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User-Producer Conference

Water Accounting for Integrated Water Resource


Management
May 22 24, 2006 (Voorburg, the Netherlands)

Arab Republic of Egypt (ARE)


Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI)

Integrated Irrigation Improvement &


:Management
Towards an Efficient Water Management for a Sustainable
Development of Water Resources in
Egypt
Eng. YOSRY KHAFAGY
Procurement Specialist, PMU-IIIMP-MWRI
Ph.D. Candidate, Civil Engineering, Irrigation & Hydraulics

Main Pillars and Deriving


forces!
Why IWRM?!

Ever-increasing Population Led


to
Increasing
Pressure
on
Water&Land Resources

Population
growth;
Water Scarcity;

Sectors
competition;
Food security;
Pollution
emission.
Cost

of

&
new

Limited Conventional Resources


and Non-conventional Ones, while
increasing Demand
Increasing
Sectors
Demand
(Irrigation, Drinking, Industry,
etc.)
Rural Poor need to withstand the
limited food availability which is
mainly a water dependent issue
Ever-increasing
water
and
environment pollutants destroy
the main elements in the foodchain
Lack
of
available
financial
resources

required

for

new

6 .5

275

6 .0

250

5 .5
5 .0

225

4 .5

200

4 .0

175

3 .5
150
3 .0
125

2 .5

100

2 .0

75

1 .5

P o p u la t i o n G r o w t h

(1 8 9 7 -2 0 5 0 )

20 5 0

20 3 5

20 2 5

20 1 6

20 0 6

19 9 6

19 8 6

19 7 6

19 6 6

19 6 0

0 .0
19 4 7

0
19 3 7

0 .5

19 2 7

25

19 1 7

1 .0

19 0 7

50

P e r -C a p i ta W a te r A l l o c a ti o n

Per-Capita Water Allocation (1000 m3)

300

18 9 7

Population Growth (Million)

EGYPT: Population Growth & Per-Capita Water Allocation


1897 - 2050

0 .9

27 5

0 .8

25 0
0 .7

22 5
20 0

0 .6

17 5

0 .5

15 0
0 .4

12 5
10 0

0 .3

7 5

0 .2

5 0
0 .1

2 5

P o p u la ti o n

G r ow t h

(1 8 9 7 -2 0 5 0 )

P e r -C a p ita L a n d

20 5 0

20 3 5

20 2 5

20 1 6

20 0 6

19 9 6

19 8 6

19 7 6

19 6 6

19 6 0

19 4 7

19 3 7

19 2 7

19 1 7

0
19 0 7

0
18 9 7

Population Growth (Million)

30 0

A llo ca tio n

Per Capita Agriculture Land Allocation (Fed)

EGYPT: Population Growth & Per-Capita Land Allocation


1897 - 2050

Current and Future Water Resources Availability


Demand:

Agriculture (84.5%)

Dinking (6%)

Industry (9.5%)

Nile Water
- 57.5 55.5

Resource
s:

Rains and Floods


1.5 1.0

Current
(BCM)
Future 2017

GW
(Deserts&Sinai)
3.5 - 1.0

Crop Pattern&IIP
4.0 + 3.0

Wastewater
2.0 - 0.7

GW
(Valley&Delta)
8.0 6.5
Agr. Dr. Reuse
8.5 - 5.0

Opportunities and Major


Tasks!

Opportunities

Major Country Strategy Tas

Availability;
Availability;

Regulatory&policy
Regulatory&policy framework;
framework;

Technology;
Technology;

Integrated
Integrated Planning;
Planning;

ve
ve Impact
Impact
on:
on:
--Natural
Natural

Efficient

Efficient
mechanisms;
mechanisms;

resources;
resources;
-Environment;
-Environment;
and
and
-Public
-Publichealth.
health.

Sustainabilit
Sustainabilit
y.
y.

Economic
Economic

Introduction
Introduction to
to PPP
PPP approach;
approach;

Raising
Raising

convincing;
convincing;

Awareness/Maintain
Awareness/Maintain

Decentralization

Decentralization
Participation; and
and
Participation;

&
&

Needs Assessments for Sustainable Use


Requirements?

Accommodation!

