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Managerial Decision

Managerial decisions in today's turbulent business environment are


characterised by uncertainty, multiple objectives and complexity.

If there is one quality that distinguishes a good manager from a poor one, it is
decisiveness and strong communication. A person in managerial position who
is poor in decision making is fit to be called only an administrator and not a
manager.

The theory about the decision making process is an interesting subject. Every
manager is in fact some kind of decision maker and usually the performance is
formed by (the results of) the choices made (Vroom, 1973).

Decisions are made all the time, although sometimes unconsciously. It is a


subject that is relevant for many business areas and, in this situation, it can be
used to define the optimal way of defining new policies concerning forecasting,
cost and price management.
The decision making process normally involves the following stages:

1) Defining the problem /issues / situations / challenges which calls for a


decision making

2) Collecting relevant facts (through effective communicating), figures and


statistics to facilitate and support decision making process

3) Identifying the various alternatives of choice

4) seeking opinions and alternative view points from "people who know" and
"people who matter".

5) Pondering over the issues peacefully (where time permits) and

6) Deciding on the best choice or a couple of best courses of action.


a. Identifying Potential Problems and Opportunities
In some cases, it is difficult to identify the problems and opportunities. For example, what is
causing the different projects within the organization to go consistently over budget in relation
to the different specific corrective actions that were undertaken?

b. Assessing Business Situation


Before attempting to make a decision, it is important to assess the business environment and
define the constraints related to the problem. The assessment may also include an analysis of
markets, competition, prices, or anything that can be related to the problem or opportunity.

c. Determining Success Criteria


Very often project managers have to make decisions based on multiple criteria.

d. Identifying Uncertainties
Understanding of uncertainties is the key to the decision analysis process.
.
e. Generating Alternatives
It is vital to identify what cannot be changed, or project constraints for making the particular
decision analysis.
Making Decisions in
Organizations
Managerial Employee
High High
Control Empowerment

Centralized Decentralized
Decision Decision
Making Making

Employee Managerial
Low Low
Empowerment Control
Problem solving approach
• Information is key to managerial decision
making. Therefore collect information
through effective communication.
• Optimizing decision making process
• Quantitative techniques for decision
making
• Decision tree
• Consistency in decision making, problem
solving skills
What Is An Organization?
An organization is a group of individuals
who work together toward common goals.
MANAGEMENT
EFFECTIVENESS
Long term measure of how well an organization
achieves its objectives
EFFICIENCY
Short term measure of how well an organization
uses it resources
GOAL
A desired future states that contributes to the
fulfillment of the organization's mission

MISSION = Reason for existence


Effectiveness & Efficiency

Effectiveness is achieved when the


organization pursues appropriate
goals. This means “doing the right
thing.”

Efficiency is achieved by using fewer


inputs (e.g., people, money) to
generate a given output. This means
“doing things right.”
Organizational Complexity

Simple Complex
(1 person) (1,000’s of persons)

How does the need for a well-defined


structure change as the size of the
organization increases?
The Elements Organizing
• Organizing
– Deciding how to best
group organizational
activities and
resources.
• Organization
Structure
– The set of building
blocks that can be
used to configure an
organization.
Organization Structure & Design

• Organization structure – the pattern and


groups of jobs in an organization

• Organizational Design - individuals and


groups are arranged in an organization with
respect to the tasks they perform. It is the
management decisions and actions that result
in a specific organization structure
The Elements of Org Structure
• Organization design
– A process in which managers develop or
change their organization’s structure.
• Work specialization
– A component of organization structure that
involves having each discrete step of a job
done by a different individual rather than
having one individual do the whole job.
Organizational Structure:
Control
• Chain of command
– The continuous line of authority that extends from
upper organizational levels to the lowest levels and
clarifies who reports to whom.
• Unity of Command
– The management principle that no person should
report to more than one boss.
• Span of control
– The number of subordinates a manager can direct
efficiently and effectively.
Organizational Structure:
Control (cont’d)
• Authority
– The rights inherent in a managerial position to
give orders and expect them to be obeyed.
• Power
– An individual’s capacity to influence decisions.
• Responsibility
– An obligation to perform assigned activities.
Organizational Design Decisions
1. Managers decide how to divide the overall
task into successively smaller jobs
2. Managers decide the bases by which to
group the jobs
3. Managers decide the appropriate size of
the group reporting to each superior
4. Managers distribute authority among the
jobs
Simple
• Few employees reporting directly to one
person (owner)

