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Introduction to Wireless

Network
Er. Avinash Bhagat
UID11002
Assistant Professor
School of Computer Applications
Lovely Professional University
avinash.bhagat@lpu.co.in
avinash.bhagat@gmail.com
9463281930

Wireless LAN Technology


Chapter 13

Wireless Local Area Network


LAN
A local area network (LAN) is a computer
network that interconnects computers in a limited
area such as a home, school, computer laboratory,
or office building using network media.
A local area network (LAN) supplies networking
capability to a group of computers in close
proximity to each other such as in an office
building, a school, or a home. A LAN is useful for
sharing resources like files, printers, games or
other applications.

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What is a Wireless LAN or


WLAN
A wireless local area network is a wireless
computer network that links two or more
devices using a wireless distribution method
within a limited area such as a home, school,
computer laboratory, or office building.

A WLAN is a flexible data communications


system implemented as an extension to, or as an
alternative for, a wired LAN
WLAN, like a LAN, requires a physical medium
to transmit signals.
Instead of using UTP, WLANs use:
Infrared Light
Microwave
Radio Frequency
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WLAN Topology

WLAN Topology

WLAN Topology

WLAN Topology

WLAN Configuration

Single Cell Configuration

WLAN Configuration

Single Cell Configuration


There is a backbone wired
LAN, such as Ethernet, that
supports servers,
workstations, and one or
more bridges or routers to link
with other networks.
In addition, there is a control
module (CM) that acts as an
interface to a wireless LAN.

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WLAN Configuration

Single Cell Configuration


The control module includes
either
bridge
or
router
functionality to link the
wireless
LAN
to
the
backbone.
It includes some sort of
access control logic, such as
a polling or token-passing
scheme, to regulate the
access from the end systems.

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WLAN Configuration

Single Cell Configuration


some of the end systems are
standalone devices, such as a
workstationor a server.
Hubs or other user modules
(VMs) that control a number
of stations off a wired LAN
may also be part of the
wireless LAN configuration.
The configuration of Figure
13.1 can be referred to as a
single-cell wireless
LAN; all of the wireless end
systems are within range of a
single control module.

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WLAN Configuration

Single Cell Configuration


There is a backbone wired
LAN, such as Ethernet, that
supports
servers,
workstations, and one or
more bridges or routers to link
with other networks.
In addition, there is a control
module (CM) that acts as an
interface to a wireless
LAN. The control module
includes either bridge or
router functionality to link the
wireless
LAN
to
the
backbone. It includes some

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WLAN Configuration

Multiple Cell Configuration

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WLAN Configuration

Multiple Cell Configuration

15

Components of WLAN
User Devices
Radio NIC / Radio cards
Access Points
Routers
Repeaters
Antennas
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Requirements specific to WLAN


Environment

Throughput : The MAC


protocol should make as
efficient use as possible.
Number of nodes:
Hundreds of node across
multiple cells
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Requirements specific to WLAN


Environment

Connection to backbone
LAN:
Service Area: 100 to 300m
diameter
Battery power consumption
Transmission robustness and
security
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Requirements specific to WLAN


Environment

Collocated network
operation: Inter LANs
operations
License-free operation
Handoff/roaming
Dynamic configuration
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Wireless LAN Categories


Infrared (IR) LANs
Directed Beam Infrared
Ominidirectional
Diffused

Spread spectrum LANs


Point to Point Topology
Hub topology

Narrowband microwave
Licensed Narrowband RF
Unlicensed Narrowband RF

Wireless LAN Categories


Infrared (IR) LANs
Directed Beam Infrared
Ominidirectional
Diffused

Directed Beam Infrared


Used to create point-to-point
links
Range depends on emitted
power and degree of focusing
Focused IR data link can have
range of kilometers
Cross-building interconnect
between bridges or routers

Directed Beam Infrared

Example : Indoor use of point-to-point IR


links is to set up a token ring LAN as in
figure.

Directed Beam Infrared


A set of IR transceivers can be positioned
so that data circulate around them in a
ring configuration.

Directed Beam Infrared


Each transceiver supports a workstation
or a hub of stations, with the hub
providing a bridging function.

Directed Beam Infrared

Ominidirectional
An
omnidirectional
configuration
involves a single base station that is
within line of sight of all other stations
on the LAN.
This station is mounted on the ceiling
The base station acts as a multiport
repeater.
The ceiling transmitter broadcasts an
omnidirectional signal that can be single
base station within line of sight of all other
stations on LAN

Ominidirectional
Ceiling
transmitter
broadcasts
signal received by IR transceivers
IR transceivers transmit with
directional beam aimed at ceiling
base unit

Ominidirectional

Diffused
All IR transmitters focused
and aimed at a point on
diffusely reflecting ceiling
IR radiation strikes ceiling
Reradiated omnidirectionally
Picked up by all receivers

Wireless LAN Categories


Spread spectrum LANs
Point to Point Topology
Hub topology

Spread Spectrum LAN


Configuration

Spread Spectrum LAN


Configuration

1.Configuration
Multiple-cell arrangement
Adjacent cells make use of different
center frequencies within the same band
to avoid interference.
Within a cell,
either peer-to-peer topology
or hub topology

Spread Spectrum LAN


Configuration

Spread Spectrum LAN


Configuration
Peer-to-peer topology
No hub
Access controlled with MAC algorithm
CSMA

Appropriate for ad hoc LANs

Spread Spectrum LAN


Configuration
In a hub topology, the hub is typically mounted
on the ceiling and connected to a backbone
wired LAN to provide connectivity to stations
attached to the wired LAN and to stations that
are part of wireless LANs
The hub may also control access by acting as a
multiport repeater with similar functionality to
the multiport repeaters of 10-Mbps and 100Mbps Ethernet.

