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L & D Strategy

Oppiminen ja henkilstn kehitys


osana strategista suunnittelua

Heli Aramo-Immonen, JAKK 2006


TTY, Pori 13.4.2006

Aineisto

http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/book.asp?ref=1405129816&site=1

Learning and Development for Managers


Perspectives from Research and Practice
By: EUGENE SADLER-SMITH
(University of Surrey)
Blackwell Publishing, 2006

Kirjan sislt
Enables students and managers of learning and
development (L&D) to understand the theory and
practice of L&D in organizations.
Explores the concept of learning from a variety
of perspectives through the use of examples of
research and practice from all over the world.
Takes a broad view of learning as encompassing
both explicit and implicit and individual and
collective learning processes.
Argues that the practice of L&D should be based
upon a rigorous theoretical and empirical base.

Kirjan sislt
Each chapter uses synopses of research studies
and case studies from businesses to illustrate the
most important theories, concepts and models.
Lists of key concepts, knowledge outcomes,
'perspectives from practice', 'perspectives from
research', discussion points (for individual or
class use), and concept checklists to benefit both
students and teachers.
Is illustrated throughout with diagrams, tables
and 'L&D facts and figures'.

Sisllysluettelo

1. Introduction to Organizational Learning and


Development
2. The Strategic and Organizational Contexts
of Learning and Development
3. Individual Learning and Development
4. Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge
5. Collective Learning and Development
6. Planning Learning and Development
7. Management and Leadership Learning and
Development
8. Technology, Learning and Development
9. Evaluating Learning and Development

Eugene Sadler-Smith
Eugene Sadler-Smith is Professor of Management
Development in the School of Management, University of
Surrey. After a successful career in human resource
development and training he became a university lecturer in
1994. He has a particular interest in managers' thinking and
learning styles and is a member of the editorial advisory
boards for The British Journal of Management,
International Journal of Management Reviews, Human
Resource Development International, and the Journal of
European Industrial Training. He has published in the
Academy of Management Executive, Journal of
Organizational Behaviour and Organization Studies and in a
wide range of other academic and practitioner journals.

L&D as a core competence


L&D provides benefits to customers
through enhanced knowledge skils
and attitudes (KSA)
Generic KSA are transferable and
hence not product-specific

L&D as a core competence


L&D provides an organization with a
complex, company-specific, and
hence competitively unique, resource
(which is not an asset in the
accounting sense).

L&D as a core competence


L&D represents an opportunity or
gateway to the future through the
creation of new knowledge and a
capability to create new knowledge.

Sensitivity to
changes in its operating
environment.
Capability to be
Agile in response
to any such
changes

L&D Core

Integration with HR Starategy,


policies and practicies

Reflection,
inquiry and
sharing underpin
individual and
collective learning.
New knowledge
and new better
products and services
may be created

INTERNAL

EXTERNAL

Alignment with business strategy

EXTERNAL influences

Deregulation of markets
Technological change
Regionalization and globalization
Demographic change
etc.

INTERNAL influnces
Downsizing and flatter structures
Increased performance expectations
Employee involvment in quality
enhancement
Premium placed upon knowledge work
and knowledge workers
etc.

SHRM
Starateginen henkilstjohtaminen

Heli Aramo-Immonen, JAKK 2006


TTY, Pori 13.4.2006

HRM
those activities that are concerned
with the management of the
employment relationship between
employees ant the organizations that
use their skills.

SHRM
Design and emplementation of a set
of organizational HR policies and
practicies.
Ensure that HR in organization
contribute to the achievement of
business objectives of the company.

SHRM
HR knowledge and skills are unique
source of competitive advantage
HR policies and practicies has
positive effect upon performance
non-imitability of HRM

Non-imitability of HRM

Social complexity
team working
empowerment
unique L&D strategy

Integrating HR to
system
external fit HR strategy fits with
the requirements of the business
strategy
internal fit HR policies and
activities (incl. L&D) fit together so
that they form a coherent whole

HR system model
external fit
Busines Strategy

Recruitment
and selection

Rewards
and incentives

Performance

Enhanced
KSAs

(KSA= Knowledge, Skills, Attitude)

Performance
appraisal
Identified
learning
needs
Planned
Learning &
Developement

Mieti miten vaikuttaa


jos
Samanaikaisesti
korostetaan tiimityn
merkityst ja
palkitsemisjrjestelm
perustuu
yksilsuorituksiin?