Standards&&
Standards
Guidelines
Guidelines
Appropriate
Appropriate
Technology
Technology
Monitoring&&
Monitoring
Evaluation
Evaluation
Operational
Operational
Rules
Rules
Law
Law
Enforcement
Enforcement
Awareness/
Awareness/
Convince
Convince

At
At
Abstraction
Abstraction

During
During
Delivery
Delivery

At
At
End
EndUser
User

IWRM Action Plan


Tackling fragmented
delivery concerns ;

water

service

Empowering water users for participation


in
the
planning
and
implementation
process;

Facilitating
investments in
infrastructure;

greater
private
sector
irrigation and drainage

Redefining the role of public agencies


through Integrated Irrigation Management.

Current Setting of MWRI Institutions (Fragmentized)


Other Min.

:MWRI MED

ID

EPA
D

Sectors

Nile

Central Directorates

C.D

C.D

C.D

Regions

General Directorates

G.D

G.D

G.D

Main canal

ns
o
i
t
c
a
n
r
o
e
i
t
t
n
a
i
n
i
n
d
w
r
coo
nt
e
l
a
m
Top-do
r
e
o
g
t
a
c
e
n
ma
Ins
Ins
Ins
oss-s
r
&
Inspectorates
c
g
d
n
i
e
t
n
i
n
m
a
i
l
L
dp
e
t
a
r
g
e
t
in
Limited
Districts

Farmers /
Water Users

Dist

F / WUs

Dist

Dist

F / WUs

Several
BCs
BCs/Meska
s
Marwas/Plot
s

Approached Setting of MWRI Institutions (Integrated)


Top

Empowerment
Responsabilizati
on

Up

Botto
m

IWMD Adv. Com.


Dist. WBOs
BC
WUAs

Central Government

CDs/GDs
Reg Mgt Com
Integrated WM
Districts

Delegation
Decentralization

SUBSIDIARITY
+ PARTNERSHIPS
= INTEGRATED PLANNING
& MANAGEMENT

Dow
n

Nile

Main
canal
Several BCs

BC

WUAs

Meska

Farmers
/WUs

Marwas/Plots

MWRIs Endeavors
Towards IWRM
Endeavors
Introduction of (PIM) approach: Water Boards
Project (WBP),
Introduction of Irrigation Improvement Projects
(IIPs);
Introduction of Pump Stations Rehabilitation
Projects (PSRPs);
Introduction of National Drainage Projects
(NDPs);
Introduction of Agricultural Policy Reform Project
(APRP);
Life Integrated Water Resources Management
Project (LIFE)
Last, but not least introduction of a new approach to
Integrated Irrigation Improvement and Management
Project (IIIMP).

IIIMP Phase I: (in Nile Delta)


Target groups
MWRI Staff and Institutions, Rural poor in Nile Delta,
other Stackholders

Objectives

Ensure sustainable optimum use of water and land


resources
throughout
strengthening
the
decentralization of decision making and users
participation in planning, operation and maintenance
activities;
Increase the economic return in the project command
areas by optimizing the use of available resources and
improved infrastructures;
Broaden the saving in irrigation cost and controlling
the water use for other purposes;
Increase the agriculture productivity, hence,
increasing the farmers income and improving the
quality of life in the rural communities;

IIIMP Command Areas

Component 1: Improved and


Integrated Water Management
Ensure availability of proper technical structures and
procedures to support a sustainable optimization of water
resource use.
Improve the water delivery to water users through
Irrigation and drainage networks as well as pumping stations
system upgrading and rehabilitation.
Improve the operational and maintenance procedures as
critical requirements to ensure the cost-effectiveness and
sustainability of the investments.

Component 2: Institutional
Development and Capacity Building

Empower water users through organizations that allow them


to solve their internal disputes, assess their needs and priorities
and consolidate them so that they can more easily be taken into
Simultaneously, a transfer of responsibilities can be
considered so as to let water users deal with local issues and let
managers focus on higher scale issues.
This process combines empowerment and responsabilization
of water users: they are no longer beneficiaries or recipients but
actors within a process

Component 3: Project Management,


Coordination and Integration
Regulatory Framework : Integrated cooperative managerial
schemes to be set up among MWRI entities and other pertinent
agencies.
Cross-sectoral coordination: ensures appropriate technical, social,
environmental, and economic conditions, Limits duplication and
contradiction among various agencies.
Decentralization : proper regulatory and policy framework in
order to guide local decision-makers at most lowest appropriate level.
Participation : involvement of water users whose needs and
priorities have to be properly identified and addressed for effective
results. can significantly improve management practices and reduce
costs.

