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LECTURE PRESENTATIONS

For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION


Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson

Chapter 28

Protists
2014
Lectures by
Erin Barley
Kathleen Fitzpatrick
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

LECTURE PRESENTATIONS
For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION
Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson

Chapter 28

Protozoa (animal-like protists)


2014

Lectures by
Erin Barley
Kathleen Fitzpatrick
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The original slides in this set are from


Chapter 28 Protists and include only
those of animal-like protists, which are
also referred to as Protozoa.

Plant-like protists are to be


taken up with Prof Roderos.

September 2014

Overview: Living small


Even a low-power microscope can reveal a great
variety of organisms in a drop of pond water
Protist is the informal name of the group of mostly
unicellular eukaryotes
Advances in eukaryotic systematics have caused
the classification of protists to change significantly
Protists constitute a polyphyletic group, and
Protista is no longer valid as a kingdom

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

September 2014

Figure 28.1

Which organisms are prokaryotes


and which are eukaryotes?

1 m
2011 Pearson Education Inc.

September 2014

Concept 28.1: Most eukaryotes are


single-celled organisms
Protists are eukaryotes
Eukaryotic cells have organelles and are more
complex than prokaryotic cells
Most protists are unicellular, but there are some
colonial and multicellular species

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

September 2014

Structural and Functional Diversity in Protists


Protists exhibit more structural and functional
diversity than any other group of eukaryotes
Single-celled protists can be very complex, as all
biological functions are carried out by organelles in
each individual cell

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Protists, the most nutritionally diverse of all


eukaryotes, include
Photoautotrophs, which contain chloroplasts
Heterotrophs, which absorb organic molecules or
ingest larger food particles
Mixotrophs, which combine photosynthesis and
heterotrophic nutrition

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Some protists reproduce asexually,


while others reproduce sexually, or by
the sexual processes of meiosis and
fertilization

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Endosymbiosis in eukaryotic evolution


There is now considerable evidence that much
protist diversity has its origins in endosymbiosis
Endosymbiosis is the process in which a
unicellular organism engulfs another cell, which
becomes an endosymbiont and then organelle in
the host cell
Mitochondria evolved by endosymbiosis of an
aerobic prokaryote
Plastids evolved by endosymbiosis of a
photosynthetic cyanobacterium
2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.2

Plastid

Diversity of plastid-bearing protists


produced by endosymbiosis

Dinoflagellates

Plastid
Membranes
are represented
as dark lines in
the cell.

Secondary
endosymbiosis

Apicomplexans

Red alga

Cyanobacterium
1 2

Primary
endosymbiosis

Heterotrophic
eukaryote

Stramenopiles

Secondary
endosymbiosis

One of these
membranes was
lost in red and
green algal
descendants.

Plastid

Euglenids
Secondary
endosymbiosis

Green alga
Chlorarachniophytes

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

The plastid-bearing lineage of protists evolved into


red and green algae
The DNA of plastid genes in red algae and green
algae closely resemble the DNA of cyanobacteria
On several occasions during eukaryotic evolution,
red and green algae underwent secondary
endosymbiosis, in which they were ingested by a
heterotrophic eukaryote

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Five supergroups of eukaryotes


It is no longer thought that amitochondriates
(lacking mitochondria) are the oldest lineage of
eukaryotes
Many have been shown to have mitochondria and
have been reclassified
Our understanding of the relationships among
protist groups continues to change rapidly
One hypothesis divides all eukaryotes (including
protists) into five supergroups

