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Instructor: Nahid Farnaz (Nhn)

North South University

Introduction to Statistics
Chapter 1
Why Study Statistics?

Chap 1-1

Dealing with Uncertainty

Everyday decisions are based on incomplete

Decision makers cannot be certain of the future behavior of

factors that affect the outcome

Why Study Statistics?

Numerical information is everywhere

Statistical techniques are used to make many decisions
Business decisions are made in an uncertain environment.

An understanding of statistical methods will help you make these decisions

more effectively.

Chap 1-2

Importance of Statistics

To draw conclusions about the wider population.

Statistics is the study of how to make decisions

about a population when our information has
been obtained from a sample.

Some uncertainty will always remain.

Statistics for Business and Economics, 6e 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chap 1-3

Key Definitions

A population is the collection of all items of interest that

interest an investigator.

N represents the population size

For e.g. All students in your university

A sample is an observed subset of the population

n represents the sample size

For example: students majoring in Finance.

A parameter is a specific characteristic of a population

A statistic is a specific characteristic of a sample

Chap 1-4

Population vs. Sample

a b



ef gh i jk l m n
o p q rs t u v w
x y

Values calculated using

population data are called



Values computed from
sample data are called
Chap 1-5

Sample vs. Population

Suppose you want to find out the average age of

voters in Bangladesh.
The population size is so large that we might take
only a random sample, perhaps 500 registered
voters and calculate their average age.
Since the average age is based on sample data,
it is called a statistic
If the average age of the whole population was
calculated, then the average age would be called
a parameter.

Statistics for Business and Economics, 6e 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chap 1-6

Random Sampling
Simple random sampling is a procedure in which
each member of the population is chosen strictly by chance,
each member of the population is equally likely to be chosen,
every possible sample of n objects is equally likely to be chosen

The resulting sample is called a random sample

Chap 1-7

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

Two branches of statistics:

Descriptive statistics

Collecting, summarizing, and processing data to

transform data into information

Inferential statistics

provide the bases for predictions, forecasts, and

estimates that are used to transform information
into knowledge
Chap 1-8

Descriptive Statistics

Collect data

Present data

e.g., Survey

e.g., Tables and graphs

Summarize data

e.g., Sample mean =

Chap 1-9

Inferential Statistics


e.g., Estimate the population mean weight using

the sample mean weight

Hypothesis testing

e.g., Test the claim that the population mean

weight is 120 pounds

Inference is the process of drawing conclusions or

making decisions about a population based on
sample results
Chap 1-10

Exercise 1.8




Determine if descriptive statistics or inferential

statistics should be used to obtain the following
A graph that shows the number of defective
bottles produced during the day shift over one
weeks time.
An estimate of the percentage of employees who
arrive to work late.
An indication of the relationship between years of
employee experience and pay scale.
Chap 1-11