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(Construction and Operation)

What is an Electric Machine?

“An electric machine is a device that can

convert either mechanical energy to
electrical energy (Generator) or electrical
energy to mechanical energy (Motor).”
A.C Machine (Motor)

“An electric machine (Motor) that converts

A.C electric energy to mechanical energy.”
Types of Motors
• D.C Motors
• A.C Motors
A) Synchronous Motors
B) Asynchronous Motors
c) Induction Motors
d) Commutator Motors
Types of Induction Motor
• There are mainly Two types of Induction

Squirrel Cage Induction Motor

Slip-Ring Induction Motor
Induction Motor
It is defined as ,“A rotating Transformer.”
An induction motor (IM) is a type of
asynchronous AC motor where power is
supplied to the rotating device by means
of electromagnetic induction.

This definition of Induction Motor is due to the fact that it works

on the principle of a Transformer.
The figure shows the internal structure of
Induction Motor.
Construction (contd.)
Construction (contd.)
Construction (contd.)
Main Parts of Induction Motor

 Stator
 Rotor
 The stationary part of the motor is called
 The stator is also called armature although it
does not rotate.
 In Induction Motor A.C power is applied to the
stator directly.
 The stator of an Induction Motor is shown in
figure below.
Stator has three parts:

a) Frame
b) Core
c) Winding
Stator (Frame)
 It is used for supporting and protecting the
armature core stampings and winding coil
 It is made of cast iron.
 The frame takes various forms depending
on the operating conditions.
Stator (Frame)
 The open type provides better natural
ventilation and cooling.
 The drip proof type incorporates a cast-iron
frame completely enclosing the top half of
the motor but with opening below the centre
line for the admission and discharge of air
impelled by fan blades on the rotor.
Stator (Frame)
 The totally enclosed type prevents the
exchange of air between the inside and
outside of the enclosing case.
 Enclosed self: fan cooled motors provide
cooling by external fans which are integral
part of the machine.
 Enclosed separately: the air is circulated
by fans or blowers separate from the
motor itself.
Stator (core)
The core of an Induction Motor is built up of
silicon steel laminations provided with slots
in its inner cylindrical surface.
There are three types of core of an Induction
1) Open slot core
2) Semi-closed slot core
3) Segmental laminations
Stator (windings)
 The windings may be 1-phase or poly-phase
according to the type of Induction Motor.

 Each phase of the windings is made of multi-turn

coils distributed in several slots per pole instead of
placing all the coils of a phase in one slot.

 The winding coils of each phase are placed in the

slots and connected with each other in such a way
as to obtain a required number of poles.
Stator (windings)
There are different types of windings:

1) Concentrated winding

2) Distributed winding
Distributed winding
(a) Lap winding
(b) Wave winding
(c) Spiral winding
(d) Single-layer winding
(e) Double-layer winding
(f) Full-pitch winding
(g) Fractional-pitch winding
(h) Half-coil winding
(i) Whole-coil winding
Stator (windings)
Concentrated winding

 The coils of each phase are grouped

together in a single slot under each pole,
uniformly placed around the periphery of
 This winding is rarely used for armatures.
Stator (windings)
Distributed winding
 The coils of each phase are placed in several
slots (more than one) under each pole instead of
placing a single slot per pole.
 The conductors in adjacent slots are slots are
acted upon successively and generate voltages
that are not in phase.
 All practical a.c. armature windings are of this
Stator (windings)
Distributed winding

The end connections of a distributed

winding may be arranged in several ways,
all electrically identical.
 The Rotor also has a core and a winding.
 It rotates inside the stator.
 The core is made of silicon steel
laminations having slots in its outer
cylindrical surface.
 The laminations are assembled and
packed together with the help of two end
plates made of cast-iron, on a hub which
is keyed to the shaft.
Types of Rotors in Induction Motor