Component 4: Environmental
Mainstreaming
Looks into the environmental impacts of the project. The
objective is to identify and mitigate those while also looking at
how the project can contribute to improving environmental
conditions in general (and notably water quality issues).
The overall environmental impact of the IIIMP is expected
to be positive, leading to improved land and water
management.
environmental management plan (EMP) to be addressed
main environmental issues and significant impacts: i. the
uncontrolled discharge of sewage into irrigation and drainage systems, with
corresponding impacts on public health, ii. the improper disposal of solid
wastes into irrigation and drainage canals.

Component 5: On-Farm Water


Management
Objective: Improved Water Use
Consideration
is
to
be
given
to
development
&
implementation
of
comprehensive pilot on-farm integrated
water
management
and
agricultural
programs, aimed at providing farmers with
relevant and practical demonstrations of
better practices to maximize benefits
resulting from introduction of improved
operational flow regimes and other system
improvements

Proposed techniques of on-farm development

I. Technology Transfer: Introduction of improved


irrigation and agronomic technologies to farmers
aiming at reducing water losses, irrigating more
uniformly, thus increasing yields & returns
II. Marketing: Provision of market information to
farmers to maximize returns (e.g. more
informed crop selection, shift to higher value
crops)
III. Contribution
to
adoption
of
irrigation
improvement: Assisting in implementation of
irrigation improvement program by contributing
to farmers awareness about benefits of
irrigation improvement

Water allocation Mechanisms and Met

Water Allocation Procedures at Nationa


Along Nile Valley and Main Canals System;
Information needs

August
August
assessments:
Hydrological
Hydrologicalyearly
yearly
allocation
allocationplan
plan

- Cropping Pattern in different areas;


- Climatic conditions; and
- Expected water demands.
National
Nationalyearly
yearlyallocation
allocationPlan
Planto
to
be
beadjusted
adjustedduring
during
implementation
implementationthrough
through

August-September
August-September
Planned
Plannedreleases
releases
from
fromHAD
HADto
toreach
reach
Delta
Delta(10
(10days),
days),
when
whenfilled
filledwith
with
yearly
floods
yearly floods
September-October
September-October
National
Nationalyearly
yearly
allocation
allocationPlan
Plan

Allocation to each main canal (mostly


allocates a proportional distribution to each
main command area).
Considering:
Modernization
Modernizationof
ofthe
the
- Climate;
National
Allocation
National Allocation
- Secondary sources
yearly
yearlyplan
planthrough
through
1- drainage reComputerized
Computerized
system
system
use
=
=
2- GW
Matching Supply and
Winter
Winter
Quota/CA
Quota/CA
33
10
m
10 m /fed/day
/fed/day

Summer
Summer
Quota/CA
Quota/CA
33
40
m
40 m /fed/day
/fed/day

Yearly
Yearly average
average
quota
quota
3

Matching Supply and


Demand
DemandProgram
Program
The
Theso
socalled,
called,
(MISD)
(MISD)

Two
Two seasons
seasons in
in the
the
cropping
croppingcycle:
cycle:
Summer
Summerseason:
season:
May
Mayto
toAugustAugustSeptember
September
Winter season:

M&E Model of
IWMD
Two-category Indicators

Implementation Indicators

Outcome Indicators

IWMD Established

Quality of Irrigation Service

Data-based Management

Equity of Water Distribution

BCWUAs Participating

Value of Agricultural output

1:

Quality of Irrigation Service

Baseline values will assess future changes in


pilot IWMD
Project-wide baseline values are a data
availability 1.1
dependent
Number of Complaints

1.2:Actual and Target District Inflows

District Target Water Allocation is provided


each 15-daily period during the irrigation year
(semi-monthly).
Inflow and outflow structures are to be
calibrated for computing the actual flow
delivered to the district
Ratio of actual and target allocation values
are to be determined in both summer and
winter seasons.
Share of No. of 15-daily periods for which
supply matched target within 10% is to be
computed.

