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CONSTRUCTION

TECHNOLOGY
by:
Associate Professor Dr. Narimah Kasim
Department of Construction Management
Faculty of Technology Management & Business
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
(Room: J-102-07)
(Tel. 07-4533856/019-7578787)
Email: narimah@uthm.edu.my
Facebook: narimahkasim

Contents

Cast In-Situ Concrete


Precast Concrete
Industrial Building System (IBS)
Steel Construction
Mechanical and Electrical Works

CAST IN-SITU CONCRETE

Cast In-situ Concrete


Introduction
Preparing Concrete
Transporting, Handling and Placing Concrete
Finishing Concrete
Curing Concrete
Formwork

INTRODUCTION
Cast In-situ Concrete is produced by setting wood,
metal, molded plastic, or wood-fiber forms in place;
placing reinforcing material in the forms; and pouring
concrete over the reinforcing, filling the form.
Cast In-situ Concrete structural members are cast onsite.
Cast In-situ concrete structural members usually are
heavier than steel, wood, or precast concrete members,
increasing the load on the foundation.
Prefabricated steel, wood, and precast concrete members
can be erected rapidly and in weather not suitable for
cast in-situ concrete.

INTRODUCTION (contd)
There are continuing developments to make cast in-situ
concrete faster and easier.
A wide range of forms are available, in addition to
equipment, such as concrete pumps and power finishing
machines needed to speed up the process.
Cast In-situ concrete is widely used and effective
construction material.

PREPARING CONRETE

PREPARING CONCRETE (contd)


(1) Batching
Concrete is usually prepared in batches.
A batch is the amount of concrete mixed at one
time.
The quantities of dry ingredient (sand,
aggregate) are usually weighed.
Water and admixtures are specified by either
weight and volume.
When concrete is produced by a continuous
mixer, volumetric measure is used.
Job specification usually establish the
percentage of accuracy allowed when measuring
ingredients.

2013 new technology type famous


brand ready mixed concrete batching
plant

Concrete Batching
Plant

Concrete Batching Plant

Advanced Technology Mix


Concrete Batching Plant HZS25

Italian Technology Concrete


Batching Plant YJS4000

PREPARING CONCRETE (contd)


(2) Mixing
Concrete is mixed until it is uniform in
appearance and all ingredients are evenly
distributed.
If an increased amount of concrete is needed, an
additional mixer should be used, rather than
overloading or speeding up those in operation.
It is important to follow the manufacturers
recommendations and to keep the mixing blades
clean. Bent or worn blades should be replaced.

Mobile Concrete Mixing Plant

Single Shaft Concrete Mixer

PREPARING CONCRETE (contd)


(3) Stationary Mixing
On a large job, the concrete is often mixed onsite using a stationary mixer.
Stationary mixer may be manual,
semiautomatic, or automatically controlled.
Some mixers have data for various mix designs
stored on computer programs.
Generally, the batch is mixed one minute for the
first cubic yard and an additional fifteen seconds
for each additional cubic (0.35 m3).

PREPARING CONCRETE (contd)


(3) Stationary Mixing (contd)
Mixing time is measured from the moment all
ingredients are placed in the mixer.
All water must be added before one-fourth of
the mixing time elapsed.
About 10% of the mixing water is placed in the
drum before dry ingredients are added.
The remaining water is combined uniformly
with the dry ingredients, saving 10% for
addition after all dry ingredients are in the
drum.

Stationary Concrete
Mixing

Ready Mix Concrete Batching

PREPARING CONCRETE (contd)


(4) Ready-Mix Concrete
Ready-mix concrete may be fully mixed in a central mixing plant
and delivered to the site in a truck mixer that operates at
agitating speed or in a special non-agitating truck.
The concrete may be partially blended in a central mixer and
completed in a truck as it is moved to the site.
When the entire batch is made in the truck mixer, seventy to one
hundred rotations of the drum at the rotating speed specified by
the manufacturer is enough to produce a uniform mix.
All revolutions after one hundred should be at a slower agitating
speed so as not to over-mix the batch.
Concrete must be delivered and discharged within hours or
before the drum has revolved three hundred times after the
introduction of water.