Mieti miten vaikuttaa


jos
yrityksess on kallis
rekrytointijrjestelm
valintatesteineen,
mutta perehdytys ja
L&D puuttuvat?

Internal fit
HRM policies and practicies should
themselves be internally coherent
recruiting policies should be completed
by other practicies that minimize labour
turnover
Tem working should be rewarded
collectively as well as individually

HPWS
high-performance-working-system

Complementary
bundles of
HR/L&D
practicies

Enhanced individual
potential and
discretionary effort
including
engagement of L&D

Enhanced systemic
response to individual
effort including
collective learning

Enhanced individual
and organizational
performance,
increased
knowledge assets

Strategic Learning
and Developement
Ksitteist ja taustaa

Heli Aramo-Immonen, JAKK 2006


TTY, Pori 13.4.2006

Employee developement
Startegies
Long term orientation
Go beyond an individual focus
Internationalization of employee
developement
Action learning
Learning organization
Management developement

The SECI process

SECI Knowledge conversion


process- socialisation

SECI Knowledge conversion


process - socialisation

SECI Knowledge conversion


process - socialisation

SECI Knowledge conversion


process- externalisation

SECI Knowledge conversion


process - combination

SECI Knowledge conversion


process- internalisation

SECI Knowledge conversion


process - internalisation

Expertice ?
How does it grow?

Experience

Explicit learning

Implicit learning
LEARNING
Feedback

Explicit knowledge

Tacit knowledge

EXPERTICE
Intuition

Actions
(Explicit learning, implicit learning and tacit knowledge p. 153)

Mieti
Millaisissa oppimistilanteissa ja
kehitysprosesseissa toteutuu

tacit to tacit emphatising - sosialisation


tacit to explicit articulating - externalisation
explicit to explicit connecting - combination
explicit to tacit embodying - internalisation

Training strategies
Appropriateness in relation to objectives
Likelihood of transfer of learning to the
workplace
Resource availability
on-job-training
in-house training cources
external training cources
self-managed learning

L&D strategies
Learning theories
Collective learning
Planning learning
Refers to macro-level features of
organization
Supports the achievement of overall
business goals

Mik
puuttuu ?

http://www.tekes.fi/julkaisut/Teknologia_ja_kilpailukyky.pdf

http://www.swotconsulting.fi/swot.html

Mik puuttuu ?

Why do organizations
need strategic L&D ???

Case: Meriteollisuus (30 min)

Organizations need
strategic L&D
Global business environmet
Forces to change

new technology
paradigm innovation

Competition
Continious improvement
Internalization
Levels of uncertainty and ambiquity
Core competencies

Symptoms of lacking
strategic L&D
Difficulties recruiting skilled employees
Need to develop a more adaptive and
flexiple skill base
Demand for management and leadership at
all levels in a organization (LEAN
management, TQM)

Organizations need
strategic L&D
Greater emphasis on performance
management and evaluation
Increased need for HR and succession
planning
Require an integrated and holistic solution
Proactive rather than reactive approach

HPWS
high-performance-working-system

Complementary
bundles of
HR/L&D
practicies

Enhanced individual
potential and
discretionary effort
including
engagement of L&D

Enhanced systemic
response to individual
effort including
collective learning

Enhanced individual
and organizational
performance,
increased
knowledge assets

What are the charasteristics


of strategic L&D
And what it is not

Heli Aramo-Immonen, JAKK 2006


TTY, Pori 13.4.2006

Lack of strategic focus


Numerous unconnected and
fragmented L&D initiatives
Tactical and operational perspective
Duplication
fad and fashions
Reactive
Lacking long term focus

Outcomes of lacking
strategic focus

Wasted efforts
Poor use of efforts
Defensiveness
Convergent and myopic thinking
Stifling of creativity and innovation

Features of strategic L&D


Coherent and holistic
Corporate wide
Promotes collective learning through
internal integration of activities
Aligned with strategy
Involves stakeholders

Stakeholders

Stakeholders

Senior managers
Line managers
Learners
L&D specialists
External educational institutes
Customers

Features of strategic L&D

1) Active commitment to and shared


ownership of learning from
managers and other employees
2) Vertical alignment with strategy
and horizontal integration of
learning-related and other activities
(incl. HRM and L&D)

Features of strategic L&D

3) Openness of communication
channels within and beyond the
organization
4) Supportive culture and climate
that enables learning, creativity and
innovation

Features of strategic L&D

5) Systemic and systematic planning


processes that take account of the
integration of L&D practices with
the organizational mission.
6) Focused and prioritized L&D
practicies that support the
strategic intent of the business and
that will add value.