Owner

Employee Employee Employee


Functional Organizational
Structure
•Organizes employees around skills or
other resources (marketing, production)
•Create subordinate goals

President

Finance Production Marketing


Divisionalized Structure
Organizes employees around outputs,
clients, or geographic areas

President

Enterprise Laserjet Consumer


Systems Solutions Products
Project-Based Matrix Structure
Employees are temporarily assigned to a specific
project team and have a permanent functional unit

President

Engineering Marketing Software


Manager Manager Manager

Project A
Manager

Project B
Manager

Project C
Manager
Flat Organizations
Tall Organizations

Figure 7.10
7-22
Tall Versus Flat Organizations
Organizational Structure
There is no permanent organization chart for
the world. . . . It is of supreme importance
to be ready at all times to take advantage
of new opportunities.

—Robert C. Goizueta, (Former) Chairman and Ceo, Coca-Cola


Company © 2006 Prentice Hall

8-24
Simple, International Division

CEO

International
Production Marketing Finance
Division

Example: Levi Strauss, Inc.


Extension of Geographical
Departmentalization

CEO

North
European Asian
American
operations operations
operations

Example: Ford Motor Company, Coca Cola


Extension of Product
Departmentalization

CEO

Product Product Product


Manager A Manager B Manager C

North
Europe Asia
America

Example: Unilever, NV, FedEx, H.J. Heinz


Extension of Multi-Divisional
(SBU) Departmentalization

CEO

SBU A SBU B SBU C SBU D SBU E


US Germany Japan France Taiwan

Examples: General Electric, BOC, Ltd.


Global Matrix Design

Example: N.V. Phillips


Global Geographic Structure

Return

© 2006 Prentice Hall 8-30


Organizational Change and Design

© 2006 Prentice Hall 8-31


Scope of Authority

Responsibility
and Authority
Job Design
Adam Smith’s Example
of Job Specialization
Making a pin (nail) requires 18
tasks
1 worker doing all 18 tasks might make
20 pins (nails) a day.

20 workers = (20 x 20) = 400 pins


______________________________

With specialization:
20 workers make 100,000 pins a day.
1 worker = 5,000 pins
20 pins vs. 5,000 pins per worker
Alternatives to Specialization
• Job Rotation
– Systematically moving employees from one job to
another in an attempt to reduce employee boredom.
• Job Enlargement
– An increase in the total number of tasks workers
perform.
• Job Enrichment
– Increasing both the number of tasks the worker does
and the control the worker has over the job.
Job Design
Job design refers to how organizations define and structure jobs

Job Design is the function of specifying the work activities of an individual


or group in an organizational setting.

The objective of job design is to develop jobs that meet the requirements of
the organization and its technology and that satisfy the jobholder’s
personal and individual requirements.
Job Designing
• Job Design
– The determination of an individual’s work-
related responsibilities.
• Job Specialization (Division of Labor)
– The degree to which the overall task of the
organization is broken down and divided into
smaller component parts.
6A-38

Job Design Decisions

Who What Where When Why How

Organizational
Mental and Geographic
Time of day; rationale for Method of
physical locale of the
Tasks to be time of the job; object- performance
characteristics organization;
performed occurrence in ives and mot- and
of the location of
the work flow ivation of the motivation
work force work areas
worker

Ultimate
Job
Structure
Job Design Strategies
• Job simplification - breaks work down into its
simplest form and standardizes each task.
• Job enlargement (horizontal job loading) - adds
more tasks to a job to broaden its scope.
• Job rotation - cross-trains workers so they can
move from one job in a company to others,
giving them a greater number and variety of
tasks to perform. Often used with a skill-based
pay system.
Job Design Strategies
(continued)