Ready Mix Concrete

PREPARING CONCRETE (contd)


(5) Remixing
Fresh concrete in the drum tends to stiffen even
before the concrete has hydrated to initial set.
It can be used if remixing will restore sufficient
plasticity for compaction in the forms.
Under special conditions, a small amount of
water can be added, but it must not exceed the
allowable water-cement ration, designated
slump, and allowable drum revolutions, and it
must be re-mixed at least half the minimum
required mixing time or number of revolutions.

Remixing Concrete

TRANSPORTING, HANDLING, AND


PLACING CONCRETE

TRANSPORTING, HANDLING, AND


PLACING
CONCRETE
Before the fresh
concrete arrives on the job, preparations
for moving it to its point of placement must be complete.
Delays in placing the concrete can cause a loss of plasticity.
In addition, the method of moving the concrete must not
result in the segregation of concrete materials.
Segregation is the tendency of coarse aggregate to separate
from the sand-cement mortar.
In some cases the heavy aggregate settles to the bottom
and the sand-cement mortar rises to the top, producing
unsatisfactory final results.

TRANSPORTING, HANDLING, AND PLACING CONCRETE

TRANSPORTING, HANDLING, AND


PLACING
CONCRETE (contd)
Moving Concrete
Concrete is moved about the site to points of placement with
cranes using concrete buckets, barrows and buggies, chutes,
belt conveyors, pneumatic guns, and concrete pumps.
Concrete coming from a conveyor should be directed straight
down by using deflector plates and a down pipe.
If the concrete is moved with a chute, the chute should also be
placed perpendicular to the receiving unit through a down
pipe to prevent segregation of the mix.
For many small jobs, such as pouring a garage floor or
residential basement walls, wheelbarrows or manually pushed
buggies can provide and adequate delivery of material.

TRANSPORTING, HANDLING, AND


PLACING
CONCRETE
Moving Concrete
(contd)(contd)
To speed up the flow of concrete, powered buggies can
also be used.
Concrete pumps are heavy-duty piston pumps that force
concrete through a pipe ranging from 6 to 8 in. (152 to
203 mm) in diameter.
They can place concrete over long distances, ranging up
to about 100 ft. (30.5 m) vertically and 800 ft. (244 m)
horizontally.
Pumps can also place concrete below grade, as required
for foundations of multistory buildings, whose
excavations must be several stories below grade.

TRANSPORTING, HANDLING, AND


Moving Concrete
(contd) (contd)
PLACING
CONCRETE
The maximum aggregate size for:

3 in. (75 mm) - 8 in. (203 mm) pipeline


2.5 in. (64 mm) - 7 in. (178 mm) pipeline
2 in. (50 mm) - 6 in. (152 mm) pipeline

The pump requires an uninterrupted flow of plastic concrete to


mitigate premature set and the production of unwanted joints in
the slab, beams, or column.
On the end of the discharge line is a choke that controls that flow
of concrete.
The pump and pipeline are thoroughly flushed after each use.
Concrete is also moved with a conveyor.

Mounted Truck Concrete Pump

Concrete Pump

Power Buggy

Putzmeister Concrete Pump

Conveyor Belt

Bucket

Bucket and Crane

TRANSPORTING, HANDLING, AND


PLACING
CONCRETE (contd)
Placing Concrete
Concrete placement occurs after the base for on-grade pours is
ready or the forms for walls, columns, and beams are erected
and reinforcing is in place.
Concrete should be placed continuously and as near as
possible to its final location.
In slab construction, work starts along one end, and each batch
is discharged against the one previously placed.
If the concrete is to thick, like in a foundation wall, it should be
placed in layers 6 to 20 in. (150 to 500 mm) deep for
reinforced members and 15 to 20 in. (400 to 500 mm) deep for
mass work.

TRANSPORTING, HANDLING, AND


PLACING
CONCRETE
Placing Concrete
(contd) (contd)
Each layer should be consolidated before a second layer is placed on
it.
It is necessary to work fast so the first layer is still plastic when the
next layer is placed on it.
Consolidation is the process of compacting freshly placed
concrete in forms and around reinforcing steel to remove air and
aggregate pockets. Consolidation can be done by manually pushing a
rod into the concrete or with a mechanical vibrator.
The vibrator should be lowered vertically into the concrete. It should
not be used to move concrete along in a form. Rodding or vibrating
should extend through the layer being consolidated and about 6 in.
(150 mm) into the layer below.