1) Squirrel-Cage Rotor

2) Wound Rotor or Slip-ring Rotor

The figure shows different types of Rotors:
Squirrel-Cage Rotor
Squirrel-Cage Rotor
 The Squirrel-Cage rotor (I.M) is the simplest type of
Induction Motor and the most generally used.
 The core of the rotor is usually , built up of slotted
steel punchings.
 The slots are mostly semi-closed or totally-
 The totally enclosed slot is particularly well adopted
to the casting of aluminium rotor windings.
Rotor (Squirrel-cage)
 With motors upto 30 h.p and even greater
the entire rotor winding is made of die-cast
 No insulation is required on the conductors
of a cage rotor because the rotor induced
voltages are too small to force an
appreciable current through the laminated
core having high electrical resistance
parallel to the rotor conductors.
Rotor (wound)
The figures show wound Rotors:
Rotor (wound)
Rotor (wound)
 This type of Rotor is provided with a proper
winding consisting of coils of insulated thin
copper wire similar to that of stator winding.
 The Rotor winding is wound for same number of
poles and phases as the stator but preferably it
should be 3-phase for both a 2-phase and a 3-
phase stator.
 The 3-phases are star-connected internally.
 The other three winding terminals are brought
out through three slip rings made of high quality
steel mounted rigidly on the shaft of the rotor
and bearing on them brushes.
Rotor (wound)
It is therefore possible to connect
additional external resistance in the rotor
circuit particularly at starting to develop
high starting torque necessary to move the
stationary rotor against its inertia and the
inertia of the heavy load connected with
the shaft of the rotor.
Principle of Operation Of I.M
How does an induction motor work?

There is no electrical connections to the rotor

to supply power to, therefore how is a rotor
mmf to be established that will interact with
the rotating field and produce torque???
Principle of Operation Of I.M
“ The answer is given in the name - by a
process of inducing currents by
transformer action in the rotor.”
Consider an induction motor if the rotor is locked
and prevented from moving;
– At this time AC power is supplied to the stator which
establishes a rotating magnetic field. This field will
rotate past stationary coils which will experience a
changing level of magnetic flux.
– From Faraday’s Law a voltage will be induced in the
coils, causing rotor currents to circulate.
Principle of Operation Of I.M
Principle of Operation Of I.M
 The stator is supplied by three-phase voltages that drive three-
phase balanced current through the windings.
 The three-phase currents generate a rotating magnetic field.
 The field rotates at synchronous speed. Synchronous speed is
determined by the frequency of the supply voltage and the
number of poles: ns = f / p/2 = 2 f / p. The unit is rpm.
 The rotating field induces a voltage in the short-circuited rotor
 The induced voltage generates current in the bars.
Principle of Operation Of I.M

 The interaction between the rotor current and the stator

field produces a force that drives the motor:
Force = B I L sin φ
 The induced voltage magnitude is dependent upon the
speed difference between the rotating stator field and the
 The speed difference is maximum during starting when
the motor draws large current. The frequency of the rotor
current is 60 Hz when the rotor is stationary.
Principle of Operation Of I.M
 As the motor starts to rotate the speed difference is
reduced, which results in:
 reduction on the frequency of the induced voltage in
the rotor.
 reduced magnitude of rotor current and induced
 If the rotor speed is equal to the angular speed of the
stator field, the induced voltage, current and torque
become zero. Therefore the motor speed must be less
than the synchronous speed.
 Motor operation requires speed difference between the
stator generated rotating field and the actual rotor speed.
The speed difference is called slip (s).
Principle of Operation Of I.M
Locked rotor:
When the rotor is stationary, the field rotates at a
frequency (relative to the rotor) equal to the supply
frequency. This induces a large voltage – hence large
currents flow within the rotor, producing a strong torque.
When released, the rotor accelerates rapidly. As speed
increases, the relative frequency of the magnetic field
Therefore, the induced voltages and currents fall rapidly
as the motor accelerates.
Principle of Operation Of I.M
Synchronous speed:
The relative frequency of the rotating field is zero,
so the induced currents and voltages are also zero.
Therefore, the torque is zero too. It follows, that
induction motors are unable to reach synchronous speed
due to losses such as friction.
Motor under load:
The motor speed decreases until the relative
frequency is large enough to generate sufficient torque
to balance the load torque.
Comparison with Synchronous
The basic difference between an induction motor
and a synchronous AC motor is that in the
latter a current is supplied onto the rotor. This
then creates a magnetic field which, through
magnetic interaction, links to the rotating
magnetic field in the stator which in turn causes
the rotor to turn. It is called synchronous
because at steady state the speed of the rotor is
the same as the speed of the rotating magnetic
field in the stator.
Fitting Arrangements of I.M