Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 34

Multiple Access Techniques

for wireless communication

Multiple access schemes allow many mobile


users to share a finite amount of radio
spectrum

High quality of communications must be


maintained during the sharing process

Multiple Access Techniques


Multiple Access Techniques
PR

FDMA TDMA CDMA SDMA

Packet Radio
Frequency Division Multiple Access
Time Division Multiple Access
Code Division Multiple Access
Space Division Multiple Access

Multiple Access (MA) Technologies

Cellular System

MA Technique

AMPS ( Advanced Mobile Phone


system )
GSM ( Global System for Mobile )

FDMA / FDD

US DC ( U. S Digital Cellular )

TDMA / FDD

JDC ( Japanese Digital Cellular )

TDMA / FDD

IS 95 ( U.S Narrowband Spread


Spectrum )

CDMA / FDD

TDMA / FDD

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)


code

C1 C2 CN

frequency

time
C1
4

C2

CN

frequency

Principle of FDMA Operation

Each user is allocated a unique frequency band


or channel. These channels are assigned on
demand to users who request service

In FDD, the channel has two frequencies


forward channel & reverse channel

Properties of FDMA

Bandwidth of FDMA channels is narrow (30


KHz)
No equalization is required, since the symbol
time is large compared to average delay spread
FDMA systems have higher cost
o

Costly band pass filters to eliminate


spurious radiation
Duplexers in both T/R increase
subscriber costs

Number Of channels in FDMA System


Bg

Bg

Bt 2Bg

Bt

Bc

Bg GuardBand
Bc ChannelBandwidth

Example
In the US, each cellular carrier is allocated 416
channels,

Bt 12.5MHz
Bg 10KHz
Bc 30KHz
N
8

(12.5 106 ) 2(10 103 )


30 10

416

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)


code
C1
CN
frequency

time
C1
9

C2

CN

time

TDMA Operating principle

10

TDMA systems divide each FDMA channel into


time slots
Each user occupies a cyclically repeating time
slot.
TDMA can allow different number of time slots
for separate user

TDMA Frame Structure


Preamble

Slot 1

Trail Bit

11

Information Trail Bits


message
Slot 2

Sync Bit

Slot N

Information Guard Bits


Bit

Components of TDMA Frame

12

Preamble Address and synchronization


information for base station and subscriber
identification

Guard times Synchronization of receivers


between different slots and frames

TDMA properties
Data Transmission for user of TDMA system
occurs in discrete bursts

o
o

13

The result is low battery consumption.


Handoff process is simpler
Since different slots are used for T and R,
duplexers are not required.
Equalization is required, since transmission
rates are higher than FDMA channels

Efficiency of TDMA
Frame Efficiency
No.ofbits / frame containingtransmitted data
f
Total Numberof bits / frame

(1 bOH / bT ) 100
(bT bOH )

100
bT
14

Frame efficiency parameters


bT Total Number of bits per frame

=Tf R
Tf =Frame duration
R=Channel bit rate

bOH =Number of overhead bits /frame


=Nr br Nt bp Nt b g Nr b g
15

Frame efficiency parameter definition


Nr Number of reference bits per frame
Nt Number of traffic bits per frame
br Number of overhead bits per reference burst
bp Number of overhead bits per preamble in each slots
b g Number of equivalent bits in each guard time interval

16

Number of channels in TDMA System


N=

m(Btot -2Bguard )
Bc

m Maximum number of TDMA users supported on each radio channel


Bguard Guard band to present user at the edge of the band
from 'bleeding over' to an adjacent radio service

17

Example
The GSM System uses a TDMA frame structure
where each frame consist of 8 time slots, and
each time slot contains 156.25 bits, and data is
transmitted at 270.833 kbps in the channel.
Time duration of a bit
Time duration of a slot
Time duration of a frame

18

Solution

Time duration of a bit


1
1
=Tb =

3.692 s
3
bit-rate 270.833 10

Time duration of a slot


Tslot 156.25 Tb 0.577
s
ms

Time duration of a frame


8 Tslot 4.615ms

19

Example
If a normal GSM timeslot consists of 6 trailing bits,
8.25 guard bits, 26 training bits, and 2 traffic bursts of
58 bits of data, find the frame efficiency.
Solution
Time slot has 6+ 8.25+ 26 + 2(58) = 156.25 bits.
A frame has 8 * 156.25 = 1250 bits / frame.

The number of overhead bits per frame is:


bOH = 8(6) + 8(8.25) + 8(26) = 322 bits
20

Frame efficiency = (1250 322 )/1250 = 74.24 %

Capacity of Cellular Systems

21

Channel capacity of a wireless system is the


maximum number of users possible in the
system

Channel capacity depends on:

Bandwidth available

Signal to Noise ratio (SNR) in the channel

Calculation of cell capacity


For a Cellular System
m = Capacity/cell =

22

Bt
Bc * N

Bt = Total spectrum for the system

BC = Channel bandwidth

N = Number of cells / cluster

Co-channel cell interference


CELL A
CELL A

CELL A

CELL A

CELL A
CELL A

23

Channel capacity calculation


Bt

6 S

Bc n / 2
3 I min
where n is the path loss exponent
S
I
S
I

24

2/n

is the minimum required Signal to Interference ratio


min

12 dB for digital transmission


min

S/I for digital cellular system


Eb Rb Ec Rc
S
I I I

R b Channel bit rate
Eb Energy per bit
R c Rate of channel code
Ec Energy per code symbol

25

Capacity of Digital Cellular CDMA

26

Capacity of FDMA and TDMA system is


bandwidth limited.
Capacity of CDMA system is interference
limited.
The link performance of CDMA increases as the
number of users decreases.

Number of possible users in CDMA

N 1

W R

Eb
No

R Pr oces sing Gain

where W

27

is the background thermal noise


S is the average user power
W is the total RF bandwidth
R is the information bit rate

Techniques to improve capacity

28

Antenna Sectorization
A cell site with 3 antennas, each having a
beamwidth of 120 degrees , has one-third of
the interference received by omnidirectional antenna. This increases the
capacity by a factor of 3
Monitoring or Voice activity
Each transmitter is switched off during
period of no voice activity. Voice activity is
denoted by a factor

SNR Improvement
Eb

No

W R

Ns 1

where Ns Number of users per sector

29

SNR Improvement
W

R
1
Ns 1

,)0 1
Eb
(S )
N
o

If = 3/8 and number of sector is equal to 3 ,


SNR increases by a factor of 8.
30

Example

31

If W = 1.25 MHz, R= 9600 bps, and a


minimum acceptable Eb/ No is 10 dB,
determine the maximum number of users
that can be supported in a single cell CDMA
system using
omni directional base station antennas and
no voice activity detection
3 sectors at base station and = 3/8.
Assume the system is interference limited.
= 0.

Solution
(a)

N 1

Eb
No
1.25 10

9600 0
1
10

1 13.02 14

32

Solution
(b) Users per sector
W

R
1
Ns 1

,)0 1

Eb
(S
N
o

33

1 1.25 10
9600 0

1
3
10

35.7

Solution
Total users N in 3 sectors
3Ns

3 35.7
107 users / cell

34