• Job enrichment (vertical job loading) - builds


motivators into a job by increasing the planning,
decision making, organizing and controlling functions
(which traditionally were managerial tasks).
• Five core characteristics:
– Skill variety
– Task identity
– Task significance
– Autonomy
– Feedback

Enriched
Job
Job Design Strategies
(continued)

• Flextime - an arrangement under which


employees build their work schedules around a
set of “core hours” – such as 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. –
but have flexibility about when they start and stop
work.
• Job sharing - a work arrangement in which two or
more people share a single full-time job.
Job Design Strategies
(concluded)

• Flexplace - a work arrangement in


which employees work at a place
other than the traditional office, such
as a satellite branch closer to their
homes or, in some cases, at home.
• Telecommuting - an arrangement in
which employers have employees
working from their homes use
modern communications equipment
to hook up to their workplaces.
Important Hiring Decisions
• Look inside the company first
• Encourage employee referrals
• Make employment ads stand out
• Use the Internet as a recruiting tool
• Recruit on campus
How To Avoid Hiring Mistakes
(continued)

• Forge relationships with schools and other


sources of workers
• Consider using offbeat recruiting
techniques
• Offer what workers want
Hiring the Right Employees

• Conduct a job analysis and create


practical job descriptions and job
specifications
• Plan an effective interview
• Conduct the interview
• Check references
Conducting a Job Analysis
• Create a job description - a written statement of
the duties, responsibilities, reporting
relationships, working conditions, and materials
and equipment used in a job.
• Create a job specification - written statement of
the qualifications and characteristics needed for
a job, stated in such terms as education, skills,
and experience.
• See sample job description from the Dictionary
of Occupational Titles for a worm picker.
Advantages to the Organization
Job - Person Fit

Increased Performance

Maximise Internal Resources

Greater Job Satisfaction

Reduced Absenteeism & Turnover


Employees are allocated job activities based on individual competencies and
realistic job requirements.

Performance increases as employees and jobs are match to maximize the


resources of the organization.

Internal resources are allocated in the most efficient and effective manner to
generate the maximum return for capital investment for the organization.

Leads to increased job satisfaction and thereby results in low employee turnover
and high productivity.
Job Design Challenge -
Motivate Workers
• Empowerment
• Job design
• Rewards and compensation
• Feedback
Four Vital Tasks of a Leader
1. Hire the right employees and
constantly improve their skills.
2. Build an organizational culture and
structure that enable the company to
reach its potential.
3. Motivate workers to higher levels of
performance.
4. Plan for “passing the torch” to the next
generation of leadership.
Human Resource Management

For exhaustive reading

Job Design, Org Structure, etc


Strategy Quotations

However beautiful the strategy, you should occasionally look at the results.
Winston Churchill

If GE's strategy of investment in China is wrong, it represents a loss of a billion dollars, perhaps a couple of billion dollars. If it is right, it
is the future of this company for the next century.
Jack Welch

Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory. Tactics without strategy is the noise before defeat.
Sun Tzu

All men can see these tactics whereby I conquer, but what none can see is the strategy out of which victory is evolved.
Sun Tzu

Thus, what is of supreme importance in war is to attack the enemy's strategy.


Sun Tzu

You have to be fast on your feet and adaptive or else a strategy is useless.
Charles de Gaulle

My whole career strategy has been to build a base so that I could take the roles I want to play. I'd hate to think that a shorter part might not
be available because I was worried about my billing.
Jack Nicholson

I think we have to notice that the business processes we use right now for thinking and planning and budgeting and strategy are all
delivered on very tight agendas.
Margaret J. Wheatley

Leadership is a potent combination of strategy and character. But if you must be without one, be without the strategy.
Norman Schwarzkopf

You may not be interested in strategy, but strategy is interested in you.