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 28.3a

Parabasalids
Euglenozoans

Protistan Diversity

Excavata

Diplomonads

Apicomplexans
Ciliates
Diatoms

Stramenopiles

Golden algae

Chromalveolata

Alveolates

Dinoflagellates

Brown algae
Oomycetes

Forams
Radiolarians

Green
algae

Chlorophytes
Charophytes
Land plants

Archaeplastida

Red algae

Rhizaria

Cercozoans

Gymnamoebas
Entamoebas

Opisthokonts

Nucleariids
Fungi
Choanoflagellates
Animals

Unikonta

Amoebozoans

Slime molds

Figure 28.3a

Parabasalids
Euglenozoans

Dinoflagellates
Apicomplexans
Ciliates

Stramenopiles

Diatoms
Golden algae
Brown algae
Oomycetes

Chromalveolata

Alveolates

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Excavata

Diplomonads

Figure 28.3ab

Figure 28.3a

Forams
Radiolarians

Green
algae

Chlorophytes
Charophytes
Land plants

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Archaeplastida

Red algae

Rhizaria

Cercozoans

Figure 28.3a

Gymnamoebas
Entamoebas

Opisthokonts

Nucleariids
Fungi
Choanoflagellates
Animals

Unikonta

Amoebozoans

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Slime molds

Concept 28.2: Excavates include protists


with modified mitochondria and protists
with unique flagella
The clade Excavata is characterized by its
cytoskeleton
Some members have a feeding groove
This controversial group includes the
diplomonads, parabasalids, and euglenozoans

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 28.UN01

Parabasalids
Kinetoplastids
Euglenozoans
Euglenids

Excavata

Diplomonads

Chromalveolata
Rhizaria
Archaeplastida
Unikonta

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Diplomonads and Parabasalids


These two groups lack plastids, have modified
mitochondria, and most live in anaerobic
environments
Diplomonads
Have modified mitochondria called mitosomes
Derive energy from anaerobic biochemical
pathways
Have two equal-sized nuclei and multiple flagella
Are often parasites, for example, Giardia
intestinalis (also known as Giardia lamblia)

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 28.3b

5 m

flagella

Giardia intestinalis, a diplomonad parasite


2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Parabasalids
Have reduced mitochondria called
hydrogenosomes that generate some energy
anaerobically
Include Trichomonas vaginalis, the pathogen that
causes yeast infections in human females

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.4

5 m

flagella

undulating
membrane

The parabasalid Trichomonas vaginalis (colorized SEM)


2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Euglenozoans
Euglenozoa is a diverse clade that includes
predatory heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs,
and parasites
The main feature distinguishing them as a clade
is a spiral or crystalline rod of unknown function
inside their flagella
This clade includes the kinetoplastids and
euglenids

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.5

flagella
0.2 m

8 m

crystalline rod
(cross section)
ring of microtubules
(cross section)

Euglenozoan flagellum
2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.5a

0.2 m

ring of microtubules
(cross section)

crystalline rod
(cross section)

Euglenozoan flagellum
2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Kinetoplastids
Kinetoplastids have a single mitochondrion with
an organized mass of DNA called a kinetoplast
They include free-living consumers of prokaryotes
in freshwater, marine, and moist terrestrial
ecosystems
This group includes Trypanosoma, which causes
sleeping sickness in humans
Another pathogenic trypanosome causes Chagas
disease

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.6

Trypanosoma

9 m

Trypanosoma, the kinetoplastid that causes sleeping sickness


2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Trypanosomes evade immune responses by


switching surface proteins
A cell produces millions of copies of a single
protein
The new generation produces millions of copies of
a different protein
These frequent changes prevent the host from
developing immunity

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Euglenids
Euglenids have one or two flagella that emerge
from a pocket at one end of the cell
Some species can be both autotrophic and
heterotrophic

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.7

Euglena (LM)
long flagellum
eyespot
short flagellum
contractile vacuole

light
detector

nucleus
chloroplasts
plasma membrane
5 m

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

pellicle

Figure 28.7a

Long flagellum

Eyespot

Contractile vacuole
Nucleus
Chloroplast
Plasma membrane

Euglena (LM)
2011 Pearson Education Inc.