Mechanical Vibrator

TRANSPORTING, HANDLING, AND


PLACING
CONCRETE
Placing Concrete
(contd) (contd)
Placing Concrete in Cold Weather
Concrete placed in cold weather gains strength slowly and fresh concrete
must be protected from freezing.
The concrete designer must consider the heat of hydration, the use of
special cements and admixtures, by heating the aggregates and water.
The final temperature of the combined ingredients should well below
1000F (380C) most batches are kept within a 600F to 800F (150C to
270C) range.
The temperature of all batches should be about the same. If the overall
temperature of the concrete exceed 1000F (380C), the concrete may flash
set.
When water is heated, most of the cement is not added until the bulk of
the water and aggregates have been mixed in the drum.
After placement, concrete must be protected from freezing. Common
methods of protection include insulated blankets an air heaters.

TRANSPORTING, HANDLING, AND


PLACING
CONCRETE
Placing Concrete
(contd)(contd)
Placing Concrete in Hot Weather
In addition to maintaining low concrete temperature by cooling the
aggregates and water, precautions must be taken to maintain a low
temperature while placing concrete.
This can involve shading and painting white the mixers, chutes,
hoppers, pump lines, and other concrete handling equipment.
Forms can be cooled with water, and the sub-grade can be moistened
before the concrete is placed.
Concrete must be transported from the mixing station to the point of
placement as quickly as possible.
In hot weather, the mix should be in place 45 to 60 minutes after
mixing.

TRANSPORTING, HANDLING, AND


PLACING
CONCRETE
Placing Concrete
(contd)(contd)
Pneumatic Placement
Concrete can be placed by pneumatically forcing a dry mixture of
sand, aggregate, and cement through a hose and mixing it with water
at a nozzle.
It is used to form thin sections in difficult locations and to cover large
areas.
Shotcrete is ideal for placing concrete in free-form shapes, such as
domes and shells; for applying protective coatings; and for repairing
concrete surfaces.
Typical applications include forming swimming pools, covering rock
outcroppings along highways to prevent rock falls, and providing
underground support, as in tunnel and coal mine shaft linings.
A surface can be covered with metal lath and concrete sprayed over it.
This can be done without the construction of expensive forms.

Shotcrete Placement

FINISHING CONCRETE
After concrete has been placed and consolidated, it is
screeded.
Screeding also called strike-off, involves removing
excess concrete with a screed to bring it flush with the
top of the form.
Immediately after strike-off, the surface is bull floated
to lower high spots, fill low spots, and embed large
aggregate that may be on the surface.
A bull float has a long handle connected to a float.
Bleed refers to water that rises to the surface very
soon after concrete is placed in forms.

A bull float is used to lower


high spots and fill in low spot

A Power Float

CURING CONCRETE
The concrete reaches design strength after 28 days of curing.
Concrete should be protected, so moisture remains in the mix
during the early hardening period and the temperature is
maintained.
Protected concrete that is kept moist for seven days has about
twice the compressive strength of unprotected concrete (i.e.
concrete exposed to air with no attempt to keep moisture in the
mix).
The length of the curing period depends on the type of cement,
the design of the mix, the strength required, the size of the
member poured, and weather conditions.
Forms may be left in place and the exposed concrete surfaces kept
moist.
Curing compounds are sprayed on the surface to retard moisture
evaporation.

CURING CONCRETE (contd)


After the forms have been removed, the exposed concrete can be
sprayed with curing compound.
Exposed concrete can be covered with waterproof curing paper or
plastic film to hold moisture in.
Wet covering materials, such as moisture-retaining fabrics can be
placed over the concrete. They should be kept wet over the entire
curing period.
Continuously sprinkling the surface is an excellent method of
curing.
The sprinkling must be done so that the concrete is always wet.

Curing Concrete - Covered with blanket

Curing - Water Spray

Curing Concrete - Water Curing

Formwork

FORMWORK
The purposes of formwork construction is as a mould to fit any shape
of specific structures (i.e. beams, column, slab, etc.)
A variety of manufactured metal forms (steel and aluminum) are
available in a range of sizes, along with assembly and bracing systems.
Also, Plywood with wood or metal bracing is used for site-built forms.
Other plywood made with waterproof glue also used.
Solid lumber (special wood) and Wafer board, molded plastic and
waxed cardboards forms are also materials in concrete form
construction.
Both wood and metal forms are generally assembled in inside/outside
pairs.
The face of the form is oiled or treated with a chemical release agent to
facilitate easy striping.
When rebar is required, one form side is set and the reinforcing bars
are placed inside before the second side is assembled.