Leon Trotsky
Leadership?
• Everything rises and falls on leadership. The
reason why some families and Corporations
seem to have it all while others struggle along is
a result of good leadership and bad leadership
respectively.
• Leading is an act of energetic purpose - it's the
directing, focusing, shaping or configuring of
energy towards a desired objective.
• The art of leadership takes years to learn, mainly
because knowing how to lead requires
knowledge of yourself, knowledge of those you
lead, and knowing how to get things done.
How can you be more of a leader in your job?

• Leadership capability rarely emerges overnight;


it takes time and practice.
• Finding the right opportunity is important, so you
may want to make it a point to tell your boss you
are ready for more responsibility. Demonstrate
your readiness by proposing to lead a specific
project or expand your responsibilities in a way
that will enable you to take a leadership position
and test your skills.
• Plan carefully to acquire the skills, resources
and support you will need.
Real Attributes of a Leader

Commanding an audience is a great skill that many


effective leaders have, but it’s by no means the sole
contributor to their success. Leaders need to be problem
solvers. They also need to possess originality and flair,
confidence, self-knowledge, strong communication skill,
strong interpersonal skills, an ability to listen, an ability to
create a vision, and good organizational skills.
Types of Leadership
There are different types of leadership. Think of three
shepherds:

The first opens the gate and walks through, allowing the
flock to follow. This shepherd leads from the front.

The second shepherd stands behind the sheep and


pushes or guides them through, demonstrating a
supportive leadership style.

The third moves from front to back and sometimes to the


middle of the flock, demonstrating an interactive leadership
style.
Leaders walk that extra mile which others
don’t – I took the road less travelled by and
that’s made the difference.
• Leaders posses positive attitude.
• Believe in themselves
• Change is their way of life
• Leaders plan ahead
• Leaders build relationships with quality people
• Leaders are optimists
• Leaders do not take issues personally
• Leaders do not sit on past laurels
• Leaders build people
-- Enable or empower people
-- Enlighten or educate people
-- Energize or elevate people
Leadership Quotes
• " Accomplish, celebrate and let it soak through quickly,
and then ask yourself, 'what next?' and gear up for it!"

• " You don't get paid for the hour. You get paid for the
value you bring to the hour."

• If you fail, have the courage to stand up again."

• " Life has taught me to behave like an eagle. It rises


above the storm, avoids problems, has very good
eyesight, never misses a catch and is dangerous. Apply
all of these when you do things; you will outsmart even
yourself."
Motivation

Motivation is the
activation or
energization of goal-
oriented behavior.
Types of Motivation
Intrinsic motivation comes from rewards inherent
to a task or activity itself - the enjoyment of reading,
solving a puzzle or the love of playing chess, etc.

Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the


performer. Money is the most obvious example, but
coercion and threat of punishment are also
common extrinsic motivations.
Motivation Quotes
“Dreamers don't achieve but inventors do.
Invent the dreams your have dreamt. Listen
to what other professionals are saying,
watch what they do, try it out but do your
best to put it in a new direction; then you will be
quoted!"

“The harder your work, the luckier you get”.


Interpersonal Communication
• Interpersonal communication can be
described as the process of sending and
receiving information between two or more
people in an effective manner. It can be
done talking face to face with another
person or via telephone, email, letters or
meetings.
Quotes on Communication

"Once a word goes out of your mouth, you can never


swallow it again." – Russian Proverb.

“Knowledge talks, wisdom listens”.

“Don’t burn bridges because you may need to use the


bridge sometime again in your life”.
Worried? Do you feel like
being pushed to the corner?
Want to Be a Star?
Then you should do things that make you a star !

Dreamers don’t achieve but inventors do


Assignment: www.toastmasters.org

Visit a nearby club – carries examination mark


Toastmasters
Educational System
Workgroups
Workgroup may refer to

• A group of people working together toward a


common goal, also known as a working group

• Working in groups is almost unavoidable today.


Often you will be asked to work in groups in
school, college, university, at work or sometimes
when participating in a volunteer activity.

