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MECHANICAL PROPERTIS OF MATERIALS

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

STRESS & STRAIN DUCTILITY STRENGTH TOUGHNESS HARDNESS MALLEABILITY PLASTICITY ELASTICITY DUCTILE BRITTLE

STRESS & STRAIN

STRESS : An External force is applied to body tends to change the dimension, the body resists the force that internal resistance called STRESS.

STRAIN : Change in dimension by the external force called STRAIN.

STRESS & STRAIN   STRESS : An External force is applied to body tends to

DUCTILITY

Ductility is a measure of the plastic deformation that has been sustained at fracture

Measure of ability to deform plastically without fracture - Elongation, Area Reduction, Fracture Strain - (no units or mm/mm)

Ductility may be expressed as either percent elongation or percent reduction in area.

STRENGTH

This is the maximum conventional stress that can be sustained by the material.

It is the ultimate strength in tension and corresponds to the maximum load in a tension test.

It is measured by the highest point on the conventional stress-strain curve. In engineering tension tests this strength provides the basic design information on the materials.

The tensile strength of a material is the maximum amount of tensile stress that it can be subjected to before failure.

STRENGTH

There are three typical definitions of tensile strength.

Yield strength

The stress at which material strain changes from elastic deformation to plastic deformation, causing it to deform permanently is known as yield strength.

Ultimate strength

The maximum stress a material can withstand is known as ultimate strength.

Breaking strength

The strength co-ordinate on the stress-strain curve at the point of rupture is known as breaking strength.

TOUGHNESS

Toughness is the ability to absorb energy up to fracture (energy per unit volume of material).

Toughness of a material obtained by Impact Test as Impact Strength.

Impact strength is the ability of the material to absorb energy during plastic deformation.

TOUGHNESS    Toughness is the ability to absorb energy up to fracture (energy per

HARDNESS

Hardness is a measure of a material’s resistance to localized plastic deformation.

Resistance to permanently indenting the surface.

The main usefulness of hardness is, it has a constant relationship to the tensile strength of a given material and so can be used as a practical non-destructive test .

HARDNESS TEST METHODS

The following are the hardness test methods

Rockwell hardness Brinell hardness Vickers Hardness Micro Vickers Hardness Knoop hardness Shore

PROPERTIES

malleability – the property of a material that can be worked or hammered or shaped without breaking

elasticity – the property of a material that returns to its original shape after stress (e.g. external forces) that made it deform or distort is removed

plasticity - the deformation of a material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces

DUCTILE

Extensive plastic deformation ahead of crack.

Crack is “stable”: resists further extension unless applied stress is increased.

DUCTILE  Extensive plastic deformation ahead of crack.  Crack is “stable”: resists further extension unless

BRITTLE

No appreciable plastic deformation.

Crack propagation is very fact.

BRITTLE  No appreciable plastic deformation.  Crack propagation is very fact.

EQUIPMENTS FOR ANALYZE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

UNIVERSAL TENSILE MACHINE

UNIVERSAL TENSILE MACHINE

UTM used to analyze below mentioned properties

TENSILE STRENGTH YIELD STRENGTH COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH DUCTILITY BEND ANALYSIS PROOF STRESS

CHARPY IMPACT MACHINE

CHARPY IMPACT MACHINE

Impact Machine is used to determine Toughness or Impact strength of the material.

TYPES

CHARPY IMPACT MACHINE IZOD IMPACT MACHINE

VICKERS HARDNESS

VICKERS HARDNESS

ROCKWELL HARDNESS

ROCKWELL HARDNESS

Rockwell Hardness Scales

Scale Code

Load

Indenter

Use

 

Tungsten

A

HRA 60 kgf

120° diamond cone

carbide

B

HRB 100 kgf

1/16 in diameter steel sphere

Al, brass, and soft steels

C

HRC 150 kgf

120° diamond cone

Harder steels

D

HRD 100 kgf

120° diamond cone

E

HRE 100 kgf

1/8 in diameter steel sphere

F

HRF 60 kgf

1/16 in diameter steel sphere

G

HRG 150 kgf

1/16 in diameter steel sphere

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