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PLUMBING

PLUMBING
Plumbing is one of the most important aspects
of your home. You should be as informed as
possible when it comes time to hire a plumber.

PLUMBING TERMS
1/8 Bend Offset
A plumbing fitting used for positioning a pipe around an
obstacle.

Access Panel
Covered opening in a wall or ceiling near a fixture that
allows access for servicing a plumbing or electric system.

Arconitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)


A type of plastic used to make plumbing pipe

PLUMBING TERMS
Air Gap

Vertical, unobstructed distance, between the flood level in a


plumbing fixture and the lowest water supply inlet, such as the
distance between the rim of the tub and the faucet.

Air Trap

A u-shaped pipe filled with water and located beneath plumbing


fixtures to form a seal against the passage of gases and odors.

B-Tank

Acetylene tank holding 40 cubic feet of gas, used for plumbing, once
used to fuel Boats, thus the name.

PLUMBING TERMS
Back Vent
Plumbing fixture's separate vent in a building drainage system.

Balancing Ell
Control of water flow through a heat distribution unit using an elbow
plumbing fitting.

Ball Joint
The sphere shaped end of this flexible plumbing joint rests in a
socket.

Branch Drain
Plumbing fixture drain to the main drain line.

PLUMBING TERMS
Circuit Vent

Plumbing drainage system vertical vent which is run from the


last two traps on a horizontal drain line to the main vent stack
of a building drainage system.

Closet Auger

A plumbing tool used for clearing obstructions from toilet


traps to the mouth of the waste pipe.

PLUMBING TERMS
Coupling
A type of fitting with two female ends that receive the smaller
ends of piping or tubing, making a connection. A mechanical
device or part for joining parts together to make a joint. A
type of fitting used to join plumbing pipes.

Directional Tee Plumbing


Tee fitting, which directs flow in one direction by use of an
internal baffle.

Drum Trap
Plumbing fixture, which is cylindrical in shape, which retains
water as a seal, with an outlet at its top and an inlet at its
base. Used in plumbing fixtures that are too low to the floor
for installation of a P-trap.

PLUMBING TERMS

Ell

Plumbing fitting, shaped like an elbow, which allows water to flow in


a curve. Also referred to as an elbow, it is designed to use with pipe,
tubing, conduit, or duct and is available in 90 to 45 degrees.

Finish Plumbing

Installation of plumbing fixtures to make the system usable.

First Draw

Water that has been sitting in pipes or plumbing fixtures overnight


and is first drawn when taps are opened in the morning. For
instance, where lead is present in plumbing, this water would have
the highest levels of lead contamination.

PLUMBING TERMS
Fixture

Sinks, toilets, tubs. Plumbing fixtures. Electrical devices


connected to electrical current.

Fixture Branch

Pipe that carries wastes from non-toilet plumbing fixtures


directly to the building drain. It is also called a waste pipe,
wet vent, or fixture drain.

Fixture Drain

Pipe that carries wastes from non-toilet plumbing fixtures


directly to the building drain. It is also called a waste pipe,
wet vent, or fixture branch.

PLUMBING TERMS
Horizontal Branch

Lateral drain pipes which run from the plumbing fixtures to the waste
stack in a building or into the soil.

Increaser

Plumbing drainage fitting that enlarges the diameter of a straightline run by virtue of its larger size on one end and smaller on the
other. If it is used for the reverse, to make the diameter of a straightline run smaller, it is called a reducer.

P-Trap

Plumbing device, used to prevent sewer gas from entering a


building, by keeping a water seal in the drain.

PLUMBING TERMS
Pipe Ell

Plumbing fitting, shaped like an elbow, which allows water to


flow in a curve. Also referred to as an ell, it is designed to use
with pipe, tubing, conduit, or duct and is available in 90 to 45
degrees.

Plumber

Tradesman who installs and repairs plumbing systems.

Plumbing

Collective term for the pipes and fixtures, etc. involved with
the movement of fluid throughout a building.

PLUMBING TERMS
Plumbing Bend

Elbow fitting, used in drain and vent lines, to make


a bend at an angle to the main line.

Plumbing Drawing Symbols

Symbols used to denote specific fittings, etc. of


drawing.

Plumbing Fixture

Mechanism which both receives and discharges


wastes and water into a drainage system.

PLUMBING TERMS
Plumbing Snake

Thin, flexible length of spiral-wound metal, which is inserted


into a drain and rotated to clear anything that is clogged in
the pipes.

Plumbing Tree

Prefabricated set of drain waste, vent, and supply lines.

Plumbing Y-Branch

Y-shaped fitting, also called a wye, which has one straight


side and a branch joining at an angle and is used to join a
branch line and a main run.

PLUMBING TERMS
Pressure Head

Pressure in a plumbing system. The unit of measure which is


the vertical force exerted by water at a depth of one foot.