• Specific and clear communication is the key to


successfully working in groups, whether for short
term or long term projects.
Teams
Teams have many definitions, including the following:

• A unified, interdependent, cohesive group of people working


together to achieve common objectives (Recardo)

• "Team development is the process of unifying a group of people


with a common objective into an effectively functioning unit“

• People with complementary skills, committed to a common purpose


approach, who work together effectively and hold themselves
mutually accountable (Mendzela)

• A number of persons associated together in work or activity


(Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary)
Quotes on Teams
• “Individually, we are one drop. Together, we are an ocean.”

• “Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is


progress. Working together is success.”

• “The nice thing about teamwork is that you always have


others on your side”

• “If you can laugh together, you can work together”

• “Teamwork is essential - it allows you to blame someone


else”
Advantages of Teams
Teams are helpful in dividing and organizing
work. Advantages include breaking down
departmental or branch barriers, improving
service, providing more time for other duties,
identifying issues, obtaining feedback from
others, and, of course, dividing up work
duties and responsibilities. These are all
obviously advantageous to any company.
Team Failure

Reasons for team failure include internal


competition, companies' failure to recognize team
performance, lack of clear goals, regionalism,
Castism, lack of respect among team members
(such as passing comments, cracking jokes, etc)

The team should not be in competition with the


individual; the team works through individuals
toward a common goal.
Elements of Controlling
Control Function in Management

• Control

– Regulation of activities and behaviors within organizations


– Adjustment or conformity to specifications or objectives

• Effective control depends heavily on other functions that


precede it and feeds back to them

– Planning
– Organizing
– Leading
Control Function in
Management
Ensures adjustment or
conformity to objectives

Ensures adjustment or
conformity to specifications
Control
Regulates activities

Regulates behavior
Control’s Feedback Loop

Planning

Feedback Changes
Control in

Organizing
Basic Elements in
Control Process
Establish standards
Establish standards
• Specification starts at the top of the
organization and involves every
level of employee
• Standards – performance target
• Involving employees in setting
standards
• Commits the employees to
achieving the standards
• Select appropriate standards
Establishing Standards

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How difficult should they be to reach?


Basic Elements in
Control Process
Establish standards
Measure performance
• Obtain consensus about how to
Measure performance assess performance
• If performance involves multiple
activities, performance measure
must be comprehensive / broad.
Measurement of
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Basic Elements in
Control Process
Establish standards
Compare performance against
standards
Measure performance • Managers must interpret the
patterns of comparisons (some
negative/some positive)
Compare performance
against standards
Basic Elements in
Control Process
Establish standards
Evaluate results/take necessary
corrective action
• Not all results require action
Measure performance
• Evaluate importance and magnitude of
the deviation
• Determine what action to take if
Compare performance necessary
against standards • Diagnosis skills of managers
• Level of expertise
• Evaluate the standards and the measures
Evaluate results and
• Employees performing better than
take any necessary
“standard” should be recognized and
corrective action
rewarded
• Believe in Continuous Improvement and
Best Practice Management
Outcomes of Performance
Measurement
Actual performance
better than expected
performance Reinforcing Action Taken
(e.g., increase rewards and
+ recognition, consider
increasing production targets,
Actual performance add new product lines)
Gap
measured against
Detected
standard for performance
Corrective Action Taken
(e.g., increase training, modify
- supervision, invest in newer
equipment)
Actual performance
worse than expected
performance
Types and Scope of Control

Strategic Controls

Tactical Controls

Operational Controls

(Narrow) (Broad)
Scope
Scope of Control
Strategic Control

• Assess and regulate how the organization fits its


external environment and meets its long-range
objectives and goals

• Control becomes less efficient in uncertain or


changing environments
Tactical Control:
Controlling the approach path or the manner
which organization takes to achieve
strategy.

Operational Control:
Controlling the day to day activities.
Types of Organizational Controls:

Control can focus on events before, during, or after a process. For example, a
car dealer can focus on activities before, during, or after sales of new cars.
Careful inspection of new cars and cautious selection of sales employees are
ways to ensure high quality or profitable sales even before those sales take
place.

Monitoring how salespeople act with customers is a control during the sales task.
Counting the number of new cars sold during the month and telephoning buyers
about their satisfaction with sales transactions are controls after sales have
occurred.