Spread Spectrum LAN


Configuration
In this case, all stations in the cell
transmit only to the hub and receive only
from the hub.
Alternatively, and regardless of access
control mechanism, each station may
broadcast
using
an
omnidirectional
antenna so that all other stations in the
cell may receive.

Spread Spectrum LAN


Configuration
One other potential function of a hub is
automatic handoff of mobile stations.
At any time, a number of stations are
dynamically assigned to a given hub based
on
proximity. When the hub senses a
weakening signal, it can automatically hand
off to the nearest adjacent hub.

Spread Spectrum LAN


Configuration
Hub topology
Mounted on the ceiling and connected
to backbone wired LAN
May control access
May act as multiport repeater
Automatic handoff of mobile stations
Stations in cell either:
Transmit to / receive from hub only
Broadcast using omnidirectional antenna

Wireless LAN Categories


Narrowband microwave
Licensed Narrowband RF
Unlicensed Narrowband RF

Narrowband Microwave
LANs
Use of a microwave radio frequency
band for signal transmission
Relatively narrow bandwidth
Licensed Narrowband
Unlicensed Narrowband

Licensed Narrowband RF
Microwave radio frequencies usable for
voice, data, and video transmission are
licensed and coordinated within specific
geographic areas to avoid interference
between systems.
Each geographic area has a radius of 28
km and can contain five licenses, with
each license covering two frequencies.

Motorola holds 600 licenses (1200


frequencies) in the 18-GHz range that cover
all metropolitan areas with populations of
30,000 or more.

Licensed Narrowband RF
A narrowband scheme typically makes
use of the Multiple cell configuration ,
Adjacent cells use non overlapping
frequency bands within the overall 18GHz band.
Independent
LANs
in
nearby
geographical locations do not interfere
with one another.
To provide security from eavesdropping,
all transmissions are encrypted.

Spread Spectrum LAN


Configuration

Unlicensed Narrowband RF
RadioLAN introduced narrowband wireless LAN in
1995
Uses unlicensed ISM spectrum
Used at low power (0.5 watts or less)
Operates at 10 Mbps in the 5.8-GHz band
Range = 50 m to 100 m
Peer to peer configuration

No hub is used one to the station becomes hub


which is elected dynamically

Advantage of Licensed Narrowband RF over


Unlicensed

Itguarantees interference free commn.


Unlike unlicensed spectrum, such as
ISM, licensed spectrum gives the license
holder a legal right to an interferencefree data communications channel.
Users of an ISM-band LAN are at risk of
interference
disrupting
their
communications, for which they may
not have a legal remedy.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Infrared over


Microwave

Infrared (IR) is invisible radiant


energy, electromagnetic radiation with
longer wavelengths than those of
visible light.
Most of the thermal radiation emitted
by objects near room temperature is
infrared.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Infrared over


Microwave

Microwaves
are
a
form
of
electromagnetic
radiation
with
wavelengths ranging from as long as
one meter to as short as one
millimeter,
or
equivalently,
with
frequencies
between
300MHz
(0.3GHz) and 300GHz.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Infrared over


Microwave

Strengths and Weaknesses of Infrared over


Microwave
Infrared offers a
advantages over
approaches.

number of significant
the microwave radio

1. The spectrum for infrared is virtually unlimited,


which presents the possibility of achieving
extremely high data rates.
2. The
infrared
spectrum
is
unregulated
worldwide, which is not true of some portions
of the microwave spectrum.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Infrared over


Microwave

3. Infrared shares some properties of


visible light that make it attractive for
certain types of LAN configurations.
Infrared light is diffusely reflected
by light-colored objects; thus it is
possible to use ceiling reflection to
achieve coverage of an entire room.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Infrared over


Microwave
4. Infrared light does not penetrate walls or
other opaque objects. This has two
advantages:
I.

II.

Infrared communications can be more easily


secured
against
eavesdropping
than
microwave.
Separate infrared installation can be operated
in every room in a building without
interference.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Infrared over


Microwave
5. Infrared data transmission typically uses
intensity modulation, so that IR receivers
need to detect only the amplitude of
optical signals, whereas most microwave
receivers must detect frequency or phase
modulation.
6. Infrared
equipment
is
relatively
inexpensive and simple.

Strengths and Weaknesses of Infrared over


Microwave
Infrared medium also exhibits some drawbacks.
1.Many indoor environments experience intense infrared
background radiation, from sunlight and indoor
lighting. This ambient radiation appears as noise in an
infrared receiver, requiring the use of transmitters of
higher power and also limiting the range.
2. Increases in transmitter power are limited by concerns
of eye safety and excessive power consumption.

Question Bank
1. List and explain four application areas
for WLAN
2. List
and
briefly
define
key
requirements for WLAN.
3. What is difference between a single
cell and a multiple cell WLAN ?
4. What
are
advantages
and
disadvantages of infrared LAN?
5. List
and
briefly
define
three
transmission techniques for infrared
LANs.
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Question Bank
6. List
and
explain
four
basic
topologies of a WLAN
7. List
and briefly explain the
components for WLAN.
8. List and explain the strength and
weakness of Ifrared of Microwaves.
9. List
advantages
of
Licensed
narrowband RF over
Unlicensed
Narrowband RF
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