Formwork Function
Two types of mould in concrete
Precast Concrete Mould
Easy to dismantle
Movable
Recycle

Cast In-situ Concrete Mould


Easy to dismantle
Not easy to move
Can be recycled if can be used

Formwork Function (contd)


Formwork Usage:
Foundation construction, Beam, Slab, Staircases,
Curves, etc.

Formwork are used to form concrete


with any shape of structures until
concrete hardening (and can be stand
alone) after placing.
Formwork is a temporary construction
and can be dismantle after concrete
form.

Formwork Materials
Formwork Materials:
(1) Wood and Plywood
(2) Metal forms - steel and aluminum
(3) Fibre glass and fibre plastic

Formwork Materials (contd)


(1) Wood and Plywood
Widely usage precast concrete and
concrete cast in-situ.
Easy to get and workability.
Half dried soft wood is a good materials
for the concrete formwork.

Formwork Materials (contd)


(2) Metals form steel and aluminum

Limited usage
With special skills and specific construction
Precast unit usage
Durability and can be recycled
Steel plate upper construction and roof
construction for storeyed building

Formwork Materials (contd)


(3) Fibre glass and fibre plastic
Special usage
Special design for structure construction

PLYWOOD FORMWORK

Plywood
Formwork

STEEL FORMWORK

ALUMINUM FORMWORK

Aluminium Formwork

Concrete Formwork

Concrete Formwork
Panel

Formwork Plates, Wing, Nut, Pins

Twin Plastic Formwork

Formwork Construction
Quality stable and strong, exact location,
exact dimension, formwork dismantle
facilities.
Safety to workers, structure and
equipment, follow standard requirement and
regular checking.
Economic low cost, easy to get, recycle
products, construction methods, types of
formwork and skills workers.

Formwork Dismantle Period


Bil.

Formwork Part

Period

Side of beam, column and retaining


wall

2 6 days

Lower part of beam & slab (without


imposed load)

7 14 days

Side board (with imposed load)

Lower board (with imposed load)

Not less than 7 days


28 days
(no load to be imposed before
28 days)

Formwork Construction - Safety


Procedures

(1) Use of formwork materials should follow


standard requirement.
(2) Stable formwork installation.
(3) Formwork stability checking before concrete
placement.
(4) Close boundary area for formwork
construction.
(5) Formwork surface should be sprayed with
oil, foam, and white paint (limestone).
(6) Clean concrete placement area.
(7) Signboard display.

Column Formwork

Formwork
-Stair Props

Formwork
-Stair Treads

Slab, Wall and Column


Formwork

Self Climbing System


Formwork

Formwork

Permanent
Formwork

Supervision Work Steel and Formwork (beam) Checking

Formwork for Reinforcement Concrete Retaining Wall

Formwork for Ground Beam

Formwork for Beam

Formwork for Staircases

Formwork for Pilecap

Continue.

PRECAST CONCRETE

Precast Concrete
Introduction
Precast Concrete
Precast Building System
Precast Concrete Frame
Precast Concrete Wall
Precast Concrete Floor
Tendencies in Precast Concrete
Advantages of Precast Concrete
Conclusion
Case Study Precast Concrete

INTRODUCTION
Every construction material & system has its own characteristics which
to a greater or less extend influence the layout, span length,
construction depth, stability system, ect.
This is also the case for precast concrete , not only in comparison to
steel, wood, & masonry structures, but also with respect to cast in-situ
concrete.
Theoretically, all joints between the precast units could be made in
such a way that the completed precast structure has the same
monolithic concept as a in-situ one.
However, this is a wrong approach & one, which is very labour intensive
& costly.
If the full advantages of precast concrete are to be realized, the
structure should be conceived according to its specific design
philosophy.Long spans, appropriate stability concept, simple details,
ect.
Designers should from the very outset of the project consider the
possibilities, restrictions & advantages of precast concrete, its detailing,
manufacturer, transport, erection & serviceability stages before
completing a design in precast concrete.

PRECAST CONCETE
Enables faster programme times - not affected by
weather or labour shortages.
Improves buildability - early enclosure of dry envelope
enables follow-on trades to start sooner.
Produces a high standard of workmanship in factory
conditions - reduces potential for accidents, addresses
on-site skill shortage.
Has a high quality finish that can be left exposed concrete's thermal properties can be exploited in lowenergy buildings.

