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Sps 550

sports counseling
STAGE, SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE
IN
SPORTS COUNSELING
ANUAR BIN HAMID
AHMAD MUZZAMMIL BIN AZMI
MUHAMMAD FARID IKHWAN BIN MAT MUSA
PREPARED FOR : NOR HAZWANI BT MOHAMAD NASIR

WHAT IS COUNSELING ?

The process by which the structure of the self


is relaxed in the safety of the clients
relationship with the therapist and previously
denied experiences are perceived and then
integrated into an altered self.
Rogers
(1952)

The
process
involving
interpersonal
relationships between a therapist and one or
more clients by which the former employs
psychological methods based on systematic
knowledge of the human personality in
attempting to improve the mental health of

Stage setting to counseling


S

Sit squarely

Open posture

Lean forward

Eye contact

Relaxed (Keep natural)

Look friendly

Stages of counseling
Listening

1.

Passive
Active

Action planning

3.

Understanding

2.

Prioritize the
problems
Decide the targets
paraphrase

Activity schedule
Graded task
Behavioral change

Cont..
STAGE 1

Relationship building

STAGE 2

Assessment

STAGE 3

Goal setting

STAGE 4

Interventions

STAGE 5

Termination and follow up

Establishing a relationship

Rapport refers to psychological climate that


emerges from the interpersonal contact
between counselor and client.
Rapport will be affected by a number of
factors including the counselors personal and
professional qualities and clients
interpersonal history and anxiety state.
First impression plays an important role in
building rapport state.
Transference occurs when the client
associates certain fictional qualities with the
mother.

Transference can be either positive (favorable


comparison) or negative (unfavorable
comparison)
The relationship is a evolving and mature
process.
The skillful counselor develop a self congruent
style for meeting the clients.
Counselor should have adequate social skills.
Attending or active listening is crucial.
The relationship is not established in a single
contact
Reflection is crucial.

Assessing the problem

Involve the collection and classification of


information related to the clients reason for
seeking help.
Known as problem definition process.
2 ways assessment :
1) Depend on the counselors theoretical and
philosophical view of human problems.
2) Depends on the conditions present in the
clients situation and the counselors
understanding of those conditions.

Clients problems may be conceptualized as :


# Needs
# Stressor
# Misinterpretations
# Maladaptive interpersonal patterns
# Combination of all these
Corsini (1984), classified all above as
affective, behavioral or cognitive in origin.
While assessing the problem the constraints
of personal bias or theoretical blind spots
must be avoided.

Stage
1

DATA COLLECTION

Stage
2

OBSERVATION AND INQUIRY

Stage
3

RECORDING THE DATA

In short,

Goal setting

The act of goal setting involves making a


commitment to a set of conditions, a course of
action or an outcome.
The goal has to be set in order to entertain
the progress of sessions.

Skills in goal setting

Counselors inferential skills


Differentiation between ultimate goals,
intermediate goals and immediate goals.
Teaching clients to think realistically in
intermediate goals.
Goals can be changed through session.

Initiating interventions

The whole object of counseling is to initiate


and facilitate desirable change
SKILLS
Competency
Knowledge of appropriate uses
Knowledge of typical response
Observational skills

Termination & follow up

The ultimate criterion is the successful


termination of client.
There will be tendency to set new goals,
create activity and continue the process.
Termination by degree.
Denial as a part of recovery process.
Follow up appointment for 6 weeks, 3 months
or even 6 months to ensure the secure
feeling.

Skill In Sport Counseling

What are the three approaches to counseling?


Directive
Non-directive
Combined

Directive Counseling
Advantages:
Quickest method.
Good for people who need clear, concise direction.
Allows counselors to actively use their experience.
Disadvantages:
Doesn't encourage subordinates to be part of the
solution.
Tends to treat symptoms, not problems.
Tends to discourage subordinates from talking freely.
Solution is the counselor's, not the subordinate's.

Non-directive counselling
Advantages:
Encourages maturity.
Encourages open communication.
Develops personal responsibility.
Disadvantages:
More time-consuming
Requires greatest counselor skill.