1.3:Farmers Satisfaction

Client satisfaction surveys should provide


information on farmer satisfaction in both
summer and winter seasons. (survey shows that
72 and 94% of farmers are satisfied in Summer
and Winter respectively, hence, efficient water
management.

1.4:Rotations

Rotating irrigation service among branch


canals is one of the most important tools
managers have, of allocating available water.
Rotating irrigation service should be officially
set up.
the Main concern of IWMDs is to adjust and
customize rotations as they attempt to save
water and improve the quality of irrigation
service to farmer.
Degree of correspondence between planned
and actual rotation patterns require better data
before they can be computed.

Equity of Water Distribution


Relative Water
Supply among
IWMDS
Equity among
Branch Canals
(Equity Index)
Equity along
Branch Canals
(ESI)

Not responding, due to


the unavailability of
data
Group 1:
Easy to supply with
water
Group 2:
Moderate to supply with
Water
Group 3:
Difficult to supply with
water
ESI = Satisfaction in
head (upperthird)/satisfaction in tail
(lower-third)
BCWUAs assume
increased responsibility

3 Equal groups

2:

3:

Value of Agricultural Output


It is subjected to many influences
beyond the quality of irrigation
service
In Summer = LE 4.441 / Fed

Output per Unit


Land
Outcomes of
the
Investments

Output per Unit


Water

In Winter = LE 3.803 / Fed

They may not be


very sensitive to
changes
in
quality
of
irrigation
service.
They
should
be
examined
at / CM
a
In Summer
= LE 0.57 3.34
large scale.
In Winter = LE 0.25 2.76 / CM

Rationalization
IWMD Model can achieve!
Subsidiarity: (vertical integration) decision-taking at
lowest possible level
- framework, procedures & enforcing them
- expertise/technical support/implementation capacity

Geographic integration: (horizontal integration)


hydrological boundaries
O&M integration: regrouping of all I&D and WRM
responsibilities
Planning & implementation integration: IWMD = focal
point/partner for all P&I activities

Achievements
BENEFICIARY
Irrigation
Sector

OUTCOMES

Water saving of about 830


MCM/Year.

Possibility

of using the
saved water with a value of
5500
CM/fed/year
for
cultivating about 145000
fed of high-cash crops.

BENEFICIARY
Irrigation
Improvement
and
Agriculture
Sector

OUTCOMES
Operation

cost will be reduced to


about 50% together with improving
the water management at secondary,
tertiary, and quaternary levels as a
result of pump electrification.

Increase the efficiency of field


irrigation from 45% to 60% which
means saving in irrigation water (500
MCM/year).
Add new agriculture land as a result
of changing from open meska system
improvement to a buried pipeline ones
(achieve an annual return of about
(US$1350/fed/year).

Increase the main conventional


summer and winter crops by about
12% as a result of the continuous flow
application which insures a daily
continual water demand per fed of
about 30 CM/fed/day.

BENEFICIARY
Drainage
Sector

OUTCOMES
Improve

the drainage conditions as a


result
of
introducing
modified
drainage system at field level. This will
improve the crop pattern other than
rice which are cultivated beside rice
(expected increase in cotton price =
US$110/fed) achieving an incremental
of the annual return of about MUS$ 8).
Saving a water volume of about
2500CM/fed/season
in
case
of
cultivating the short-period life-time
span rice. (in case of cultivating 50%
of the improved 103,000 fed with this
kind of rice, the water saving will be
125 to 130 MCM/rice season.

BENEFICIARY
Users
Organization

Environment
sector

OUTCOMES
Undertaking the responsibilities of
O&M at tertiary level by WUAs will
result in saving their cost which was
evaluated as US$ 2.5/fed. Expected
saving /year = MUS$0.5/year).

Reduce the violations of rice


cultivation.

Reduction in the deteriorated value


of agriculture land (form US$90 to
US$45/fed/year) as a result of water
quality improvement to be maintained
with the project implementation.
World Bank 2004, (agriculture land
degradation due to ve environmental
impact resulting from deteriorated
water quality is count to 1% of the
overall GDP).

Thank You and Wish You


a Fruitful Conference