PRECAST CONCETE (contd)


PRIMARY FUNCTIONS

SECONDARY FUNCTIONS

KEEP WATER OUT

RESIST WIND FORCES

PREVENT AIR LEAKAGE

CONTROL WATER VAPOR

CONTROL LIGHT

ADJUST TO MOVEMENT

CONTROL RADIATION OF
HEAT

THERMAL & MOISTURE


EXPANSION/CONTRACTION

CONTROL CONDUCTION
OF HEAT

STRUCTURAL MOVEMENTS

CONTROL SOUND

RESIST FIRE
WEATHER GRACEFULLY
EASY TO INSTALL

PRECAST CONCETE (contd)

Architectural precast concrete provides architects with


an exciting medium when designing facades for a wide
range of buildings, from healthcare facilities to shopping
malls, commercial office buildings to sports stadiums.

Precast concrete provides:


Complete thermal protection

Continuous air/vapour barrier


Effective rain screens
Superior lifespan
Reduced construction schedule and on-site labour
High quality control standards
Numerous finish options and colours

PRECAST BUILDING SYSTEM


(1)

Precast concrete
frame
(2) Precast concrete
wall
(3) Precast concrete
floor

(1) Precast Concrete Frame


Description
Precast concrete frames involve an entire structure
being fabricated off-site.
In addition, structural components can be supplied
for incorporation into a structure on-site.
Frames can simultaneously achieve both structural
and decorative design requirements - a wide variety
of mixes, colours and finishes can be accommodated.
Architecturally-finished precast structures can be left
exposed to exploit concrete's high thermal capacity
in a building's "green" energy management system.

(1) Precast Concrete Frame (contd)


Process
Precast concrete frames are cast in the same
way as precast concrete cladding, but as they
are designed as structural elements have
heavier reinforcement than is required for
non-structural cladding.
Elegant connections are required between
columns and beams to transfer considerable
forces without adversely affecting the visual
appearance of the frame.

(1) Precast Concrete Frame (contd)


Benefits
Enable faster programme times - not affected by
weather or labour shortages.
Improve buildability - structure is fabricated off-site
for rapid erection on-site
Produce a high standard of workmanship in factory
conditions - reduces potential for accidents,
addresses on-site skill shortage.
Have a high quality finish that can be left exposed concrete's thermal properties can be exploited in
low-energy buildings.

PRECAST CONCRETE FRAME

PRECAST CONCRETE FRAME

PRECAST CONCRETE WALL

(2) Precast Concrete Wall


Precast wall are used for internal & external walls,
lift shafts, central cores ect.
Precast wall system are mostly used in domestic
construction, both for individual housing & for
apartments.
The solution can be considered as the industrialized
from of cast in-situ walls or classical brick or block
masonry walls.
The precast walls can be load bearing or only
partition walls.
The surface of the elements is smooth on both sides
& ready for painting or wall papering.
Precast walls offer the advantage of speed of
construction, smooth surface finishing, acoustic
insulation & fire resistance.

(3) Precast Concrete Floor


Hollow core floors
Ribbed floors
Concrete roof
elements
Massive slab floors

PRECAST CONCRETE FLOOR

The principle advantages of precast floors are speed of


construction, absence of scaffolding, large variety of types,
large span capacity, & economy.
Precast floors can also be classified according to their
manufacture into totally & partially precast floors.
Totally precast floors are composed of units, which are totally
cast at the plant.
After erection, the units are connected to the structure & the
longitudinal joints are grouted. In some cases a cast in-situ
structural topping screed is added.
Partially precast floors are composed of a precast part & a
cast in-situ part.
Both parts are working together at the final stage to achieve
the composite structural capacity.
The main totally precast floor & roof types are described
hereafter.

Hollow Core Floors

Ribbed Floors

Concrete Roof Elements

Prestressed Concrete Roof Slab

Massive Slab Floors

TENDENCIES IN PRECAST
CONCRETE

Structural efficiency
Flexibility in use
Optimum use of materials
Speed of construction
Quality consciousness
Adaptability
Protection of the environment

Advantages of Precast Concrete

Less expensive than real brick.

Does not require an extensive footing like a real.

masonry wall. Can be reset should it ever shift.

More durable than real masonry - no mortar joints


to let water in.

Installs quickly and easily - most can be done in one


day.