Types of controls are formally called feedforward, concurrent, and feedback,


respectively
Feedforward controls, sometimes called preliminary or preventive controls,
attempt to identify and prevent deviations in the standards before they occur.
Feedforward controls focus on human, material, and financial resources within the
organization. These controls are evident in the selection and hiring of new
employees. For example, organizations attempt to improve the likelihood that
employees will perform up to standards by identifying the necessary job skills and
by using tests and other screening devices to hire people with those skills.

Concurrent controls monitor ongoing employee activity to ensure consistency


with quality standards. These controls rely on performance standards, rules, and
regulations for guiding employee tasks and behaviors. Their purpose is to ensure
that work activities produce the desired results. As an example, many
manufacturing operations include devices that measure whether the items being
produced meet quality standards. Employees monitor the measurements; if they
see that standards are not being met in some area, they make a correction
themselves or let a manager know that a problem is occurring.

Feedback controls involve reviewing information to determine whether


performance meets established standards. For example, suppose that an
organization establishes a goal of increasing its profit by 12 percent next year. To
ensure that this goal is reached, the organization must monitor its profit on a
monthly basis. After three months, if profit has increased by 3 percent,
management might assume that plans are going according to schedule.
Production Planning & Control
Methods and procedures employed in handling materials, parts,
assemblies, and subassemblies, from their raw or initial stage
to the finished product stage in an organized and efficient manner. It
also includes activities such as planning, scheduling,
routing, dispatching, storage, etc.

Production control in a vehicle-manufacturing plant


would involve monitoring inventory, ordering parts
and materials, and scheduling assembly.
Production control via ERP software
Financial Control
• Management control (as exercised in
planning, performance evaluation, and
coordination) of financial activities aimed
at achieving desired return on investment.

• Managers use financial statements (a


budget being the primary one), operating
ratios, and other financial tools to exercise
financial control.
Project Management
Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, and managing
resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and
objectives. It is often closely related to and sometimes conflated with program
management.

Project management control systems are the modern tools for managing project
scope, cost and schedule. They are based on carefully defined process and
document controls, metrics, performance indicators and forecasting with
capability to reveal trends toward cost overrun and/or schedule slippage.
Identifying those trends early makes them more amenable to successful
management.

Learn how to use MS Office – Project Management


Change Management / Managing Change

What is Change Management?

If you work in a corporation or with a large


organization, you might have heard the phrase
"change management" used from time to time.

Change management has been around for a while,


but has become extremely popular with
organizations or corporations that would like to
initiate significant change to processes that can
include both work tasks and culture.
Continuous Improvement

A common definition used for change management is a set of processes that is


employed to ensure that significant changes are implemented in an orderly,
controlled and systematic fashion to effect organizational change. One of the
goals of change management is with regards to the human aspects of overcoming
resistance to change in order for organizational members to buy into change and
achieve the organization's goal of an orderly and effective transformation.
The ADKAR Model

Change management has been developed over a period of time and one of the
models that have played an influence in change management is the ADKAR model.
ADKAR was a model developed by Prosci. In this model, there are five specific
stages that must be realized in order for an organization or an individual to
successfully change. They include:

Awareness - An individual or organization must know why a specific change or


series of changes are needed.

Desire - Either the individual or organizational members must have the motivation
and desire to participate in the called for change or changes.

Knowledge - Knowing why one must change is not enough; an individual or


organization must know how to change.

Ability - Every individual and organization that truly wants to change must
implement new skills and behaviors to make the necessary changes happen.

Reinforcement - Individuals and organizations must be reinforced to sustain any


changes making them the new behavior, if not; an individual or organization will
probably revert back to their old behavior.
Change - Quotes
Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of
changing himself. Leo Tolstoy

Slowness to change usually means fear of the new.