Features of strategic L&D

7) Proactive L&D functional stance


that is open to evaluation and self
reflection and continous
improvement.

Learning and Developement as


a systematic process
Systematic approach

Heli Aramo-Immonen, JAKK 2006


TTY, Pori 13.4.2006

Simple generic systematic


approach to problem solving
Identify

1) needs identification

Evaluate

Analyse
2) needs analysis

5) Validation of L&D solution,


outputs, impacts, benefits

Implement

Design

4) L&D implementation

3) Learning design

Needs assesment
Verification of needs
identification & overall
summative evaluation

Evaluate

Formative
evaluation

Identify

Statement of
needs

Verification of analysis

Analyse

Verification of
design choices
Statement of
outcomes
Implement

Design
L&D plan

A more complex generig systematic approach to L&D

Generic system model

Inputs

Process

Outputs

A generic L&D system model


Individual
outputs

Internal inputs
Learning and
developement
processes at
individual and
collective
levels
External inputs

Collective
outputs

Organizational
outputs

A generic L&D system model


Individual
outputs

Internal inputs
Learning and
developement
processes at
individual and
collective
levels
External inputs

Collective
outputs

Organizational
outputs

Internal inputs

Recruiment
performance gaps
new prochedures and technology
L&D policy
L&D needs
HR planning
organizational change
internal recources

A generic L&D system model


Individual
outputs

Internal inputs
Learning and
developement
processes at
individual and
collective
levels
External inputs

Collective
outputs

Organizational
outputs

External inputs
Social, technological, economic and
political, environmental factors (PEST)
external resources
governement policy
perceived value of L&D
industry norms
competition

A generic L&D system model


Individual
outputs

Internal inputs
Learning and
developement
processes at
individual and
collective
levels
External inputs

Collective
outputs

Organizational
outputs

Individual outputs

KSA
qulifications
mobility and promotion
motivation and satisfaction
personal growth

A generic L&D system model


Individual
outputs

Internal inputs
Learning and
developement
processes at
individual and
collective
levels
External inputs

Collective
outputs

Organizational
outputs

Collective outputs

Shared mental models


knowledge assets
sozialisation and participation
shared vision
common practicies

A generic L&D system model


Individual
outputs

Internal inputs
Learning and
developement
processes at
individual and
collective
levels
External inputs

Collective
outputs

Organizational
outputs

Organizational outputs

Skills base
performance
retention
commitment
intellectual capital

Analysis of
L&D needs

Internal inputs

Statement
of need
Statement of outcomes
Identify
L&D needs

Design
of L&D

Evaluation
of outcomes

Individual
outputs

Collective
outputs

L&D plan
External inputs
Implementation
of L&D

An integration of L&D inputs, process and outputs

Organizational
outputs

Auditing strategic L&D

Case: Testaa organisaatiosi L&D strategia (15 min)

L&D Roles
responsibilities

Heli Aramo-Immonen, JAKK 2006


TTY, Pori 13.4.2006

Maintenance

Caretaker
Provides training to maintain
smooth running of organization.
Adopts traditional educational
practicies. Responds to
requirements for training.
Passive and reactive.

Traditional

Evangelist
Concerned with training to
maintain present system and
procedures. Adopts learnercentered (not, educational)
approches. Facilitator of learning
rather than subject expert.

Polarization

Educator
Sees need for training to change
systems and prosedures. Adopts
traditional educational
approaches. Anticipates the
need for change.

Interventionist

Innovator
Sees need for training to change
systems and prosedures. Attemps
to understand real needs and causes.
Persuasive, problem solver and
catalyst for change.
Active and Proactive.
Change

Change dimension
Passive
provider
Caretaker

Role in transition

Change
agent
Innovator

Katso artikkeli: Victor J. Friedman


THE INDIVIDUAL AS AGENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING YKSIL ORGANISATORISEN OPPIMISEN ALKUUNPANIJANA
California Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 2, Winter 2002

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