Maintenance free - No need to paint or periodically


replace slats as you would with wood fences.

Disadvantage of Precast Concrete

System building is less flexible in its design


concept than purpose-mode structures.

Most design briefs can be fulfilled without too


much modification to the original concept.

Structural connection between the precast


concrete units can present both design &
contractual problems

CONCLUSION
Pre-fabrication has a great potential to
respond to new market demands.
Possible solution lie not only within the
classical advantages related to working
conditions, technology & speed of
construction, but also in new developments
of materials such as high performances &
self-compacting concrete, buildings system
such as mixed structures, manufacturing
technology, automation, service integrated
products & others.

Case Study Precast Concrete

INDUSTRIALIZED BUILDING
SYSTEM (IBS)

INDUSTRIALISED BUILDING
SYSTEM (IBS)
IBS is a construction process that utilises
techniques, products, components, or
building systems which involve
prefabricated components and on-site
installation.
Construction techniques in which
components are manufactured in a
factory, on or off site, positioned and
assembled into a structure with minimal
additional site works.

INDUSTRIALISED BUILDING
SYSTEM (IBS) (contd)
There are five (5) main IBS groups identified
as being used popularly in Malaysia:
Pre-cast Concrete Framed Buildings precast columns, beams, slabs, (balconies, staircases,
toilets, etc.)

Steel Formwork Systems tunnel forms,


EPS-based forms, beams and columns
moulding forms, permanent steel formworks, etc.

INDUSTRIALISED BUILDING
SYSTEM (IBS) (contd)
Steel Framing Systems/Prefabricated Steel
Building steel beams and
columns, portal frames, roof trusses, etc.
Prefabricated Timber Framing Systems
timber frames, roof trusses, etc.
Block Work Systems interlocking concrete
masonry units (CMU), lightweight concrete
blocks, etc.

INDUSTRIALISED BUILDING
SYSTEM (IBS) (contd)
Characteristics
Industrial production of components
through prefabrication.
Highly mechanised in-site processes.
Reduced labour during pre-fabrication of
components and site works.
Modern design and manufacturing
methods involving Information
Technology.
Systematic Quality Control i.e. ISO 9000
principles.
Open building concept.

INDUSTRIALISED BUILDING
SYSTEM (IBS) (contd)
Main Advantages:
Speed of construction, quality, and
economic advantage.

INDUSTRIALISED BUILDING
SYSTEM (IBS) (contd)
Advantages:
Reduce site worker requirement due to
simplified construction methods.
Quality-controlled and highly aesthetic
end products through the processes of
controlled pre-fabrication and simplified
installations.
Reduction of construction materials at
sites through usage of pre-fabricated
components.

INDUSTRIALISED BUILDING
SYSTEM (IBS) (contd)
Advantages:
Reduction or elimination of conventional
timber formworks; replaced by prefabricated components and alternative
moulds with multiple usage capability.
Reduction of construction waste with the
usage of the standardised components
and less in-site works.
Cleaner site due to lesser construction
waste.

INDUSTRIALISED BUILDING
SYSTEM (IBS) (contd)
Advantages:
Safer construction sites due to the
reduction of site workers, materials and
construction waste.
Faster completion of construction projects
due to the usage of standardised prefabricated components and simplified
installation processes.
Cheaper total construction costs.

INDUSTRIALISED BUILDING
SYSTEM (IBS) (contd)
Benefits of Precast Concrete:
(1) High quality and aesthetical value of
products.
(2) Cleaner and safer construction sites.
(3) Faster construction.
(4) Greater unobstructed span.
(5) Lower total construction costs.

INDUSTRIALISED BUILDING
SYSTEM (IBS) (contd)
Modular Coordination (MC) is part of IBS
components. MC is a concept for coordinating dimension
and space for which buildings and components are
dimensionalised and positioned in basic units or modules.
Policies and Strategies promoting by IBS and
Government in introducing and improving the usages of
IBS in construction industry.
IBS Score is a systematic and structured assessment
system that can be used to measure the usage of IBS in a
consistent way.

Column & Beam

Concrete Product

Beam

Lightweight
Waffle Slab

Planks

IBS - Wall

IBS MODULAR

Staircase

Prestressed Precast
Hollow Core Slabs

Steel Formwork

Steel Formwork

Steel Frame and Steel Roof Truss

Steel Structure

Hollow Steel

Thank you for your attention!!