It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor


the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change
-Charles Darwin 1809-1882, English biologist and father of the
evolution theory

Change is good - you go first

Be the change you want to see in the world


Organizational Change
Management
Organizational change management takes into
consideration both the processes and tools that managers
use to make changes at an organizational level. Most
organizations want change implemented with the least
resistance and with the most buy-in as possible. For this to
occur, change must be applied with a structured approach
so that transition from one type of behavior to another
organization wide will be smooth.
Management's Role in the Organizational Change

In most cases, management's first responsibility is to identify processes or


behaviors that are not proficient and come up with new behaviors, processes, etc
that are more effective within an organization. Once changes are identified, it is
important for managers to estimate the impact that they will have to the
organization and individual employee on many levels including technology,
employee behavior, work processes, etc.

At this point management should assess the employee's reaction to an


implemented change and try to understand the reaction to it. In many cases,
change can be extremely beneficial with lots of positives; however certain changes
do sometimes produce a tremendous amount of resistance. It is the job of
management to help support workers through the process of these changes, which
are at times very difficult. The end result is that management must help employees
accept change and help them become well adjusted and effective once these
changes have been implemented.
The Importance of Buy In

For an individual or organization to achieve change effectively, it is important that


individuals in the organization that will need to make modifications to their behavior
exhibit buy in. Buy in means that the organization as a whole understands that the
changes that need to be made are ultimately beneficial to both the individual and
the organization. In addition, each individual and the organization as a whole will
have to work hard to make the necessary behavior modifications. If an organization
tries to make changes which are inherently bad or are not received positively by an
organization, it will be much more difficult or close to impossible to implement
these changes without significant resistance.
You can enhance buy in by first explaining the changes you would like to make,
citing issues with current procedures and then communicating the benefits for both
the individual and organization.
Some Readings
• Innovation Management
• Continuous Improvement
• Technology Leadership
Organisational Learning
• In Organizational development (OD), learning is
a characteristic of an adaptive organization, i.e.,
an organization that is able to sense changes in
signals from its environment (both internal and
external) and adapt accordingly. (see adaptive
system). OD specialists endeavor to assist their
clients to learn from experience and incorporate
the learning as feedback into the planning
process.
• Knowledge Management
Organizational Learning

Learning Organization, an organization is learning when it can bring about the


future it most desires. In the business community, learning is much more than just
a way to create the future you want; in today's fast-paced, highly competitive work
world, it may actually give your organization the edge it needs to survive—and
thereby keep fulfilling its purpose.

A Learning Organization is the term given to a company that facilitates the


learning of its members and continuously transforms itself[1]. Learning
Organizations develop as a result of the pressures facing modern organizations
and enables them to remain competitive in the business environment[2]
Corporate Image Building
• Creating an image for your company is only the first
step, however; you must also support and maintain your
image through your actions Make sure that the image
you present to your customers is accurate. When I was
shopping for window blinds recently, I was drawn to a
local store that advertised, “We beat all prices by 20
percent.” However, the quote I received from this
company was the same as from other stores. As a result,
the “discount” store lost all credibility with me. Once you
have determined what your image should be, you must
strive to deliver that image to your customers.
• Role of Advertising in Corporate Image
Building
• Brand Management
• A brand is not a logo. But a brand is an
experience
• Corporate Image Branding
Questions
• CSR of a company of your choice
• Managerial decision making – how leaders take
decision – example of leaders
• Leaders of your choice (two) and write about
their achievements, how they have reached the
top.
• Bangalore:
Divyasree Greens,
Intermediate Ring Road,
Next to Embassy Golf Links, Domlur,
Ph: 9980020224
Bill Gates foundation, Michael Dell
Foundation = CSR
HBS case study

Assignment Questions:

1. Should Wollen recommend Lewis for the U.K. position? Is Abbott correct
in saying that Wollen has made this too much of a personal issue?

2. If she does recommend him, are there other steps she should take to
ensure his success?

3. If she does not recommend him, are there other steps she should take on
his behalf or within the firm more generally?
Sunlight Electric – Clean Power
http://www.sunlightelectric.com/index.htm
http://www.bellaenergy.com/
Capture the Sun

A PV system includes panels, racking, inverters, wiring, and conduit. Batteries


and charge controllers are required only if you will require back up power
Sk telecom
• Do Young Kim
• Project Leader of CSR, SK Telecom
Leadership