5 m

Concept 28.3: Chromalveolates may have


originated by secondary endosymbiosis
Some data suggest that the clade
Chromalveolata is monophyletic and originated
by a secondary endosymbiosis event
The proposed endosymbiont is a red alga
This clade is controversial and includes the
alveolates and the stramenopiles

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.UN02

Excavata

Diatoms
Golden algae
Brown algae
Oomycetes

Stramenopiles

Chromalveolata

Dinoflagellates
Apicomplexans Alveolates
Ciliates

Rhizaria
Archaeplastida
Unikonta

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Alveolates
Members of the clade Alveolata have
membrane-bounded sacs (alveoli) just under
the plasma membrane
The function of the alveoli is unknown
The alveolates include
Dinoflagellates
Apicomplexans
Ciliates

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.8

flagellum

alveoli

0.2 m

Alveolate

Alveoli are sacs under the plasma membrane


2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Dinoflagellates
Dinoflagellates have two flagella and each cell is
reinforced by cellulose plates
They are abundant components of both marine
and freshwater phytoplankton
They are a diverse group of aquatic phototrophs,
mixotrophs, and heterotrophs
Toxic red tides are caused by dinoflagellate
blooms

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.9

Pfiesteria shumwayae

3 m

flagella

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Apicomplexans
Apicomplexans are parasites of animals, and
some cause serious human diseases
They spread through their host as infectious cells
called sporozoites
One end, the apex, contains a complex of
organelles specialized for penetrating host cells
and tissues
Most have sexual and asexual stages that require
two or more different host species for completion

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.10a

merozoite

apex
red blood
cell

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

0.5 m

The apicomplexan Plasmodium is the parasite


that causes malaria

Plasmodium requires both mosquitoes and


humans to complete its life cycle
Approximately 900,000 people die each year from
malaria
Efforts are ongoing to develop vaccines that target
this pathogen

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Inside mosquito

Figure 28.10-3

Inside human
merozoite

Sporozoites
(n)

Liver

Liver
cell
Oocyst
MEIOSIS

apex
red blood cell

Merozoite
(n)
Zygote
(2n)

0.5 m

Red blood
cells

FERTILIZATION

Gametes

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Gametocytes
(n)

Key
Haploid (n)
Diploid (2n)

Ciliates
Ciliates, a large varied group of protists, are
named for their use of cilia to move and feed
They have large macronuclei and small
micronuclei
Genetic variation results from conjugation, in
which two individuals exchange haploid
micronuclei
Conjugation is a sexual process, and is separate
from reproduction, which generally occurs by
binary fission
2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.11a

Structure and function in the ciliate Paramecium caudatum


oral groove
contractile
vacuole
50 m

cell mouth

cilia

micronucleus
macronucleus
food vacuoles

(a) Feeding, waste removal, and water balance

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.11
Contractile
vacuole
50 m

Oral groove
Cell mouth

Cilia

Micronucleus

Food vacuoles

Macronucleus
(a) Feeding, waste removal, and water balance

Key
Conjugation
Asexual
reproduction

MEIOSIS

compatible
mates

Diploid
micronucleus

Haploid
micronucleus

Diploid
The original
macronucleus micronucleus
disintegrates.
MICRONUCLEAR
FUSION

(b) Conjugation and reproduction

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Concept 28.4: Rhizarians are a diverse group


of protists defined by DNA similarities

DNA evidence supports Rhizaria as a


monophyletic clade
Amoebas move and feed by pseudopodia; some
but not all belong to the clade Rhizaria
Rhizarians include radiolarians, forams, and
cercozoans

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.UN03

Excavata
Chromalveolata

Rhizaria

Radiolarians
Foraminiferans
Cercozoans

Archaeplastida
Unikonta

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Radiolarians
Marine protists called radiolarians have tests
fused into one delicate piece, usually made of
silica
Radiolarians use their pseudopodia to engulf
microorganisms through phagocytosis
The pseudopodia of radiolarians radiate from the
central body