Return

A plumbing fitting with a 180-degree bend.

Rough In Plumbing

Plumbing system installation which prepares for but does not


include the installation of fixtures

PLUMBING TERMS
S-Trap
A plumbing trap that takes the shape of the letter S and is used

where a waste pipe feeds into the floor instead of the wall, which
uses a P Trap. Disallowed in many parts of the country, they can
create a siphoning situation, pulling water out of the trap.

Sewer
A system of pipes, containment and treatment facilities for the
disposal of plumbing wastes.

Soil Pipe
A pipe that penetrates a roof and is used to vent a building's
plumbing.

Tap Water

PLUMBING TERMS

Water provided by a water company by way of the home's


plumbing system.

Tee

A plumbing fitting in the shape of the letter "T," used to


connect three sections of pipe.

Trap

Curved section of drain line that prevents sewer odors from


escaping into the atmosphere. All fixtures that have drains
must have a "P" trap installed. A toilet is the only plumbing
fixture with an "S" trap.

PLUMBING TERMS
Vitreous

Surface material on some plumbing fixtures derived

from or consisting of glass, translucent, and low on


porosity.

Waste Stack

A vertical pipe in a plumbing system that carries


the discharge from any fixture.

Looking For More Information On


Plumbing?

Plumbing is a great way to improve the quality of life


in your home. You'll want to make sure you are
choosing the right plumber for your home and your
budget. We offer Plumbing Service Requests from
local, prescreened plumbers. plumber.

PLUMBING TOOLS
Adjustable Pipe
Wrench
When you think if the
quintessential metal
plumbing tool, this is it.
The adjustable pipe
wrench is an iconic
symbol of plumbing
repair.

Adjustable Pipe Wrench


This tool provides tremendous leverage and grip. Once you tighten the
wrench around the pipe by use of the knurled knob, it is designed to grip
round objects (such as pipes) securely by digging its sharp serrated teeth
into the pipe with increasing pressure as the wrench is turned.

As a result this wrench is known for leaving teeth marks behind. I don't
recommend this wrench for removal of trim and if used that way, I
suggest you use duct tape on the serrated teeth to protect the trim
finish. More preferable however is to use anadjustable crescent wrench
for fine work on trim that is visible.

Wrenches

ADJUSTABLE
WRENCH

PIPE WRENCHES

BASIN WRENCHES

Wrenches

STRAP WRENCHES

METER KEYS

One of the most essential tools in the plumbing trade is the wrench,
which is why ToolsForPlumbers.com stocks the most needed
wrenches for all of your plumbing jobs, big or small. Quality, high
end wrenches will prevent bolts from being stripped and damaged
and also keep leverage while balancing the load. Browse our huge
selection of wrenches by manufacturers like Reed and Ridgid,
names that are known for their quality craftsmanship. In our
inventory, we have a multitude of adjustable wrenches, pipe
wrenches, strap wrenches, and basin wrenches for you to choose
from. Choosing several quality wrenches for your plumbing job is a
smart move when shopping with us at ToolsForPlumbers.com, where
plumbers go to find high end wrenches and other hand tools at rock
bottom prices coupled with customer service that is second to none.

THEORY OF HOUSE
PLUMBING

how to design an efficient distribution system for the


water to flow through,

The main thing is having the water heater as close to


major points of use as possible.
> and any computations that must be made.

Diameter of the pipe needed depends on what the


fixtures consume, how long the run is, and the supply
pressure.

In general, your options inside a house are 3/4" and 1/2".

Rarely is 1" needed other than the entrance before it splits


to hot and cold.

A general rule of thumb is that 3/4" is used for distribution


and 1/2" for branches to each room.

The theory is that there is less wear and tear on your

plumbing fixtures the slower the water is moving.


The larger the diameter, the slower the water moves.
The trade-off (which I consider to be a big deal) is that a
bigger pipe wastes a lot more energy heating water that
doesn't need to be heated - both hot and cold, and just
plain wastes water when you let the tap run while waiting
for hot or cold water.

FAUCET REPAIR: TROUBLESHOOTING SLUGGI


SH WATER
FLOW
If sluggish water flow from your faucet is a problem,
you may find the trouble lies with your faucet aerator.
This device is most often located at the tip of the
faucet andworksby mixing air and water in order to
give you an even flow of water. When mineral deposits
accumulate or if you have a damaged aerator, the best
thing to do is forgo faucet repair and replace the part.
If it's just dirt that is lodged in your faucet aerator,
you can conduct faucet repair in five easy steps:

1. Unscrew the faucet aerator from the spout, using


oil to loosen the connection if necessary.
2. Disassemble the parts, keeping in mind the order of
the components.
3. Use a toothbrush to clean the disk and screen with
soap and water.
4. To clear out debris in the disk, use a pin or
toothpick.
5. Flush the components with water before
reassembling the aerator