use of controlled circulation pump
Use for pressure above 200kg/cm2.

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Difference in the Circulation System

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Economiser
Boiler Economiser are feed-water heaters in which the heat
from waste gases is recovered to raise the temperature of
feed-water supplied to the boiler.

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Economiser

The economizer preheats the feed water by utilizing the residual heat of the
flue gas.
It reduces the exhaust gas temperature and saves the fuel.
Modern power plants use steel-tube-type economizers.
Design Configuration: divided into several sections : 0.6 0.8 m gap

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Tube Bank Arrangement

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Finned Economizers

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Thermal Parameters of Economizer

Out side diameter : 25 38 mm.


Tube thinckness: 3 5 mm
Transverse spacing : 2.5 3.0
Longitudinal spacing : 1.5 2.0
The water flow velocity : 600 800 kg/m 2 s
The waterside resistance should not exceed 5 8 %.
Of drum pressure.
Flue gas velocity : 7 13 m/s.

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Advantages of Economiser
6oC raise in feed water
temperature, by economizers
corresponds to a
1% saving in fuel consumption

220 C reduction in flue gas


temperature increases boiler
efficiency by 1%

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6oC raise in feed water temperature,


by economizers corresponds to a
1% saving in fuel consumption

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Location and Arrangement

Ahead of air-heaters
Following the primary super-heater or re-heater
Counter-flow arrangement
Horizontal placement (facilitate draining)
Supported to prevent sagging, undue deflection and
expansion .
Stop valve and non-return valve incorporated to ensure
recirculation in case of no feed-flow
Ash hopper below as flue gas takes a turn

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Type of Construction
Plain Tube : Several banks of tubes with either-in-line or
staggered type formation. Staggered arrangement
induces more turbulence than the in-line arrangement.
This gives a higher rate of heat transfer and requires
less surface but at the expense of higher draught loss.
Welded Fin-tube : Fin welded design is used for
improving the heat transfer.

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Boiler Drum
It is an enclosed Pressure
Vessel
Heat generated by
Combustion of Fuel is
transferred to water to
become steam
Process: Evaporation
Steam volume increases to
1,600 times from water and
produces tremendous force

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DRUM SERVES TWO MAIN


FUNCTIONS
SEPERATING STEAM FROM THE
MIXTURE
OF WATER AND STEAM
2. IT HOUSES ALL EQUIPMENTS USED
FOR PURIFICATION OF THE STEAM AFTER
BEING SEPERATED FROM THE WATER
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Downcomers
There are six down comers in (500 MW)
which carry water from boiler drum to the
ring header.
They are installed from outside the
furnace to keep density difference for
natural circulation of water & steam.

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WATER
WALLS

HEATING AND EVAPORATING THE FEED WATER SUPPLIED TO


THE BOILER FROM THE ECONOMISERS.

THESE ARE VERTICAL TUBES CONNECTED AT THE TOP AND


BOTTOM TO THE HEADERS.

THESE TUBES RECEIVE WATER FROM THE BOILER DRUM BY


MEANS OF DOWNCOMERS CONNECTED BETWEEN DRUM
AND WATER WALLS LOWER HEADER.

APPROXIMATELY 50% OF THE HEAT RELEASED BY THE


COMBUSTION OF THE FUEL IN THE FURNACE IS ABSORBED
BY THE WATER WALLS.

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Construction of Water Walls


Tangent tube The
construction consists of
water wall placed side by
side nearly touching each
other. An envelope of thin
sheet of steel called
"SKIN CASING" is placed
in contact with the tubes,
which provides a seal
against furnace leakage.

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Construction of Water Walls


Membrance Wall A number of tubes
are joined by a process of fusion
welding or by means of steel strips
called 'fins pressurised furnace is
possible with the related Advantages
Increase in efficiency
Better load response simpler
combustion control.
Quicker starting and stopping
Increased availability of boiler.
Heat transfer is better
Weight is saved in refractory and
structure
Erection is made easy and quick
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WATER WALL
SPECIFICATION
NO

OD(MM)

FRONTWALL

283

51

SIDEWALLS

444

51

REAR WALLS

283

51

ROOF

142

57

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Hydro Testing
Need:
Method:
Ensure pressure instrumentation is ready.
Water Filling(10ppm Ammonia, 200 ppm Hydrazine,
pH 10)
Drainable parts (economizer, water wall and drum)
Non Drainable portions filling
First pressurization through boiler Fill pump
Later pressurization through special purpose pumps.
Test pressure and rate of pressure rise and rate of
pressure drop as per IBR.
After completion system drained and kept under wet
preservation.
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IBR Requirement for Hydraulic test

Every boiler shall be hydraulically tested after erection at site in


presence of the Inspector to 1 times the maximum working
pressure as certified by the Inspecting Authority, to be stamped
on the boiler, as free from any indication of weakness or
defects.
The test pressure shall be raised gradually under proper control
at all times so that it never exceeds by more than 6% of the
required pressure and maintained for 30 minutes whereupon
the pressure shall be reduced to maximum allowable working
pressure and maintained for sufficient time to permit close
visual inspection for leakage of pressure parts.
The boiler shall satisfactorily withstand such pressure without
appreciable leakage or undue deflection or distortion of its parts
for at least ten consecutive minutes.

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IBR Requirement for Hydraulic test

At the first hydraulic test of a boiler prior to


the issue of an original certificate
deflection measurements shall be made
before, during and after test of each
furnace length, fire-box and flat end or
other plates.
After the application of the hydraulic test
the Inspector shall carefully examine the
boiler inside and outside and satisfy
himself that it has satisfactorily withstood
the test.
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THANK YOU

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