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 28.18

A radiolarian

Pseudopodia
200 m

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Forams
Foraminiferans, or forams, are named for
porous, generally multichambered shells, called
tests
Pseudopodia extend through the pores in the test
Foram tests in marine sediments form an
extensive fossil record
Many forams have endosymbiotic algae

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.3d

100 m

Globigerina, a foram in the supergroup Rhizaria


2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Cercozoans
Cercozoans include most amoeboid and
flagellated protists with threadlike pseudopodia
They are common in marine, freshwater, and soil
ecosystems
Most are heterotrophs, including parasites and
predators

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Paulinella chromatophora is an autotroph with a


unique photosynthetic structure
This structure evolved from a different
cyanobacterium than the plastids of other
photosynthetic eukaryotes

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.19

chromatophore

5 m

A second case of primary endosymbiosis?


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Concept 28.6: Unikonts include protists that


are closely related to fungi and animals
The supergroup Unikonta includes animals, fungi,
and some protists
This group includes two clades: the amoebozoans
and the opisthokonts (animals, fungi, and related
protists)
The root of the eukaryotic tree remains
controversial
It is unclear whether unikonts separated from
other eukaryotes relatively early or late
2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.UN05

Excavata
Chromalveolata
Rhizaria
Archaeplastida
Amoebozoans

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Unikonta

Nucleariids
Fungi
Choanoflagellates
Animals

Choanoflagellates

Figure 28.23
RESULTS

Animals
Fungl

Common
ancestor
of all
eukaryotes

Unikonta

Amoebozoans
Diplomonads
Euglenozoans

Excavata

Alveolates
Chromalveolata
Stramenopiles
DHFR-TS
gene
fusion

Rhizarians

Rhizaria

Red algae
Green algae
Plants

Archaeplastida

Amoebozoans
Amoebozoans are amoeba that have lobe- or
tube-shaped, rather than threadlike, pseudopodia
They include slime molds*, gymnamoebas, and
entamoebas

*Slides of molds are excluded in this set

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 28.3f

100 m

A unikont amoeba

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Gymnamoebas
Gymnamoebas are common unicellular
amoebozoans in soil as well as freshwater and
marine environments
Most gymnamoebas are heterotrophic and actively
seek and consume bacteria and other protists

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Entamoebas
Entamoebas are parasites of vertebrates and
some invertebrates

Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic dysentery,


the third-leading cause of human death due to
eukaryotic parasites

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Opisthokonts

Opisthokonts include animals, fungi,


and several groups of protists

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Concept 28.7: Protists play key roles in


ecological communities
Protists are found in diverse aquatic environments
Protists often play the role of symbiont or producer

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Symbiotic Protists
Some protist symbionts benefit their hosts
Dinoflagellates nourish coral polyps that build
reefs
Wood-digesting protists digest cellulose in the gut
of termites

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Wood-digesting protist (parabasalid) in termites

10 m

Figure 28.26

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Some protists are parasitic


Plasmodium causes malaria
Pfiesteria shumwayae is a dinoflagellate that
causes fish kills

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Photosynthetic Protists
Many protists are important producers that obtain
energy from the sun
In aquatic environments, photosynthetic protists
and prokaryotes are the main producers
In aquatic environments, photosynthetic protists
are limited by nutrients
These populations can explode when limiting
nutrients are added

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.27

Other
consumers
herbivorous
plankton

carnivorous
plankton

prokaryotic
producers

Protistan
producers

Protists: key producers in aquatic communities


2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Biomass of photosynthetic protists has declined as


sea surface temperature has increased
If sea surface temperature continues to warm due to
global warming, this could have large effects on
Marine ecosystems
Fishery yields
The global carbon cycle

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.28

Growth Growth

Higher SST
Lower SST

In regions between the


black lines, a layer of warm water
rests on top of colder waters.

In the yellow regions, high SSTs increase the


temperature differences between warm and cold
waters, which reduces upwelling.

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure
28.UN06

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.UN06a

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 28.UN06b

2011 Pearson Education Inc.

End of slides for Chapter 28