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Tankers

The new design provides


safe, reliable & economical
transport of chemical &
petroleum products.

It incorporates propulsive
redundancy (the ability of
the system to remain in
operation) from the

simplest single screw


propulsion (jednovijani
pogon), to the most
comprehensive systems
with two totally
independent propulsion
lines including twin screw (
dvovijani) or twin
propulsion.

Basic characteristics of a crude oil


tanker

( balasno kormilo)
Chemical tanker, Product tanker,
Oil tanker

1. Balanced rudder
with
conventional propeller
2. Auxiliary unit (pomoni ureaj)
3. Lifeboat in gravity davits (grav. soha)
4. Hydraulic prime mover (pokr. snaga)
5. Cargo control room
6. Tank heating / tank wash room
7. Cofferdam, empty space between two tanks
8. Vent pipes with pressure-vacuum valves
(ventil)
9. Hydraulic high pressure oil lines for anchor
and mooring gear,
10. Crane
11. Manifold (gl. ventil za ukrcaj / iskrcaj nafte)
12. Wing tank in double hull (boni tank u
dvodnu)
13. Double bottom tank
14. Tanktop (pokrov dvodna)
15. Longitudinal vertically corrugated bulkhead
16. Transverse horizontally corrugated
bulkhead
17. Cargo pump
18. Catwalk (prijelazni most kod tankera)
19. Railing
20. Deck longitudinals (uzduno ojaanja)
21. Deck transverses (okvirna sponja)
22. Cargo heater
23. Forecastle deck with anchor-and mooring
gear

Tankers are designed to carry liquid


cargoes (not just oil)
Oil tankers come in two basic types:
the crude carrier, which carries crude oil, and
the clean products tanker, which carries the refined
products, such as petrol, gasoline, aviation fuel, kerosene
and paraffin.
Tankers range in all sizes:
the small bunkering tanker (used for refuelling larger
vessels) of 1000 D W T tons,
the VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier) of between 2-300,000
D W T , and
the ULCC (Ultra Large Crude Carrier) of over 300,000 D W T .

The cargo space is generally divided into three sections


athwartships (poprijeno) by means of two longitudinal
bulkheads and into individual tanks by transverse bulkheads.
The maximum length of an oil tank is 20% L (L = length of
vessel) and there is at least one wash bulkhead (pljuskaa) if
the length of the tank exceeds 10%L or 15 m.
Tanks are generally numbered from forward, each number
having port (L), centre and starboard (R) compartments.
Pump rooms ( pumpna stanica) are often located aft so that
power may easily be supplied to the pumps from the engine
room, but ships designed to carry many kinds of oil at once
may be fitted with two pump rooms placed so as to divide
the cargo space into three sections.

Machinery spaces is positioned aft of cargo tanks


and slop tanks (tank za otpadnu vodu) .
Any machinery space must be isolated from cargo
tanks and slop tanks by cofferdams, cargo pump
rooms, oil fuel bunker tanks or ballast tanks (balasni
tank).

Classes of Crude Oil Tankers

Panamax - The largest size


crude oil tanker that can travel
through the Panama Canal (up to
70,000 DWT).
Aframax - This is a size of crude
oil tanker which uses the Average
Freight Rate Assessment method
to calculate the cost of
transportation (70,000 to 120,000
DWT).
Suezmax - The largest size crude
oil tanker that can travel through
the Suez Canal while Loaded
(120,000 200,000 DWT).
Very Large Crude Carrier
(VLCC) - This is the size of a
large crude oil carrier (200,000325,000DWT).

Panamax (60,000-70,000 DWT)


Maximu
Minimum Average
m
Length,
feet
Beam,
feet
Draft,
feet
DWT
Capacity
, Barrels

726

761

797

106

107

118

38

44

45

61,938

67,009

69,999

419,000 455,709 527,285

Aframax (70,000-120,000 DWT)

Length,
feet
Beam,
feet
Draft,
feet
DWT
Capacity
, Barrels

Minimum Average

Maximu
m

700

797

840

106

137

150

38

43

57

70,000

101,603 116,283

293,000 705,917 817,000

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Suezmax (120,000-200,000
DWT)
Minimum Average
Length,
817
feet
Beam,
136
feet
Draft,
48
feet
DWT
121,000
Capacity,
808,000
Barrels

Maximu
m

896

952

154

174

55

61

152,765 169,204
1,023,88 1,142,00
2
0

VLCCs (200,000-325,000 DWT)

Minimu
m

Average

Maximu
m

Length,
1037
1091
1092
feet
Beam,
184
193
196
feet
Draft,
62
71
74
feet
DWT
258,096 300,118 319,430
Capacity 1,920,00 2,089,08 2,221,00
, Barrels 0
7
0

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Accommodation spaces, main cargo control


stations, control stations and service spaces
(excluding isolated cargo handling gear lockers)
must be positioned aft of all cargo tanks, slop
tanks, and spaces which isolate cargo or slop
tanks from machinery spaces.

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IMO Construction Requirements


for Oil Tankers
Double hulls
In 1992 MARPOL was amended to make it mandatory for tankers of
5,000 DWT and more ordered after 6 July 1993 to be fitted with
double hulls, or an alternative design approved by IMO (regulation
19 in Annex I of MARPOL).

The requirement for double hulls that applies to new tankers has also
been applied to existing ships under a programme that began in
1995 (under old regulation 13G (now regulation 20 in Annex I
of MARPOL)).
All tankers would have to be converted (or taken out of service) when
they reached a certain age (up to 30 years old).

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Following the Erika incident off the coast of France in December 1999,
IMO Member States discussed proposals for accelerating the phaseout of single hull tankers.
As a result, in April 2001, IMO adopted a revised phase-out schedule
for single hull tankers, which entered into force on 1 September 2003
(the 2001 amendments to MARPOL). The revised requirements set out
a stricter timetable for the phasing-out of single-hull tankers.
In December 2003, further revisions to the requirements were made,
accelerating further the phase-out schedule.
These amendments entered into force on 5 April 2005.
A new regulation on the prevention of oil pollution from oil tankers
when carrying heavy grade oil (HGO)/heavy fuel oil (HFO) (teka nafta)
banned the carriage of HGO in single-hull tankers of 5,000 tons dwt
and above after the date of entry into force of the regulation (5 April
2005), and in single-hull oil tankers of 600 tons dwt and above but less
than 5,000 tons DWT, not later than 2008.