Combined Counseling
Advantages:
Moderately quick.
Encourages maturity.
Encourages open communication.
Allows counselors to actively use their
experience.
Disadvantages:
May take too much time for some situations.

Type of skills
Anxiety

or Energy Management
Attention and Concentration
Control (focusing)
Communication
Goal Setting
Imagery, Visualization, Mental
Practice
Self-talk
Time Management/Organization

Anxiety or Energy Management

most commonly used to help individuals who


experience arousal at a level that is not effective (i.e.,
too high or too low) for optimal performance.
These techniques can be used for anxiety, stress, and
anger management.
Common treatments include:
(a) breathing exercises (e.g., diaphragmatic breathing,
rhythmic breathing)
(b) progressive relaxation
(c) meditation
(d) imagery or visualization
(d) cognitive techniques (e.g., thought stopping and
cognitive restructuring).

Attention and Concentration Control (focusing)

Being able to focus ones awareness on


relevant cues so they can deal effectively with
their current situation.
These skills help them maintain their mental
intensity within a situation.
Common treatment techniques include:
(a) attention control training (to avoid
distractions)
(b) techniques to expand awareness (e.g.,
attending to performance cues and bodily
sensations).

Communication

Skill used to help improve group cohesion and


individual interactions in a sport setting (e.g.,
athleteathlete, athletecoach, coachparent).
Techniques used with this skill include:
(a) teaching active listening and
communicating skills (reflecting, clarifying,
encouraging, paraphrasing)
(b) helping individuals create a free and open
environment
(c) assertiveness training.

Goal Setting

used for enhancing motivation, focusing attention


on the aspects of performance that are most in
need of improvement, or facilitating rehabilitation
from injury.
The establishment of a goal-setting program
often includes several common treatment
components, including:
(a)emphasis on skill development (not the
outcome, such as winning),
(b)identifying target dates for attaining goals
(c)identifying goal achievement strategies
(d)providing regular goal evaluation.

Imagery, Visualization, Mental Practice

Skill using all of the mind's senses such as sight, sound,


taste, touch, hearing, kinesthetic/muscular feel to recreate or create an experience in the mind.
Uses include:
(a) mental preparation
(b) anxiety control
(c) attention
(d) building self-confidence
(e) learning new skills
(f) injury recovery.
Common treatment components include
(a)the evaluation of imagery ability
(b)the establishment of the proper physical
(c)mental setting (i.e., relaxed and quiet)
(d)practice creating vivid and controllable images.

Self-talk

what you say or think to yourself.


Self-talk patterns are related to how people feel and act.
Changing self-talk is commonly used for
(a) prompting a specific behavior
(b) improving selfconfidence
(c) attention control
(d) motivation
(e) arousal control.
Common treatment components
(a)the identification of negative or irrelevant thoughts
(b)challenging these thoughts
(c)the creation of positive thoughts
(d)the substitution of positive thoughts for the negative
thoughts.

Time Management/Organization

The ability to plan and maintain one's regular


schedule in a way that avoids confusion,
conflict and undue stress.
Common time management techniques
include:
(a) teaching how to use a planner,
(b) learning about the demands of a task
(c) setting legitimate goals for tasks
(d) understanding the demands of ones life
(managing role conflict)
(e) developing preperformance routines.

Mind skills
Three central mind skills
Creating self-talk
Creating rules
Creating perceptions

Creating self-talk

talking to themselves negatively before,


during and after specific situations, people
can acknowledge that they have choices and
make coping self-statements that assist them
to stay calm and cool, establish their goals,
coach them in what to do, and affirm their
strengths, skills and support factors.
can use self-talk to create visual images that
support their verbal self-statements.

Creating rules

unrealistic rules make irrational demands on


them, others and the environment: for
instance, I must always be happy, Others
must look after me and My environment
should not contain any suffering.
can develop realistic or preferential rules: for
instance, I prefer to be happy much of the
time, but it is unrealistic to expect this all the
time.

Creating perceptions

can learn to test the reality of their


perceptions rather than jump to conclusions.
distinguish between fact and inference and
make their inferences as accurate as possible.